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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 403-412, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303265

RESUMO

POU3F3, also referred to as Brain-1, is a well-known transcription factor involved in the development of the central nervous system, but it has not previously been associated with a neurodevelopmental disorder. Here, we report the identification of 19 individuals with heterozygous POU3F3 disruptions, most of which are de novo variants. All individuals had developmental delays and/or intellectual disability and impairments in speech and language skills. Thirteen individuals had characteristic low-set, prominent, and/or cupped ears. Brain abnormalities were observed in seven of eleven MRI reports. POU3F3 is an intronless gene, insensitive to nonsense-mediated decay, and 13 individuals carried protein-truncating variants. All truncating variants that we tested in cellular models led to aberrant subcellular localization of the encoded protein. Luciferase assays demonstrated negative effects of these alleles on transcriptional activation of a reporter with a FOXP2-derived binding motif. In addition to the loss-of-function variants, five individuals had missense variants that clustered at specific positions within the functional domains, and one small in-frame deletion was identified. Two missense variants showed reduced transactivation capacity in our assays, whereas one variant displayed gain-of-function effects, suggesting a distinct pathophysiological mechanism. In bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) interaction assays, all the truncated POU3F3 versions that we tested had significantly impaired dimerization capacities, whereas all missense variants showed unaffected dimerization with wild-type POU3F3. Taken together, our identification and functional cell-based analyses of pathogenic variants in POU3F3, coupled with a clinical characterization, implicate disruptions of this gene in a characteristic neurodevelopmental disorder.

3.
PLoS Genet ; 14(11): e1007671, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500825

RESUMO

Mutations that alter signaling of RAS/MAPK-family proteins give rise to a group of Mendelian diseases known as RASopathies. However, among RASopathies, the matrix of genotype-phenotype relationships is still incomplete, in part because there are many RAS-related proteins and in part because the phenotypic consequences may be variable and/or pleiotropic. Here, we describe a cohort of ten cases, drawn from six clinical sites and over 16,000 sequenced probands, with de novo protein-altering variation in RALA, a RAS-like small GTPase. All probands present with speech and motor delays, and most have intellectual disability, low weight, short stature, and facial dysmorphism. The observed rate of de novo RALA variants in affected probands is significantly higher (p = 4.93 x 10-11) than expected from the estimated random mutation rate. Further, all de novo variants described here affect residues within the GTP/GDP-binding region of RALA; in fact, six alleles arose at only two codons, Val25 and Lys128. The affected residues are highly conserved across both RAL- and RAS-family genes, are devoid of variation in large human population datasets, and several are homologous to positions at which disease-associated variants have been observed in other GTPase genes. We directly assayed GTP hydrolysis and RALA effector-protein binding of the observed variants, and found that all but one tested variant significantly reduced both activities compared to wild-type. The one exception, S157A, reduced GTP hydrolysis but significantly increased RALA-effector binding, an observation similar to that seen for oncogenic RAS variants. These results show the power of data sharing for the interpretation and analysis of rare variation, expand the spectrum of molecular causes of developmental disability to include RALA, and provide additional insight into the pathogenesis of human disease caused by mutations in small GTPases.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(4): 602-611, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269814

RESUMO

Inherited GPI deficiencies (IGDs) are a subset of congenital disorders of glycosylation that are increasingly recognized as a result of advances in whole-exome sequencing (WES) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). IGDs cause a series of overlapping phenotypes consisting of seizures, dysmorphic features, multiple congenital malformations, and severe intellectual disability. We present a study of six individuals from three unrelated families in which WES or WGS identified bi-allelic phosphatidylinositol glycan class S (PIGS) biosynthesis mutations. Phenotypes included severe global developmental delay, seizures (partly responding to pyridoxine), hypotonia, weakness, ataxia, and dysmorphic facial features. Two of them had compound-heterozygous variants c.108G>A (p.Trp36∗) and c.101T>C (p.Leu34Pro), and two siblings of another family were homozygous for a deletion and insertion leading to p.Thr439_Lys451delinsArgLeuLeu. The third family had two fetuses with multiple joint contractures consistent with fetal akinesia. They were compound heterozygous for c.923A>G (p.Glu308Gly) and c.468+1G>C, a splicing mutation. Flow-cytometry analyses demonstrated that the individuals with PIGS mutations show a GPI-AP deficiency profile. Expression of the p.Trp36∗ variant in PIGS-deficient HEK293 cells revealed only partial restoration of cell-surface GPI-APs. In terms of both biochemistry and phenotype, loss of function of PIGS shares features with PIGT deficiency and other IGDs. This study contributes to the understanding of the GPI-AP biosynthesis pathway by describing the consequences of PIGS disruption in humans and extending the family of IGDs.

