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1.
Prev Med Rep ; 20: 101169, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884896

RESUMO

The Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study- physical activity questionnaire (JPHC-PAQ) was originally developed and validated for total physical activity (total PA). However, it is uncertain whether JPHC-PAQ could also estimate intensity-specific physical activity. The present study aims to evaluate the validity and reliability of intensity-specific physical activity by the JPHC-PAQ against 24-hour activity records (24 h-R). One-hundred and ten participants were chosen from those who had enrolled in the JPHC cohort. Time spent for total PA and intensity-specific physical activity, i.e. moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was estimated by JPHC-PAQ. In addition, the volume of PA was calculated by time of each activity multiplied by intensity of activity. For validity assessment, estimated physical activities were compared with 24 h-R. For reliability evaluation, a retest was conducted 3-6 months after the first survey was answered. Moderately strong correlation between JPHC-PAQ and 24 h-R was observed for total PA estimations (Spearman's rho = 0.672). In addition, moderate correlations were found for MPA (activity time: rho = 0.345, activity volume: rho = 0.300) and MVPA (activity time: rho = 0.563, activity volume: rho = 0.672). Whereas, little association was found for VPA time and volume. As for reliability, moderately strong correlation was found for both total and intensity-specific physical activity in the test-retest (rho = 0.482-0.745). In addition to total PA, the JPHC-PAQ showed acceptable validity and reliability for intensity-specific physical activity, especially in estimating MVPA and MPA.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761607

RESUMO

Smoking has been consistently associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Western populations; however, evidence is limited and inconsistent in Asian people. To assess the association of smoking status, smoking intensity and smoking cessation with colorectal risk in the Japanese population, we performed a pooled analysis of 10 population-based cohort studies. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox's proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random-effects model. Among 363 409 participants followed up for 2 666 004 person-years, 9232 incident CRCs were identified. In men, compared with never smokers, ever smokers showed higher risk of CRC. The HRs (95% CI) were 1.19 (1.10-1.29) for CRC, 1.19 (1.09-1.30) for colon cancer, 1.28 (1.13-1.46) for distal colon cancer and 1.21 (1.07-1.36) for rectal cancer. Smoking was associated with risk of CRC in a dose-response manner. In women, compared with never smokers, ever smokers showed increased risk of distal colon cancer (1.47 [1.19-1.82]). There was no evidence of a significant gender difference in the association of smoking and CRC risk. Our results confirm that smoking is associated with an increased risk of CRC, both overall and subsites, in Japanese men and distal colon cancer in Japanese women.

3.
Cancer Sci ; 111(3): 974-984, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925977

RESUMO

Although occupational sitting time has been associated with adverse health outcomes and mortality, the association with cancer incidence remains unknown. This study investigated the association between occupational sitting time and risk of total and site-specific cancer in a Japanese population. We evaluated 33 307 participants aged 50-79 years who responded to a questionnaire in 2000-2003 in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study and were followed until 2013. Participants were grouped by sitting time at work. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of cancer incidence were calculated with adjustment for potential confounders including moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. During 10.2 years of follow-up, 3807 newly diagnosed cases of cancer were identified. Occupational sitting time was marginally associated with total cancer, with multivariable HRs for the ≥7 h/d vs 1 to <3 h/d category of 1.12 (95% CI, 0.99-1.26; P for trend = .071) in men, but not women. Among findings for cancers at specific sites, long occupational sitting time was associated with increased risk of pancreas cancer, with multivariable HRs for the ≥7 h/d vs 1 to <3 h/d category of 2.25 (95% CI, 1.17-4.34; P for trend = .021) in men, and lung cancer, with multivariable HRs for the ≥7 h/d vs 1 to <3 h/d category of 2.80 (95% CI, 1.33-5.90; P for trend = .013) in women. Extended sitting time at work was associated with an increased risk of pancreas cancer in men and lung cancer in women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Postura Sentada , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 66(11): 681-689, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776310

