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Polymers (Basel) ; 14(9)2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35566962


This work evaluated the fracture toughness of the low-temperature carbonized elastomer-based composites filled with shungite and short carbon fibers. The effects of the carbonization temperature and filler content on the critical stress intensity factor (K1c) were examined. The K1c parameter was obtained using three-point bending tests for specimens with different l/b ratio (notch depth to sample thickness) ranging from 0.2 to 0.4. Reliable detection of the initiation and propagation of cracks was achieved using an acoustic sensor was attached to the samples during the bending test. The critical stress intensity factor was found to decrease linearly with increasing carbonization temperature. As the temperature increased from 280 to 380 °C, the K1c parameter was drastically reduced from about 5 to 1 MPa·m1/2 and was associated with intense outgassing during the carbonization step that resulted in sample porosity. The carbon fiber addition led to some incremental toughening; however, it reduced the statistical dispersion of the K1c values.

Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499359


Carbonized elastomer-based composites (CECs) possess a number of attractive features in terms of thermomechanical and electromechanical performance, durability in aggressive media and facile net-shape formability, but their relatively low ductility and strength limit their suitability for structural engineering applications. Prospective applications such as structural elements of micro-electro-mechanical systems MEMS can be envisaged since smaller principal dimensions reduce the susceptibility of components to residual stress accumulation during carbonization and to brittle fracture in general. We report the results of in situ in-SEM study of microdeformation and fracture behavior of CECs based on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) elastomeric matrices filled with carbon and silicon carbide. Nanostructured carbon composite materials were manufactured via compounding of elastomeric substance with carbon and SiC fillers using mixing rolling mill, vulcanization, and low-temperature carbonization. Double-edge notched tensile (DENT) specimens of vulcanized and carbonized elastomeric composites were subjected to in situ tensile testing in the chamber of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) Tescan Vega 3 using a Deben microtest 1 kN tensile stage. The series of acquired SEM images were analyzed by means of digital image correlation (DIC) using Ncorr open-source software to map the spatial distribution of strain. These maps were correlated with finite element modeling (FEM) simulations to refine the values of elastic moduli. Moreover, the elastic moduli were derived from unloading curve nanoindentation hardness measurements carried out using a NanoScan-4D tester and interpreted using the Oliver-Pharr method. Carbonization causes a significant increase of elastic moduli from 0.86 ± 0.07 GPa to 14.12 ± 1.20 GPa for the composite with graphite and carbon black fillers. Nanoindentation measurements yield somewhat lower values, namely, 0.25 ± 0.02 GPa and 9.83 ± 1.10 GPa before and after carbonization, respectively. The analysis of fractography images suggests that crack initiation, growth and propagation may occur both at the notch stress concentrator or relatively far from the notch. Possible causes of such response are discussed, namely, (1) residual stresses introduced by processing; (2) shape and size of fillers; and (3) the emanation and accumulation of gases in composites during carbonization.

Elastômeros/química , Nanocompostos/química , Carbono/química , Compostos Inorgânicos de Carbono/química , Simulação por Computador , Módulo de Elasticidade , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Dureza , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanocompostos/ultraestrutura , Compostos de Silício/química , Estresse Mecânico , Resistência à Tração
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198175


Thermally stable composites obtained by the low-temperature carbonization of an elastomeric matrix filled with hard dispersed silicon carbide particles were obtained and investigated. Evolution of the microstructure and of mechanical and thermal characteristics of composites during thermal degradation and carbonization processes in a wide range of filling from 0 to 450 parts per hundred rubber was studied. For highly filled composites, the compressive strength values were found to be more than 200 MPa; Young's modulus was more than 15 GPa. The thermal conductivity coefficient of composites was up to 1.6 W/(m·K), and this magnitude varied slightly in the temperature range of 25-300 °C. Coupled with the high thermal stability of the composites, the observed properties make it possible to consider using such composites as strained friction units instead of reinforced polymers.