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1.
Nano Lett ; 18(11): 7247-7253, 2018 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251545

RESUMO

Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) have recently been shown by Cao, Zhao, and Louie [Cao, T.; Zhao, F.; Louie, S. G. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2017, 119, 076401] to possess distinct topological phases in general, characterized by a [Formula: see text]2 invariant. Cove-edged and chevron GNRs moreover are chemically and structurally diverse, quasi-one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures whose structure and electronic properties can be rationally controlled by bottom-up synthesis from precursor molecules. We derive the value of the topological invariant of the different types of cove-edged and chevron GNRs, and we investigate the electronic properties of various junctions formed by these GNRs, as well as such GNRs with the more common armchair or zigzag GNRs. We study the topological junction states at the interface of two topologically distinct segments. For an isolated GNR having two ends of different terminations, topological end states are shown to develop only at the topologically nontrivial end. Our work extends the explicit categorization of topological invariants of GNRs beyond the previously demonstrated armchair GNRs and provides new design rules for novel GNR junctions as well as future GNR-based nanoelectronic devices.

2.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 8(6)2018 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29843410

RESUMO

In many layer-structured materials, constituent layers are bound through van der Waals (vdW) interactions. However, hydrogen bonding is another type of weak interaction which can contribute to the formation of multi-layered materials. In this work, we investigate aluminum hydroxide [Al(OH) 3 ] having hydrogen bonding as an interlayer binding mechanism. We study the crystal structures and electronic band structures of bulk, single-layer, and multi-layer Al(OH) 3 using density functional theory calculations. We find that hydrogen bonds across the constituent layers indeed give rise to interlayer binding stronger than vdW interactions, and a reduction of the band gap occurs for an isolated layer as compared to bulk Al(OH) 3 which is attributed to the emergence of surface states. We also consider the alkali-halide intercalation between layers and examine how the intercalated atoms affect the atomic and electronic structures of Al(OH) 3 .

3.
Nano Lett ; 18(5): 2759-2765, 2018 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29667831

RESUMO

The exfoliation energy, the energy required to peel off an atomic layer from the surface of a bulk material, is of fundamental importance in the science and engineering of two-dimensional materials. Traditionally, the exfoliation energy of a material has been obtained from first-principles by calculating the difference in the ground-state energy between (i) a slab of N atomic layers ( N ≫ 1) and (ii) a slab of N - 1 atomic layers plus an atomic layer separated from the slab. In this paper, we prove that the exfoliation energy can be obtained exactly as the difference in the ground-state energy between a bulk material (per atomic layer) and a single isolated layer. The proposed method is (i) tremendously lower in computational cost than the traditional approach because it does not require calculations on thick slabs, (ii) still valid even if there is a surface reconstruction of any kind, (iii) capable of taking into account the relaxation of the single exfoliated layer (both in-plane lattice parameters and atomic positions), and (iv) easily combined with all kinds of many-body computational methods. As a proof of principles, we calculated exfoliation energies of graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, MoS2, and phosphorene using density-functional theory. In addition, we found that the in-plane relaxation of an exfoliated layer accounts for 5% of one-layer exfoliation energy of phosphorene while it is negligible (<0.4%) in the other cases.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(2): 807-813, 2018 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29243927

RESUMO

A series of trigonal planar N-, O-, and S-dopant atoms incorporated along the convex protrusion lining the edges of bottom-up synthesized chevron graphene nanoribbons (cGNRs) induce a characteristic shift in the energy of conduction and valence band edge states along with a significant reduction of the band gap of up to 0.3 eV per dopant atom per monomer. A combination of scanning probe spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations reveals that the direction and the magnitude of charge transfer between the dopant atoms and the cGNR backbone are dominated by inductive effects and follow the expected trend in electronegativity. The introduction of heteroatom dopants with trigonal planar geometry ensures an efficient overlap of a p-orbital lone-pair centered on the dopant atom with the extended π-system of the cGNR backbone effectively extending the conjugation length. Our work demonstrates a widely tunable method for band gap engineering of graphene nanostructures for advanced electronic applications.