5.
Mol Genet Metab ; 122(3): 134-139, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28739201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aicardi Goutières Syndrome (AGS) is a heritable interferonopathy associated with systemic autoinflammation causing interferon (IFN) elevation, central nervous system calcifications, leukodystrophy and severe neurologic sequelae. An infant with TREX1 mutations was recently found to have abnormal C26:0 lysophosphatidylcholine (C26:0 Lyso-PC) in a newborn screening platform for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, prompting analysis of this analyte in retrospectively collected samples from individuals affected by AGS. METHODS: In this study, we explored C26:0 Lyso-PC levels and IFN signatures in newborn blood spots and post-natal blood samples in 19 children with a molecular and clinical diagnosis of AGS and in the blood spots of 22 healthy newborns. We used Nanostring nCounter™ for IFN-induced gene analysis and a high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC MS/MS) newborn screening platform for C26:0 Lyso-PC analysis. RESULTS: Newborn screening cards from patients across six AGS associated genes were collected, with a median disease presentation of 2months. Thirteen out of 19 (68%) children with AGS had elevations of first tier C26:0 Lyso-PC (>0.4µM), that would have resulted in a second screen being performed in a two tier screening system for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). The median (95%CI) of first tier C26:0 Lyso-PC values in AGS individuals (0.43µM [0.37-0.48]) was higher than that seen in controls (0.21µM [0.21-0.21]), but lower than X-ALD individuals (0.72µM [0.59-0.84])(p<0.001). Fourteen of 19 children had elevated expression of IFN signaling on blood cards relative to controls (Sensitivity 73.7%, 95%CI 51-88%, Specificity 95%, 95% CI 78-99%) including an individual with delayed disease presentation (36months of age). All five AGS patients with negative IFN signature at birth had RNASEH2B mutations. Consistency of agreement between IFN signature in neonatal and post-natal samples was high (0.85). CONCLUSION: This suggests that inflammatory markers in AGS can be identified in the newborn period, before symptom onset. Additionally, since C26:0 Lyso-PC screening is currently used in X-ALD newborn screening panels, clinicians should be alert to the fact that AGS infants may present as false positives during X-ALD screening.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Interferons/sangue , Lisofosfatidilcolinas/sangue , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/sangue , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Exodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/genética , Interferons/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Transcriptoma/imunologia
6.
J Med Genet ; 54(1): 47-53, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27550220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The non-POU domain containing octamer-binding gene (NONO) is located on chromosome Xq13.1 and encodes a member of a small family of RNA-binding and DNA-binding proteins that perform a variety of tasks involved in RNA synthesis, transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. Loss-of-function variants in NONO have been described as a cause of intellectual disability in males but have not been described in association with congenital heart defects or cardiomyopathy. In this article, we seek to further define the phenotypic consequences of NONO depletion in human subjects. METHODS: We searched a clinical database of over 6000 individuals referred for exome sequencing and over 60 000 individuals referred for CNV analysis. RESULTS: We identified two males with atrial and ventricular septal defects, left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC), developmental delay and intellectual disability, who harboured de novo, loss-of-function variants in NONO. We also identified a male infant with developmental delay, congenital brain anomalies and severe LVNC requiring cardiac transplantation, who inherited a single-gene deletion of NONO from his asymptomatic mother. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that in addition to global developmental delay and intellectual disability, males with loss-of-function variants in NONO may also be predisposed to developing congenital heart defects and LVNC with the penetrance of these cardiac-related problems being influenced by genetic, epigenetic, environmental or stochastic factors. Brain imaging of males with NONO deficiency may reveal structural defects with abnormalities of the corpus callosum being the most common. Although dysmorphic features vary between affected individuals, relative macrocephaly is a common feature.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Proteínas Associadas à Matriz Nuclear/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Octâmero/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Exoma/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
7.
Eur J Med Genet ; 59(10): 540-5, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27592148

