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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23170, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848766

RESUMO

Due to climate change, temperature in late February and early March raised up which cause heat stress at reproductive stage (terminal growth phase of wheat crop) which has become the major causative factor towards low wheat production in arid and semiarid regions. Therefore; strategies need to be adopted for improving terminal heat stress tolerance in wheat. In this study, we assessed whether foliar application of silicon (Si) (2 and 4 mM) at terminal growth phase i.e. heading stage of wheat imposed to heat stress (37 ± 2 °C) under polythene tunnel could improve the performance of wheat. Results of the study revealed that heat stress significantly reduced the photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b and a + b and carotenoids) leading to a lower grain yield. However, a 4 mM Si application (foliar applied) at heading stage prominently increased the chlorophyll a, b and a + b and carotenoids of flag leaf by improving the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) and osmoprotectants (soluble sugar protein and proline) under terminal heat stress. Improvements in the performance of wheat (chlorophyll contents, carotenoids, soluble sugar and proteins and proline and yield) with foliar application of Si were also observed under control conditions. Correlation analysis revealed strong association (r > 0.90) of chlorophyll contents and carotenoids with grain and biological yield. Negative correlation (-0.81 < r > -0.63) of physio-biochemical components (antioxidants, proline, soluble sugars and proteins) with yield revealed that under heat stress these components produced in more quantities to alleviate the effects of heat, and Si application also improved these physio biochemical components. In crux, foliar application of Si alleviates the losses in the performance of wheat caused by terminal heat stress by improving the antioxidant mechanism and production of osmoprotectants.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34851487

RESUMO

Healthcare waste management is considered one of the biggest challenges that the world is going to face in the future. This threat is becoming reality owing to the worldwide sharp rise in healthcare waste generation particularly during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Like many other environmental crises, hospital plastic waste management is an area that got very little attention despite being highlighted in the literature, local media, as well as in international electronic and print media. This mini-review was conducted to assess the overall prevailing situation regarding hospital plastic waste management in Pakistan. Several illegal and unethical activities have been observed regarding hospital plastic waste management in Pakistan which includes unhygienic recycling, repacking of used hospital plastic items, open dumping on land, and disposal of hospital plastic waste in the ocean. To improve these conditions, suggestions have been made regarding the better management of hospital plastic waste.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0257893, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735478

RESUMO

Climate change is causing soil salinization, resulting in huge crop losses throughout the world. Multiple physiological and biochemical pathways determine the ability of plants to tolerate salt stress. Chili (Capsicum annum L.) is a salt-susceptible crop; therefore, its growth and yield is negatively impacted by salinity. Irreversible damage at cell level and photo inhibition due to high production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and less CO2 availability caused by water stress is directly linked with salinity. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the impact of five NaCl salinity levels, i.e., 0,1.5, 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0 dS m-1 on growth, biochemical attributes and yield of two chili genotypes ('Plahi' and 'A-120'). Salinity stress significantly reduced fresh and dry weight, relative water contents, water use efficiency, leaf osmotic potential, glycine betaine (GB) contents, photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (Ci), and chlorophyll contents of tested genotypes. Salinity stress significantly enhanced malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and activities of the enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD). In addition, increasing salinity levels significantly reduced the tissue phosphorus and potassium concentrations, while enhanced the tissue sodium and chloride concentrations. Genotype 'Plahi' had better growth and biochemical attributes compared to 'A-120'. Therefore, 'Plahi' is recommended for saline areas to improve chili production.

4.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 67(1): 159-164, 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817352