Assuntos
Grafite/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares , Nanoestruturas
5.
Sci Rep ; 7: 43400, 2017 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28252036

RESUMO

A crack and its propagation is a challenging multiscale materials phenomenon of broad interest, from nanoscience to exogeology. Particularly in fracture mechanics, periodicities are of high scientific interest. However, a full understanding of this phenomenon across various physical scales is lacking. Here, we demonstrate periodic interlayer-mediated thin film crack propagation and discuss the governing conditions resulting in their periodicity as being universal. We show strong confinement of thin film cracks and arbitrary steering of their propagation by inserting a predefined thin interlayer, composed of either a polymer, metal, or even atomically thin graphene, between the substrate and the brittle thin film. The thin interlayer-mediated controllability arises from local modification of the effective mechanical properties of the crack medium. Numerical calculations incorporating basic fracture mechanics principles well model our experimental results. We believe that previous studies of periodic cracks in SiN films, self-de-bonding sol-gel films, and even drying colloidal films, along with this study, share the same physical origins but with differing physical boundary conditions. This finding provides a simple analogy for various periodic crack systems that exist in nature, not only for thin film cracks but also for cracks ranging in scale.

6.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 29(8): 085001, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28081016

RESUMO

Metal-doped graphene produces magnetic moments that have potential application in spintronics. Here we use density function theory computational methods to show how the magnetic interaction between metal atoms doped in graphene can be controlled by the degree of flexure in a graphene membrane. Bending graphene by flexing causes the distance between two substitutional Fe atoms covalently bonded in graphene to gradually increase and these results in the magnetic moment disappearing at a critical strain value. At the critical strain, a carbon atom can enter between the two Fe atoms and blocks the interaction between relevant orbitals of Fe atoms to quench the magnetic moment. The control of interactions between doped atoms by exploiting the mechanical flexibility of graphene is a unique approach to manipulating the magnetic properties and opens up new opportunities for mechanical-magnetic 2D device systems.

7.
Sci Rep ; 6: 31160, 2016 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27503427

RESUMO

Securing a semiconducting bandgap is essential for applying graphene layers in switching devices. Theoretical studies have suggested a created bulk bandgap in a graphene layer by introducing an asymmetry between the A and B sub-lattice sites. A recent transport measurement demonstrated the presence of a bandgap in a graphene layer where the asymmetry was introduced by placing a graphene layer on a hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) substrate. Similar bandgap has been observed in graphene layers on metal substrates by local probe measurements; however, this phenomenon has not been observed in graphene layers on a near-insulating substrate. Here, we present bulk bandgap-like features in a graphene layer epitaxially grown on an h-BN substrate using scanning tunneling spectroscopy. We observed edge states at zigzag edges, edge resonances at armchair edges, and bandgap-like features in the bulk.

8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 52(13): 2784-7, 2016 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26763942

RESUMO

Here we show the formation of the complex between a DNA aptamer and a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and its reaction with its target protein. The aptamer, which is specifically bound with thrombin, the target protein in this study, easily wraps and disperses the SWNT by noncovalent π-π stacking.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Proteínas/química , Trombina/química , Nanotubos de Carbono
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(37): 11514-8, 2015 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26324891

RESUMO

Because topological surface states of a single-crystal topological insulator can exist on all surfaces with different crystal orientations enclosing the crystal, mutual interactions among those states contiguous to each other through edges can lead to unique phenomena inconceivable in normal insulators. Here we show, based on a first-principles approach, that the difference in the work function between adjacent surfaces with different crystal-face orientations generates a built-in electric field around facet edges of a prototypical topological insulator such as Bi2Se3. Owing to the topological magnetoelectric coupling for a given broken time-reversal symmetry in the crystal, the electric field, in turn, forces effective magnetic dipoles to accumulate along the edges, realizing the facet-edge magnetic ordering. We demonstrate that the predicted magnetic ordering is in fact a manifestation of the axion electrodynamics in real solids.

10.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 5(4): 1654-1666, 2015 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28347087

RESUMO

We investigate the structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of graphite-like amorphous carbon coating on bulky silicon to examine whether it can improve the durability of the silicon anodes of lithium-ion batteries using molecular dynamics simulations and ab-initio electronic structure calculations. Structural models of carbon coating are constructed using molecular dynamics simulations of atomic carbon deposition with low incident energies (1-16 eV). As the incident energy decreases, the ratio of sp² carbons increases, that of sp³ decreases, and the carbon films become more porous. The films prepared with very low incident energy contain lithium-ion conducting channels. Also, those films are electrically conductive to supplement the poor conductivity of silicon and can restore their structure after large deformation to accommodate the volume change during the operations. As a result of this study, we suggest that graphite-like porous carbon coating on silicon will extend the lifetime of the silicon anodes of lithium-ion batteries.