RESUMO

Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mail-based intervention using the TAKE10! Program to improve dietary habits in cases where direct intervention is not possible.Methods Subjects aged 70-91 years (77.6±5.0) were randomly assigned to two groups: 72 in the intervention group and 71 in the control group. The intervention group received monthly mail, which included self-check sheets (TAKE10! Check sheet and TAKE10! Calendar) and a letter with feedback and comments for 5 months. The outcome measures were changes in the intake frequency of 10 food groups, Dietary Variety Score (DVS), and Food Frequency Score (FFS).Results Compared to baseline, the post-intervention intake frequencies for 9 of 10 food groups, DVS, and FFS significantly increased in the intervention group. No significant differences were observed between baseline and post-intervention in the control group. In the subgroup analysis of the intervention group, post-intervention DVS and FFS of both subjects who cooked their own food and those who did not showed significant increases compared to baseline.Conclusion The mail-based TAKE10! Program resulted in improved dietary habits and could be shared with families in addition to direct interventions and could also be used in regions with inadequate transportation systems or frequent poor weather conditions.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Demência/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Vida Independente , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Serviços Postais , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Neve , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transportes
5.
Br J Cancer ; 120(5): 571-574, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although physical activity has been reported as a protective factor for kidney and bladder cancer in epidemiological studies, it is not clear. METHODS: In a population-based prospective study of 76,795 Japanese aged 45-74 years, participants were evaluated physical activity by self-administered questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the risk of urological cancer were calculated by the Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During the 15.1-year follow-up, 202 kidney, 373 bladder and 83 upper urinary tract cancer cases were identified. Physical activity was not significantly associated with kidney, bladder and upper urinary tract cancer risks, with multivariate HRs in the highest versus lowest group of 1.05 (95% CI: 0.74-1.49), 1.06 (95% CI: 0.81-1.39) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.48-1.35), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity was not associated with the risk of urological cancer in the Japanese population.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ureterais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Pelve Renal , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Equivalente Metabólico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Proteção
6.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 18(12): 1614-1619, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311399

RESUMO

AIM: The present study aimed to propose a structural model to explain the interaction of physical, cognitive and social domains of health status in the incidence of disability in community-dwelling people aged ≥75 years. METHODS: We analyzed 185 older adults (mean age 79.4 years, 58.4% female) who participated in a baseline assessment from 2012 to 2013. They were followed for incident certification of care needs in the national long-term care insurance certification system during the 2 years. Baseline assessments included several measurements related to the physical, cognitive and social domains of health status. We compared the model fit index between two hypothesis models - the parallel model and the hierarchical model - using structural equation modeling. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 15 participants (8.1%) were newly certified as requiring personal support from the long-term care insurance system. The structural equation modeling showed that the hierarchical model, indicating that cognitive and social status were indirectly associated with disability through physical status, had a better fit with the data than the parallel model, indicating that physical, cognitive and social status each were directly associated with disability. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that cognitive and social status might indirectly affect disability incidence through physical aging. Further research is required to examine the temporal relationship between physical, cognitive and social change using data over several time-periods. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 1614-1619.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Nível de Saúde , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
7.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0197164, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29758048