RESUMO

Aim of the present study was to determine the In-vitro antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of E. globulus leaves against common multidrug resistant poultry pathogens. Phytochemical analysis through HPLC revealed that kaempeferol (7.315min) followed by querecetin (6.655min) and myrecetin (3.655min). Percent area of kaempeferol (6826.88%) was highest, followed by myrecetin (5516.22%) and querecetin (163.748%). Phytochemical investigation of ethanolic extract of E. globulus leaves through GCMS showed highest retention time (min) α-pinene (20.43) and α-terpineol (20.15) accompanied by spathulenol (11.97), piperitone (11.04). The ethanolic extracts of E. globulus leaves showed a highest zone of inhibition against S. pullorum SP6; 20.64± 2.08, E. coli SE 12; 19.75± 2.83, C. perfringens type A (CPM38-01); 19.46± 2.02. The highest level of MIC of E. globulus noted were against S. gallinarum S22; 133.37±53.294, S. gallinarum S1; 130.20±45.10, S. gallinarum S4; 129.47±24.182, S. gallinarum S3; 126.83±72.392. In conclusion, the study confirmed that the ethanolic extract of E. globulus is composed of active ingredients having antibacterial activity and can be referred as an alternate to antibiotics.

5.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 67(1): 153-158, 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817353

RESUMO

The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of E. globulus leaves in broiler chicks. Total (n=255) day-old chicks were segregated into five groups i.e. Pathogenic E. coli, S. pullorum, S. gallinarum and C. perfringens type A and control negative group. Each bacterial challenged (1x 107 CFU) group was divided into control positive, antibiotic, probiotic and E. globulus group. Experimental birds were exposed to E. coli, S. pullorum, S. gallinarum and C. perfringens type A at different ages. At 35th day of experiment the log reduction for each group was determined. The highest log reduction in E. coli and C. perfringens Type A colonies count were found in E. globulus (3.26) (2.33) treated group followed by antibiotic (2.85) (1.59) and probiotic (2.84) (1.50) respectively. The log reduction in S. pullorum colonies count was highest in E. globulus (2.50) followed by probiotic (2.24) and antibiotic (2.16). The S. gallinarum colonies count log reduction was found highest for antibiotic (2.84) followed by probiotic (2.48) and E. globulus group. The results of in-vivo experiment revealed that ethanolic extract of E. globulus has antibacterial activity and it can be used as a replacement to low level of antibiotics added in poultry feed.

6.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829365

RESUMO

Retinal blood vessels have been presented to contribute confirmation with regard to tortuosity, branching angles, or change in diameter as a result of ophthalmic disease. Although many enhancement filters are extensively utilized, the Jerman filter responds quite effectively at vessels, edges, and bifurcations and improves the visualization of structures. In contrast, curvelet transform is specifically designed to associate scale with orientation and can be used to recover from noisy data by curvelet shrinkage. This paper describes a method to improve the performance of curvelet transform further. A distinctive fusion of curvelet transform and the Jerman filter is presented for retinal blood vessel segmentation. Mean-C thresholding is employed for the segmentation purpose. The suggested method achieves average accuracies of 0.9600 and 0.9559 for DRIVE and CHASE_DB1, respectively. Simulation results establish a better performance and faster implementation of the suggested scheme in comparison with similar approaches seen in the literature.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604832

RESUMO

Background: The current coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global outbreak of a disease from a new coronavirus. Several databases have been published on this pandemic, but the research community still needs an easy way to get comprehensive information on COVID-19. Objectives: COVID-19 pandemic database (CO-19 PDB) aims to provide wonderful insights for COVID-19 researchers with the well-gathered of all the COVID-19 data to one platform, which is a global challenge for the research community these days. Methods: We gathered 59 updated databases since December-2019 until May 2021 and divided them into six categories: digital image database, genomic database, literature database, visualization tools database, chemical structure database, and social science database. These categories focus on taking number of functions from the images, information from gene sequences, updates from relevant papers, essays, reports, articles, and books, the data or information in the form of maps, graphs, and charts, information of bonds between atoms, and updates about events of the physical and social environment, respectively. Results: Users can search the information of interest in two ways including typing the name of the database in the search bar or by clicking the right category directly. Computer languages such as CSS, PHP, HTML, Java, etc. are utilized to construct CO-19 PDB. Conclusion: This article attempts to compile up-to-date appropriate COVID-19 datasets and resources that have not been compiled and given in such an accessible and user-friendly manner. As a result, the CO-19 PDB offers extensive open data sharing for both worldwide research communities and local people. Further, we have planned future development of new features, that will be awesome for future study.