11.
Nano Lett ; 14(7): 3766-72, 2014 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24945707

RESUMO

We present an atomic resolution structural study of covalently bonded dopant pairs in the lattice of monolayer graphene. Two iron (Fe) metal atoms that are covalently bonded within the graphene lattice are observed and their interaction with each other is investigated. The two metal atom dopants can form small paired clusters of varied geometry within graphene vacancy defects. The two Fe atoms are created within a 10 nm diameter predefined location in graphene by manipulating a focused electron beam (80 kV) on the surface of graphene containing an intentionally deposited Fe precursor reservoir. Aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy at 80 kV has been used to investigate the atomic structure and real time dynamics of Fe dimers embedded in graphene vacancies. Four different stable structures have been observed; two variants of an Fe dimer in a graphene trivacancy, an Fe dimer embedded in two adjacent monovacancies and an Fe dimer trapped by a quadvacancy. According to spin-sensitive DFT calculations, these dimer structures all possess magnetic moments of either 2.00 or 4.00 µB. The dimer structures were found to evolve from an initial single Fe atom dopant trapped in a graphene vacancy.

12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(19): 6900-4, 2014 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24785294

RESUMO

The Rashba effect is spin degeneracy lift originated from spin-orbit coupling under inversion symmetry breaking and has been intensively studied for spintronics applications. However, easily implementable methods and corresponding materials for directional controls of Rashba splitting are still lacking. Here, we propose organic-inorganic hybrid metal halide perovskites as 3D Rashba systems driven by bulk ferroelectricity. In these materials, it is shown that the helical direction of the angular momentum texture in the Rashba band can be controlled by external electric fields via ferroelectric switching. Our tight-binding analysis and first-principles calculations indicate that S = 1/2 and J = 1/2 Rashba bands directly coupled to ferroelectric polarization emerge at the valence and conduction band edges, respectively. The coexistence of two contrasting Rashba bands having different compositions of the spin and orbital angular momentum is a distinctive feature of these materials. With recent experimental evidence for the ferroelectric response, the halide perovskites will be, to our knowledge, the first practical realization of the ferroelectric-coupled Rashba effect, suggesting novel applications to spintronic devices.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Eletrônica/métodos , Modelos Químicos , Nanoestruturas/química , Óxidos/química , Titânio/química , Simulação por Computador , Cristalização/métodos , Ferro/química , Metilaminas/química , Compostos Orgânicos/química
13.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 26(23): 235504, 2014 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25932473

RESUMO

It is shown that a two-dimensional topological insulator can be realized and the band topology (equivalently, the edge states) may be further controlled by charge doping in an ultrathin SnTe film with a defect superstructure. Based on first-principles density functional theory (DFT), we predict that a Sn-Te bilayer, if exfoliated from three-dimensional bulk SnTe in the (1 1 1) direction, has a trivial band topology in its pristine form, but is made topologically nontrivial by introducing an appropriate array of defects. The emergence of the topological state is ascribed to the formation of topologically nontrivial narrow bands near the Fermi level by spin­orbit splitting of defect-induced bands. In addition, we demonstrate that a transition between a topological insulator and a normal insulator is possible under the electron or hole doping which can be useful for controlling the topological edge states.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas/química , Semicondutores , Telúrio/química , Compostos de Estanho/química , Condutividade Elétrica , Elétrons , Transferência de Energia , Modelos Químicos , Estrutura Molecular
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 109(49): 19893-9, 2012 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23161910

RESUMO

This article briefly summarizes the research activities in the field of hydrogen storage in sorbent materials and reports our recent works and future directions for the design of such materials. Distinct features of sorption-based hydrogen storage methods are described compared with metal hydrides and complex chemical hydrides. We classify the studies of hydrogen sorbent materials in terms of two key technical issues: (i) constructing stable framework structures with high porosity, and (ii) increasing the binding affinity of hydrogen molecules to surfaces beyond the usual van der Waals interaction. The recent development of reticular chemistry is summarized as a means for addressing the first issue. Theoretical studies focus mainly on the second issue and can be grouped into three classes according to the underlying interaction mechanism: electrostatic interactions based on alkaline cations, Kubas interactions with open transition metals, and orbital interactions involving Ca and other nontransitional metals. Hierarchical computational methods to enable the theoretical predictions are explained, from ab initio studies to molecular dynamics simulations using force field parameters. We also discuss the actual delivery amount of stored hydrogen, which depends on the charging and discharging conditions. The usefulness and practical significance of the hydrogen spillover mechanism in increasing the storage capacity are presented as well.