RESUMO

Adult height is determined by both genetic characteristics and environmental factors in early life. Although previous studies have suggested that adult height is associated with risk of mortality, comprehensive associations between height and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the Japanese population are unclear. We aimed to evaluate the associations between adult height and all-cause and cause-specific mortality among Japanese men and women in a prospective cohort study. We investigated 107,794 participants (50,755 men and 57,039 women) aged 40 to 69 years who responded to the baseline questionnaire in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. Participants were classified by quartile of adult height obtained from a self-reported questionnaire in men (<160cm, 160-163cm, 164-167cm, ≥168cm) and women (<149cm, 149-151cm, 152-155cm, ≥156cm). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for mortality from all-cause, cancer, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, and other cause mortality were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. During follow-up, 12,320 men and 7,030 women died. Taller adult height was associated with decreased risk for mortality from cerebrovascular disease (HR <160cm vs. ≥168cm (95% CI) = 0.83 (0.69-0.99); HR for 5-cm increment (95% CI) = 0.95 (0.90-0.99)) and respiratory disease (HR <160cm vs. ≥168cm (95% CI) = 0.84 (0.69-1.03); HR for 5-cm increment (95% CI) = 0.92 (0.87-0.97)), but was also associated with increased risk for overall cancer mortality (HR <160cm vs. ≥168cm (95% CI) = 1.17 (1.07-1.28); HR for 5-cm increment (95% CI) = 1.04 (1.01-1.07)) in men. Taller adult height was also associated with decreased risk for mortality from cerebrovascular disease (HR <149cm vs. ≥156cm (95% CI) = 0.84 (0.66-1.05); HR for 5-cm increment (95% CI) = 0.92 (0.86-0.99)) in women. Our results confirmed that adult height is associated with cause-specific mortality in a Japanese population.


Assuntos
Estatura , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/mortalidade , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Modelos Biológicos , Mortalidade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
J Phys Ther Sci ; 30(3): 419-423, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29581663

RESUMO

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the change of allocation of attention caused by a difference in gait phase and gait speed. We also determined the relationship between attentional demand and gait automaticity change caused by the gait speed alteration. [Subjects and Methods] Ten male participated. Participants were instructed to perform the probe reaction time (RT) task during treadmill walking in four different gait speed conditions (60%, 80%, 100%, and 120% of preferred speed). Walking ratio in each gait speed conditions were calculated, and RTs and walking ratios were compared in each gait speed condition and in the single-support and double-support gait phase. [Results] RTs were significantly delayed with decline of gait speed. Walking ratio was significantly decreased in proportion of decrement of gait speed. There was no difference of gait phase between single-support and double-support phase. [Conclusion] This study showed that relationship between attentional load and deficit of gait automaticity. While gait phase didn't influence attentional demand, and this result showed the characteristics of treadmill gait.

9.
J Geriatr Phys Ther ; 39(4): 159-64, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26352519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In dual-task situations, postural control is closely associated with attentional cost. Previous studies have reported age-related differences between attentional cost and postural control, but little is known about the association in conditions with a one-legged standing posture. The purpose of this study was to determine age-related differences in postural control and attentional cost while performing tasks at various difficulty levels in a one-legged standing posture. METHODS: In total, 29 healthy older adults aged 64 to 78 years [15 males, 14 females, mean (SD) = 71.0 (3.8) years] and 29 healthy young adults aged 20 to 26 years [14 males, 15 females, mean (SD) = 22.5 (1.5) years] participated in this study. We measured the reaction time, trunk accelerations, and lower limb muscle activity under 3 different one-legged standing conditions-on a firm surface, on a soft surface with a urethane mat, and on a softer more unstable surface with 2 piled urethane mats. Reaction time as an indication of attentional cost was measured by pressing a handheld button as quickly as possible in response to an auditory stimulus. A 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed to examine the differences between the 3 task conditions and the 2 age groups for each outcome. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Trunk accelerations showed a statistically significant group-by-condition interaction in the anteroposterior (F = 9.1, P < .05), mediolateral (F = 9.9, P < .05), and vertical (F = 9.3, P < .05) directions. Muscle activity did not show a statistically significant group-by-condition interaction, but there was a significant main effect of condition in the tibialis anterior muscle (F = 33.1, P < .01) and medial gastrocnemius muscle (F = 14.7, P < .01) in young adults and the tibialis anterior muscle (F = 24.8, P < .01) and medial gastrocnemius muscle (F = 10.8, P < .01) in older adults. In addition, there was a statistically significant interaction in reaction time (F = 8.2, P < .05) for group-by-condition. CONCLUSIONS: The study results confirmed that reaction times in older adults are more prolonged than young adults in the same challenging postural control condition.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pressão , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
10.
J Phys Ther Sci ; 27(7): 2207-11, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26311955