8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 508, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626253

RESUMO

Nanotechnology is the discipline and technology of small and specific things that are < 100 nm in size. Because of their extremely miniscule size, any changes in their chemical and physical structure may show higher reactivity and solubility than larger particles. Nanotechnology plays a vital role in every field of life. It is considered one of the most bleeding edge field of scientific research. It has already several applications in a myriad of disciplines while its application in the field of animal production and veterinary medicine is still experimental in nature. But, in recent years, the role of nanotechnology in the aforementioned fields of scientific inquiry has shown great progress. These days, nanotechnology has been employed to revolutionize drug delivery systems and diagnose atypical diseases. Applications of nanoparticle technology in the field of animal reproduction and development of efficacious vaccines have been at the forefront of scientific endeavors. Additionally, their impacts on meat and milk quality are also being judiciously inquired in recent decades. Veterinary nanotechnology has great potential to improve diagnosis and treatment, and provide new tools to this field. This review focuses on some noteworthy applications of nanoparticles in the field of animal production and their future perspectives.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Nanotecnologia , Animais , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/veterinária , Leite
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5585586, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595238

RESUMO

The main aim of this study was to develop a set of functions that can analyze the genomic data with less time consumption and memory. Epi-gene is presented as a solution to large sequence file handling and computational time problems. It uses less time and less programming skills in order to work with a large number of genomes. In the current study, some features of the Epi-gene R-package were described and illustrated by using a dataset of the 14 Aeromonas hydrophila genomes. The joining, relabeling, and conversion functions were also included in this package to handle the FASTA formatted sequences. To calculate the subsets of core genes, accessory genes, and unique genes, various Epi-gene functions have been used. Heat maps and phylogenetic genome trees were also constructed. This whole procedure was completed in less than 30 minutes. This package can only work on Windows operating systems. Different functions from other packages such as dplyr and ggtree were also used that were available in R computing environment.

10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640792

RESUMO

The advancements in Industry 4.0 have opened up new ways for the structural deployment of Smart Grids (SGs) to face the endlessly rising challenges of the 21st century. SGs for Industry 4.0 can be better managed by optimized routing techniques. In Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), the topology is not fixed and can be encountered by interference, mobility of nodes, propagation of multi-paths, and path loss. To extenuate these concerns for SGs, in this paper, we have presented a new version of the standard Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol for SGs to improve the management of control intervals that enhance the efficiency of the standard OLSR protocol without affecting its reliability. The adapted fault tolerant approach makes the proposed protocol more reliable for industrial applications. The process of grouping of nodes supports managing the total network cost by reducing severe flooding and evaluating an optimized head of clusters. The head of the unit is nominated according to the first defined expectation factor. With a sequence of rigorous performance evaluations under simulation parameters, the simulation results show that the proposed version of OLSR has proliferated Quality of Service (QoS) metrics when it is compared against the state-of-the-art-based conventional protocols, namely, standard OLSR, DSDV, AOMDV and hybrid routing technique.


Assuntos
Redes de Comunicação de Computadores , Tecnologia sem Fio , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Eur J Investig Health Psychol Educ ; 11(2): 321-333, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708832

RESUMO

Family motivation as a mediating mechanism is a novel and under-researched area in the field of positive organizational scholarship. Drawing on Social Exchange Theory (SET), this study empirically validates family motivation as a mediator between family support and work engagement. The process by Hayes (2013) was used to analyze time-lagged data collected from 356 employees of the education sector. Results confirm the mediating role of family motivation in the relationship between family support and work engagement and the moderating role of calling in the relationship between family support and family motivation. This study adds to the literature of family-work enrichment accounts by validating family support as a novel antecedent for family motivation and positive attitudes. The implications of the study are discussed.