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome manifests as diverse early-onset diseases that affect skeletal muscle, brain and liver function. Mutations in several nuclear DNA-encoded genes cause mtDNA depletion. We report on a patient, a 3-month-old boy who presented with hepatic failure, and was found to have severe mtDNA depletion in liver and muscle. Whole-exome sequencing identified a homozygous missense variant (c.544C > T, p.R182W) in the accessory subunit of mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma (POLG2), which is required for mitochondrial DNA replication. This variant is predicted to disrupt a critical region needed for homodimerization of the POLG2 protein and cause loss of processive DNA synthesis. Both parents were phenotypically normal and heterozygous for this variant. Heterozygous mutations in POLG2 were previously associated with progressive external ophthalmoplegia and mtDNA deletions. This is the first report of a patient with a homozygous mutation in POLG2 and with a clinical presentation of severe hepatic failure and mitochondrial depletion.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , Pseudo-Obstrução Intestinal/genética , Falência Hepática Aguda/genética , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/genética , Sequência de Bases , Exoma/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Pseudo-Obstrução Intestinal/complicações , Pseudo-Obstrução Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/complicações , Falência Hepática Aguda/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/complicações , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/fisiopatologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto
8.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 38(7): e243-7, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27571123

RESUMO

Severe congenital neutropenia type IV (SCN IV) is a syndrome of severe neutropenia, cardiac and urogenital defects, prominent superficial veins, facial dysmorphism, failure to thrive (FTT), and intermittent thrombocytopenia, caused by a glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit 3 (G6PC3) gene mutation. SCN IV has been linked to glycogen storage disease type 1b as both disorders involve disruption of the glucose-6-phosphatase/glucose-6-phosphate transporter complex, leading to arrested neutrophil maturation. Emerging evidence suggests that neutrophil function plays an important role in intestinal integrity, evidenced by inflammatory bowel disease in certain neutropenic patients. Here, we report 3 unrelated Hispanic males from the Dominican Republic with classic features of SCN IV found to share an identical inherited canonical splice-site mutation of the G6PC3 gene (c.218+1G>A). All 3 patients presented with severe FTT and gastrointestinal manifestations. Two of the patients had significant improvement in growth and resolution of gastrointestional symptoms with initiation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. We hypothesize that the gene variant described represents a founder mutation in the Dominican Republic, the first to be described in this geographical region. We discuss the potential associations between neutropenia and gastrointestinal disease with FTT and the role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in improving neutrophil count and intestinal integrity and growth.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/genética , Glucose-6-Fosfatase/genética , Mutação , Neutropenia/congênito , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Insuficiência de Crescimento/etiologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Neutropenia/tratamento farmacológico , Neutropenia/genética , Fenótipo
9.
Pediatrics ; 119(2): e460-7, 2007 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17272608

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work was to report on the first 2.5 years of newborn screening for cystic fibrosis in New York. METHODS: Directors of the 11 New York cystic fibrosis centers were asked to provide mutation data, demographic data, and selected laboratory results for each patient diagnosed by newborn screening and followed at their center. Summary data were also submitted from the New York newborn screening laboratory on the total number of patients screened, the number of positive screens, and the number of patients that were lost to follow-up. A second survey was submitted by each center regarding the availability of genetic counseling services at the center. RESULTS: A total of 106 patients with cystic fibrosis were diagnosed through newborn screening in the first 2.5 years and followed at the 11 Cystic Fibrosis Foundation-sponsored cystic fibrosis care centers in New York. Two screen-negative infants were subsequently diagnosed with cystic fibrosis when symptoms developed. The allele frequency of deltaF508 was 57.4%, which is somewhat lower than the allele frequency of deltaF508 in the US cystic fibrosis population of 70%. There were 90 non-Hispanic white (84%), 12 Hispanic, 2 Asian, and 1 black infants diagnosed with cystic fibrosis during this period. Five patients were diagnosed secondary to a positive screen based on a high immunoreactive trypsinogen and no mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis has been effectively conducted in New York using a unique screening algorithm that was designed to be inclusive of the diverse racial makeup of the state. However, this algorithm results in a high false-positive rate, and a large number of healthy newborns are referred for confirmatory sweat tests and genetic counseling. This experience indicates that it would be helpful to convene a working group of cystic fibrosis newborn screening specialists to evaluate which mutations should be included in a newborn screening panel.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Fibrose Cística/genética , Triagem Neonatal , Algoritmos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , New York , Fatores de Tempo
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