RESUMO

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between the settings of exercise habits and health-related outcomes in community-dwelling older adults. [Subjects] A total of 304 Japanese community-dwelling older adults (70.3 ± 4.1 years; 113 males and 191 females) participated in this study. [Methods] Demographic characteristics, medical conditions, exercise habits, and health-related outcomes were assessed by face-to-face interviews and self-reported questionnaires. Older adults who had exercise habits were classified into two groups: individual- and group-based exercise habits groups, and the health-related outcomes were compared between groups. [Results] The scores for the Geriatric Depression Scale, exercise self-efficacy, and dietary variety of older adults who had group-based exercise habits were better than those of older adults who had individual-based exercise habits. In addition, the exercise settings (individual- and group-based) were significantly associated with scores for the Geriatric Depression Scale (odds ratio = 0.76) and exercise self-efficacy (odds ratio = 1.26), even after adjusting for age and gender. [Conclusion] These results implied that habitual exercise in group settings may have an effective role in promoting exercise self-efficacy and mental health.

11.
Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res ; 2015: 253451, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26185495

RESUMO

Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the decline of physical activity during winter influences physical performances (after 1 year) in old-old women. Methods. Fifty-three Japanese women (mean age: 78.4 ± 3.2 years) participated in this study. Data of physical activity was collected by using an accelerometer at baseline and 3-month follow-up, and participants who decreased step counts in this period were defined as declining groups. We measured grip strength, knee extensor strength, total length of the center of gravity, hip walking distance, and maximum walking speed to evaluate physical performances at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Repeated-measures analysis of variance determined the difference in physical performance between declining groups and maintenance group with maintained or improved step counts. Results. Daily step counts for 22 older women (41.5%) decreased during winter. A statistically significant interaction effect between group and time was found for maximum walking speed (F(1,50) = 5.23, p = 0.03). Post hoc comparisons revealed that walking speed in the maintenance group significantly increased compared with baseline (p = 0.01); the declining group showed no significant change (p = 0.44). Conclusion. Change of physical activity during winter influences the physical performance level after 1 year in community-dwelling old-old women, particularly its effect on maximum walking speed.