12.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259152, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699571

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the epidemiologic profiles of prediabetes mellitus (preDM), diabetes mellitus (DM), and hypertension (HTN) in Qataris using the nationally representative 2012 Qatar STEPwise Survey. METHODS: A secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional survey that included 2,497 Qatari nationals aged 18-64 years. Descriptive and analytical statistical analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Prevalence of preDM, DM, and HTN in Qataris aged 18-64 years was 11.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.6%-14.7%), 10.4% (95% CI 8.4%-12.9%), and 32.9% (95% CI 30.4%-35.6%), respectively. Age was the common factor associated with the three conditions. Adjusted analyses showed that unhealthy diet (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.84, 95% CI 1.01-3.36) was significantly associated with preDM; that physical inactivity (aOR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.12-2.46), central obesity (aOR = 2.08, 95% CI 1.02-4.26), and HTN (aOR = 2.18, 95% CI 1.40-3.38) were significantly associated with DM; and that DM (aOR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.34-3.22) was significantly associated with HTN. Population attributable fraction of preDM associated with unhealthy diet was 7.7%; of DM associated with physical inactivity, central obesity, and HTN, respectively, was 14.9%, 39.8%, and 17.5%; and of HTN associated with DM was 3.0%. CONCLUSIONS: One in five Qataris is living with either preDM or DM, and one in three is living with HTN, conditions that were found to be primarily driven by lifestyle factors. Prevention, control, and management of these conditions should be a national priority to reduce their disease burden and associated disease sequelae.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Catar
13.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0256984, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618822

RESUMO

Wheat is an important global staple food crop; however, its productivity is severely hampered by changing climate. Erratic rain patterns cause terminal drought stress, which affect reproductive development and crop yield. This study investigates the potential and zinc (Zn) and silicon (Si) to ameliorate terminal drought stress in wheat and associated mechanisms. Two different drought stress levels, i.e., control [80% water holding capacity (WHC) was maintained] and terminal drought stress (40% WHC maintained from BBCH growth stage 49 to 83) combined with five foliar-applied Zn-Si combinations (i.e., control, water spray, 4 mM Zn, 40 mM Si, 4 mM Zn + 40 mM Si applied 7 days after the initiation of drought stress). Results revealed that application of Zn and Si improved chlorophyll and relative water contents under well-watered conditions and terminal drought stress. Foliar application of Si and Zn had significant effect on antioxidant defense mechanism, proline and soluble protein, which showed that application of Si and Zn ameliorated the effects of terminal drought stress mainly by regulating antioxidant defense mechanism, and production of proline and soluble proteins. Combined application of Zn and Si resulted in the highest improvement in growth and antioxidant defense. The application of Zn and Si improved yield and related traits, both under well-watered conditions and terminal drought stress. The highest yield and related traits were recorded for combined application of Zn and Si. For grain and biological yield differences among sole and combined Zn-Si application were statistically non-significant (p>0.05). In conclusion, combined application of Zn-Si ameliorated the adverse effects of terminal drought stress by improving yield through regulating antioxidant mechanism and production of proline and soluble proteins. Results provide valuable insights for further cross talk between Zn-Si regulatory pathways to enhance grain biofortification.


Assuntos
Silício/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia , Zinco/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Secas , Silício/administração & dosagem , Estresse Fisiológico , Água/metabolismo , Zinco/administração & dosagem
14.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 16(1): 148, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542713

RESUMO

The development of resistance against antibiotics used to treat bacterial infections along with the prevalence of medication residues presents significant public health problems globally. Antibiotic-resistant germs result in infections that are difficult or impossible to treat. Decreasing antibiotic effectiveness calls for rapid development of alternative antimicrobials. In this respect, nanoparticles (NPs) of copper oxide (CuO) manifest a latent and flexible inorganic nanostructure with noteworthy antimicrobial impact. Green synthesis of CuO NPs was performed in the current study, which was then doped with varying amounts of ginger (Zingiber officinale, ZO) and garlic (Allium sativum, AS) extracts. In low and high doses, the synthesized compound was used to measure the antimicrobial effectiveness against pathogenic Escherichia coli. The present research successfully demonstrated a renewable, eco-friendly synthesis technique with natural materials that is equally applicable to other green metal oxide NPs.