Assuntos
Engenharia Química/métodos , Hidrogênio/química , Modelos Químicos , Energia Renovável , Adsorção , Metais/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Porosidade
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 109(3): 671-4, 2012 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22203972

RESUMO

Using first-principles calculations, we show that topological quantum phase transitions are driven by external electric fields in thin films of Sb(2)Te(3). The film, as the applied electric field normal to its surface increases, is transformed from a normal insulator to a topological insulator or vice versa depending on the film thickness. We identify the band topology by directly calculating the Z(2) invariant from electronic wave functions. The dispersion of edge states is also found to be consistent with the bulk band topology in view of the bulk-boundary correspondence. We present possible applications of the topological phase transition as an on/off switch of the topologically protected edge states in nano-scale devices.

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 108(46): 18622-5, 2011 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22049340

RESUMO

We investigate the roles of the pseudospin and the valley degeneracy in electron scattering at graphene edges. It is found that they are strongly correlated with charge density modulations of short-wavelength oscillations and slowly decaying beat patterns in the electronic density profile. Theoretical analyses using nearest-neighbor tight-binding methods and first-principles density-functional theory calculations agree well with our experimental data from scanning tunneling microscopy. The armchair edge shows almost perfect intervalley scattering with pseudospin invariance regardless of the presence of the hydrogen atom at the edge, whereas the zigzag edge only allows for intravalley scattering with the change in the pseudospin orientation. The effect of structural defects at the graphene edges is also discussed.


Assuntos
Grafite/química , Química/métodos , Cristalização , Eletroquímica/métodos , Eletrônica , Hidrogênio/química , Íons , Cinética , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Teóricos , Oscilometria/métodos , Espalhamento de Radiação
18.
Nano Lett ; 11(4): 1418-22, 2011 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21375278

RESUMO

In metallic carbon nanotubes with defects, the electric current flow is expected to have characteristic spatial patterns depending on the nature of the defects. Here, we show, using first-principles transport calculations, that locally rotating loop currents in nanometer scale can be generated near defects in carbon nanotubes by quantum interference of conducting and quasi-bound states of electrons. The loop currents appear at energies near transmission dips, having opposite directions at lower- and higher-energy sides of the transmission dips and disappearing exactly at the centers of the dips. Temporal modulations of gate voltage around a transmission dip can produce oscillating magnetic dipoles, inducing magnetic fields that reflect characteristics of defects. This generation of loop currents and magnetic dipoles by quantum interference can generally occur in any nanostructure and it is potentially useful for novel electronic and magnetic nanodevices.


Assuntos
Metais/química , Modelos Químicos , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Simulação por Computador , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Transporte de Elétrons , Magnetismo , Nanotubos de Carbono/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula
19.
Nano Lett ; 11(2): 729-33, 2011 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21194201

RESUMO

We have investigated the spectral broadening in the near-resonance fluorescence spectrum of a single rubidium atom trapped in a three-dimensional (3D) optical lattice in a strong Lamb-Dicke regime. Besides the strong Rayleigh peak, the spectrum exhibited weak Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman sidebands. The line width of the Rayleigh peak for low potential depths was well explained by matter-wave tunneling between the first-two lowest vibrational states of 3D anisotropic harmonic potentials of adjacent local minima of the optical lattice.


Assuntos
Semicondutores , Transporte de Elétrons , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento
20.
J Chem Phys ; 133(8): 084702, 2010 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20815585

RESUMO

Using ab initio calculations, we examine the electronic and magnetic properties of partially open (unzipped) zigzag carbon nanotube (CNT) superlattices. It is found that depending on their opening degree, these superlattices can exhibit multiple localized states around the Fermi energy. More importantly, some electronic states confined in some parts of the structure even have special magnetic orderings. We demonstrate that, as a proof of principle, some partially open zigzag CNT superlattices are by themselves giant (100%) magnetoresistive devices. Furthermore, the localized (and spin-polarized) states as well as the band gaps of the superlattices could be further modulated by external electric fields perpendicular to the tube axis. We believe that these results will open the way to the production of novel nanoscale electronic and spintronic devices.

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