12.
BMC Geriatr ; 15: 43, 2015 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25880420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity affects physical and mental health, prevents disease, and improves quality of life. However, physical activity also decreases with age in older persons, and is affected by adverse climatic periods. This study examined changes in physical activity during the winter season in older persons (≥75 years of age) who were living in northern Japan, and evaluated the factors that were associated with this decline. METHODS: A total of 201 older persons (83 men and 118 women; mean age, 79.7 ± 3.8 years) participated in two separate tests that were conducted in November 2012 and February 2013. Physical activity was monitored using the Kenz Lifecorder, and mean step counts and moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) times were calculated over a 1-week period. We also measured body mass index, handgrip strength, normal walking speed, functional capacity, exercise habits, snow-shovelling habits, a change in frequency (between early winter and midwinter) of outdoor excursions, the length of outdoor excursions, social support, and morbidity. RESULTS: In the group that maintained their frequency of outdoor excursions, step counts significantly increased during midwinter compared with early winter (p < 0.01). In the group with a lower frequency of outdoor excursions, MVPA was significantly decreased during midwinter compared with early winter (p < 0.05). After adjusting for other variables, logistic regression analysis showed that weakness (odds ratio [OR]: 2.89, p < 0.05) was independently associated with a decline in step counts. Age (OR: 1.12, p < 0.05) and a change in frequency of outdoor excursions (OR: 0.75, p < 0.01) were independently associated with a decline in MVPA. CONCLUSIONS: Older persons should be supported in their attempts to go outdoors during midwinter. They should be provided with intervention programs to increase their physical activity at home.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estações do Ano , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Morbidade , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Aging Ment Health ; 19(8): 756-61, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25307795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the associations between self-reported subjective physical and cognitive age, and actual physical and cognitive functions among community-dwelling older people aged 75 years and older. METHOD: The sample comprised 275 older adults aged 75-91 years. Two questions were asked regarding subjective age: 'How old do you feel physically?' and 'How old do you feel cognitively?' To assess physical functions, we measured handgrip strength, knee extension strength, standing balance and walking speed. Tests of attention, executive function, processing speed and memory were performed to assess actual cognitive function. RESULTS: Subjective physical and cognitive age was associated with performance on all of the physical and cognitive tests, respectively (p < 0.01). We also found that older adults who reported themselves as feeling older than their chronological age had a slower walking speed and lower scores for word-list memory recall than those who did not report themselves as feeling older than their actual age. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that promoting a fast walking speed and good memory function may help to maintain a younger subjective physical and cognitive age in older adults aged 75 years and older.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Vida Independente/psicologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Caminhada/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia
14.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 15(7): 3305-10, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24815487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A cancer survivor is defined as anyone who has been diagnosed with cancer, from the time of diagnosis through the rest of their life. The purpose of this study was to examine whether physical functions, health-related outcomes, nutritional status and blood markers in community-dwelling cancer survivors aged 75 years and older are different from those who do not have cancer MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred seventy-five participants were asked by physicians, nurses, and physical therapists, questions regarding cancer history in a face-to-face interview. Data were collected for demographic information, physical functions, such as handgrip strength, knee extension power, abdominal muscle strength, static standing balance, walking speed and the timed-up-and-go test, health-related outcomes, nutritional status, and blood markers. The measured parameters of survivor diagnosed with cancer were compared with those without a history of cancer. RESULTS: Thirty-seven older adults were previously diagnosed with cancer. Female cancer survivors had lower knee extension power (p<0.05), abdominal muscle strength (p<0.05), walking speed (p<0.05), timed-up-and-go test score (p<0.05), and time to spend on walking per day (p<0.05) than older women without a history of cancer. In men, none of the measured parameters were significantly different between cancer survivors and older men with no history of cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that partial physical function of women cancer survivors aged 75 years and older differs from that in women with no history of cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Neoplasias , Estado Nutricional , Aptidão Física , Sobreviventes , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 22(5-6): 427-32, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20065627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Many older people fall when they perform tasks which require increased attention. The aim of this study was to determine differences in reaction times, during simple-, dual- and triple-task conditions requiring differing levels of motor coordination, balance control and cognitive attention, between groups of fallers and non-fallers in community-dwelling older individuals. METHODS: The study involved the recruitment of 87 older individuals living at home, 57 women and 30 men aged 75 to 91 years. Reaction times, measured by pushing a handheld button as quickly as possible in response to a visual stimulus, were measured in four conditions: 1) quiet standing (simple-task); 2) counting backward during quiet standing (dual-task with cognitive demand); 3) stepping in place (dual-task with balance demand); and 4) counting backward while stepping in place (triple-task with cognitive and balance demands). RESULTS: Twenty-nine (33.3%) participants had fallen at least once during the past year. There were no statistically significant differences in reaction times between non-fallers and fallers during any of the tasks. Reaction times were significantly longer during the dual- and triple-tasks compared with the simple-task conditions in both groups. The ratio between reaction times during dual-tasks with balance demands (stepping in place) and those in the simple-task condition were significantly related to a history of falls and showed the highest odds ratio (OR 3.16, 95% CI 1.06- 9.45, p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Relative changes in reaction times during a dual-task with balance demands were related to a history of falls in community-dwelling older individuals. Reaction times in dual-task conditions with a balance demand were more sensitive to past falls than those during a dual-task with cognitive demands.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Cognição , Equilíbrio Postural , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação
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