15.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(10): 5860-5864, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588901

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is an industrial contaminant that poses severe threats to human and animal health. Vitexin (VIT) is a polyphenolic flavonoid of characteristic pharmacological properties. We explored the curative role of vitexin on Cd-induced mitochondrial-dysfunction in rat renal tissues. Twenty-four rats were equally divided into four groups and designated as control, Cd, Cd + vitexin and vitexin treated groups. The results showed that Cd exposure increased urea and creatinine levels while decreased creatinine clearance. Cd reduced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, i.e., catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione content in the Cd exposed group. Cd exposure significantly (p < 0.05) elevated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in rat kidney. Cd also caused a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the mitochondrial TCA-cycle enzymes, including isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and malate-dehydrogenase activities. Besides, mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes, including NADH-dehydrogenase, coenzyme Q-cytochrome reductase, succinic-coenzyme Q, and cytochrome c-oxidase activities were also decreased under Cd exposure. Cd exposure also damaged the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). However, VIT treatment potentially reduced the detrimental effects of Cd in the kidney of rats. In conclusion, our study indicated that the VIT could attenuate the Cd-induced renal toxicity in rats.

16.
Toxicol Ind Health ; 37(10): 619-634, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569379

RESUMO

Nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) are utilized extensively in various industrial applications. However, there are increasing concerns about potential exposure to Ni NPs and consequent health effects. The aim of this study was to assess Ni NPs-induced liver toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. Twenty-five rats were exposed to Ni NPs via intraperitoneal injection at doses of 15, 30, and 45 mg/kg per body weight for 28 days. Results from ICP-MS analysis showed an increase in the concentration of Ni NPs in a dose-dependent manner. The liver dysfunction was indicated by considerable production of ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, and TB in Ni NPs-treated rats. Histological examination demonstrated liver injuries (inflammatory cells, congestion, necrosis, and pyknosis) in exposed rats with dose-dependent severity of pathologies by semi-quantitative histograding system. To explore the toxicological pathways, we examined oxidative stress biomarkers and detected Ni NPs significantly elevated the levels of MDA and LPO while decreasing the levels of CAT and GSH. All the changes in biomarkers were recorded in a dose-dependent relationship. In addition, we found upregulated NF-kß indicating activation of inflammatory cytokines. ELISA results of serum revealed a remarkable increase of nitrative stress markers (iNOS and NO), ATPase activity, inflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α), and apoptotic mediators (caspase-3 and caspase-9) in Ni NPs-treated groups than the control. In summary, the result of this study provided evidence of hepatotoxicity of Ni NPs and insightful information about the involved toxic pathways, which will help in health risk assessment and management, related preventive measures for the use of Ni-NPs materials.

17.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(10): 1259-1270, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580444

RESUMO

Understanding how multidrug-resistant Enterobacterales (MDRE) are transmitted in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is critical for implementing robust policies to curb the increasing burden of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Here, we analysed samples from surgical site infections (SSIs), hospital surfaces (HSs) and arthropods (summer and winter 2016) to investigate the incidence and transmission of MDRE in a public hospital in Pakistan. We investigated Enterobacterales containing resistance genes (blaCTX-M-15, blaNDM and blaOXA-48-like) for identification, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing. Genotypes, phylogenetic relationships and transmission events for isolates from different sources were investigated using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis with a cut-off of ≤20 SNPs. Escherichia coli (14.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (10.9%) and Enterobacter cloacae (16.3%) were the main MDRE species isolated. The carbapenemase gene blaNDM was most commonly detected, with 15.5%, 15.1% and 13.3% of samples positive in SSIs, HSs and arthropods, respectively. SNP (≤20) and spatiotemporal analysis revealed linkages in bacteria between SSIs, HSs and arthropods supporting the One Health approach to underpin infection control policies across LMICs and control AMR.


Assuntos
Vetores Artrópodes/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Vetores Artrópodes/classificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/classificação , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/transmissão , Microbiologia Ambiental , Variação Genética , Hospitais , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Plasmídeos/genética , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/transmissão , beta-Lactamases/genética
18.
Dose Response ; 19(3): 15593258211033111, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34421438

RESUMO

In the literature archive, the intestinal microbiome is now considered as a discrete organ system. Despite living symbiotically with the human body, the gut microbiome is represented as potential drug targets because of its ability to modify the pharmacokinetics of orally administered drugs. Structural biology analysis indicates the existence of homology between transport proteins of microbial cells and membranes of enterocytes. It is speculated that structural similarity in the protein transporters may provoke an unwanted phenomenon of drug uptake by the gut microbiome present in the small intestine of the host. Considering this hypothesis, we analyzed the absorbance of orally administered caffeine by the gut microbiota in in vivo albino rat model through the RP-HPLC-UV approach. Microbiome absorbed the caffeine maximally at 2 hours and minimally at 5 hours post-drug administration following first-order absorption kinetics in a nonlinear way. Drug absorbance of microbial pellet and percent dose recovery was found significantly higher (P ≤ .05) at 2 hours post-administration as compared to all other groups. As speculated, our findings advocated the phenomenon that the gut microbiome influences the absorption of caffeine molecules. Members of the gut microbiome exhibited grouped behavior following first-order absorption kinetics in a nonlinear pattern.

19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450933

RESUMO

The substantial advancements offered by the edge computing has indicated serious evolutionary improvements for the internet of things (IoT) technology. The rigid design philosophy of the traditional network architecture limits its scope to meet future demands. However, information centric networking (ICN) is envisioned as a promising architecture to bridge the huge gaps and maintain IoT networks, mostly referred as ICN-IoT. The edge-enabled ICN-IoT architecture always demands efficient in-network caching techniques for supporting better user's quality of experience (QoE). In this paper, we propose an enhanced ICN-IoT content caching strategy by enabling artificial intelligence (AI)-based collaborative filtering within the edge cloud to support heterogeneous IoT architecture. This collaborative filtering-based content caching strategy would intelligently cache content on edge nodes for traffic management at cloud databases. The evaluations has been conducted to check the performance of the proposed strategy over various benchmark strategies, such as LCE, LCD, CL4M, and ProbCache. The analytical results demonstrate the better performance of our proposed strategy with average gain of 15% for cache hit ratio, 12% reduction in content retrieval delay, and 28% reduced average hop count in comparison to best considered LCD. We believe that the proposed strategy will contribute an effective solution to the related studies in this domain.

20.
Hosp Pharm ; 56(4): 384-391, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381279

RESUMO

Background: Underreporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is considered a major determinant of poor ADR signal detection in Pakistan. Considering this, the study was proposed to evaluate healthcare professionals' (HCPs) knowledge attitude toward and the barriers that discourse ADRs reporting. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was distributed among HCPs in 3 major tertiary care facilities of Peshawar. A self-administered, 31 items questionnaire was circulated online to collect the required information. Relative index ranking was used to identify the top barriers to the ADR reporting process. Results: HCPs (n = 322) were requested, and over one-third (n = 122) responded. Of the total, 97 (79.5%) were males, and by designation, 59(48.4%) were resident medical officers. About 45% of the HCPs did not identify the appropriate pharmacovigilance (PV) definition. More than half of the HCPs (52.2%) distinguished the appropriate PV purpose. Nearly 80% HCPs did not know the acceptable reporting time frame, while 22.1% HCPs knew that regulatory body for ADRs does not exist in Pakistan. The majority (95.08%) of the HCPs either strongly agreed or agreed that reporting an ADRs is a professional obligation and all the HCPs were of the opinion that PV should be taught in detail to HCPs. Exploring the barriers, it was identified that the key barriers to ADRs reporting were "unavailability of professional environment to discuss ADRs," Relative Importance Index (RII) = 0.813, "lack of incentives for reporting" (RII = 0.774), "lack of knowledge regarding reporting" (RII = 0.693), and "insufficient knowledge of pharmacotherapy in detecting ADRs" (RII = 0.662). In addition to these, "complicated reporting forms" (RII = 0.616), "lack of motivation for reporting ADRs" (RII = 0.610), and "absence of professional confidence" were seen as major hindrances in effective reporting of ADRs (RII = 0.598). Conclusion: Concerning PV and ADR reporting poor knowledge was noted. However, the majority of the HCPs showed an explicit attitude regarding ADRs reporting. The majority of the HCPs disclosed unavailability of professional environment to discuss about ADRs, lack of incentives, and how to report the main factors hindering the ADRs reporting. It is emphasized that health authorities carve out a niche for a well purposeful PV center and pledge educational activities and trainings for increasing understanding and approaches regarding reporting of ADR.

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