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1.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 7517-7533, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795481

RESUMO

The advent of nanotechnologies such as nanocarriers and nanotherapeutics has changed the treatment strategy and developed a more efficacious novel drug delivery system. Various drug delivery systems are focused on drug-targeting of brain cells. However, the manifestation of the brain barrier is the main hurdle for the effective delivery of chemotherapeutics, ultimately causing treatment failure of various drugs. To solve this problem, various nanocarrier-based drug delivery system has been developed for brain targeting. This review outlines nanocarrier-based composites for different brain diseases and highlights nanocarriers for drug targeting towards brain cells. It also summarizes the latest developments in nanocarrier-based delivery systems containing liposomal systems, dendrimers, polymeric micelles, polymeric nanocarriers, quantum dots (QDs), and gold nanoparticles. Besides, the optimal properties of nanocarriers and therapeutic implications for brain targeting have been extensively studied. Finally, the potential applications and research opportunities for nanocarriers in brain targeting are discussed.

2.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; : 1-15, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612121

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High patient compliance, noninvasiveness, and self-administration are the leading features of vaccine delivery through the oral route. The implementation of swift mass vaccination campaigns in pandemic outbreaks fascinates the use of oral vaccination. This approach can elicit both mucosal and systemic immune responses to protect against infection at the surface of the mucosa. AREA COVERED: As pathogen entry and spread mainly occurs through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) mucosal surfaces, oral vaccination may protect and limit disease spread. Oral vaccines target various potential mucosal inductive sites in the GIT, such as the oral cavity, gastric area, and small intestine. Orally delivered vaccines having subunit and nucleic acid pass through various GIT-associated risks, such as the biodegradation of biologics and their reduced absorption. This article presents a summarized review of the existing technologies and prospects for oral vaccination. EXPERT OPINION: The intestinal mucosa focuses on current approaches, while future strategies target new mucosal sites, i.e. oral cavity and stomach. Recent developments in biologic delivery through the oral route and their potential use in future oral vaccination are mainly considered.

3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 227: 112888, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649136

RESUMO

Heavy metals (HMs) contamination in agricultural soils is a major concern for global food safety and human health. Although, various in-situ and ex-situ remediation methods have been used for the treatment of HMs contaminated soils, however, they also have many drawbacks viz., capital investment, toxicity, and environmental health hazards. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop a novel method to ameliorate the toxicity of HMs in agricultural soils. In recent years, nanoparticles (NPs) have gained significant attention due to their potential applications in the environment and agriculture fields. Nanoremediation employs NPs that effectively reduce the contents of toxic HMs in the soil-plant system. Several studies have reported that the application of NPs in HMs-polluted soils, which reduced plant-available HMs concentration soils. However, the long-term efficiency of NPs immobilization is still unclear. Here, we provide details about the toxicity of HMs to environmental systems and potential applications NPs to alleviate the accumulation of HMs in agricultural soils. Finally, we present the mechanistic route of HMs-toxicity alleviation in plants by NPs application as well as their long-term efficiency and future prospects.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Agricultura , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
4.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(10): 5693-5703, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588881

RESUMO

Sunflower is an important oil-seed crop in Pakistan, it is mainly cultivated in the spring season. It is severely affected by drought stress resulting in lower yield. Cuticular wax acts as the first defense line to protect plants from drought stress condition. It seals the aerial parts of plants and reduce the water loss from leaf surfaces. Various myeloblastosis (MYB) transcription factors (TFs) are involved in biosynthesis of epicuticular waxes under drought-stress. However, less information is available for MYB, TFs in drought stress and wax biosynthesis in sunflower. We used different computational tools to compare the Arabidopsis MYB, TFs involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis and drought stress tolerance with sunflower genome. We identified three putative MYB genes (MYB16, MYB94 and MYB96) in sunflower along with their seven homologs in Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic association of MYB TFs in Arabidopsis and sunflower indicated strong conservation of TFs in plant species. From gene structure analysis, it was observed that intron and exon organization was family-specific. MYB TFs were unevenly distributed on sunflower chromosomes. Evolutionary analysis indicated the segmental duplication of the MYB gene family in sunflower. Quantitative Real-Time PCR revealed the up-regulation of three MYB genes under drought stress. The gene expression of MYB16, MYB94 and MYB96 were found many folds higher in experimental plants than control. The present study provided the first insight into MYB TFs family's characterization in sunflower under drought stress conditions and wax biosynthesis TFs.

5.
Curr Med Imaging ; 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238164

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease and is declared a global health issue by the World Health Organization in 1993. Due to the complex pathophysiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it remains a global threat. This article reviews the conventional diagnostic modalities for tuberculosis, their limitations to detect latent TB, multiple drug-resistant TB, human immunodeficiency virus co-infected TB lesions, and TB in children. Moreover, this review illustrates the importance of nuclear medicine imaging for early, non-invasive diagnosis of TB to detect disease stages and monitor therapy response. Currently, single-photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography with their specific radionuclides have been extensively used for a thorough assessment of TB.

6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5692039, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748269

RESUMO

Purpose: Bone trauma is a clinical condition that afflicts the majority of the world's population. For the management of bone trauma, the underlying mechanisms of the drugs effective for bone healing are deemed necessary. Achyranthis bidentatae Radix (ABR) is a popular alternative medicine recommended in the treatment of bone trauma and injury, yet its mechanism of action persists to be vague. This study was conducted for the evaluation of the mode of action of ABR through network pharmacology in treating bone trauma. Methods: An extensive survey of published works led to the development of a drug-target database, after which multiple protein targets for bone trauma were discerned. The protein-protein interaction network was developed by utilizing the STITCH database and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis using Cytoscape and ClueGO. Moreover, docking studies were performed for revealing the affinity of various ingredients with IL6. Results: The extensive literature survey yielded the presence of 176 components in ABR, and 151 potential targets were acquired. Scrutinization of these targets revealed that 21 potential targets were found to be associated with bone trauma. Out of which, some remarkable targets such as IL6, MAPK14, MAPK8, SRC, PTGS2, and MMP2 were observed to be associated in the functional interaction of ABR. According to docking results, several ingredients of ABR such as Baicalien, Copistine, Epiberberine, Kaempferol, and Palmatine have the lowest docking scores (range between -6 and -7). Conclusions: The results of the study elucidated that ABR can positively be utilized for the management of bone trauma, which can be mediated by multiple molecular mechanisms such as ERBB2 signaling pathway, positive regulation of oxidoreductase activity, JNK cascade pathway, multicellular organism metabolic process, T cell costimulation, and the positive regulation of MAPK activity. The findings also suggest that several ingredients of ABR such as Baicalien, Copistine, Epiberberine, Kaempferol, and Palmatine have good affinity with IL6, suggesting the promising potential of ABR in treating bone trauma, likely through IL6.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Bases de Dados de Produtos Farmacêuticos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Doenças Ósseas/genética , Doenças Ósseas/metabolismo , Ontologia Genética , Humanos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567746

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a great threat to public health, being a causative pathogen of a deadly coronavirus disease (COVID-19). It has spread to more than 200 countries and infected millions of individuals globally. Although SARS-CoV-2 has structural/genomic similarities with the previously reported SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, the specific mutations in its genome make it a novel virus. Available therapeutic strategies failed to control this virus. Despite strict standard operating procedures (SOPs), SARS-CoV-2 has spread globally and it is mutating gradually as well. Diligent efforts, special care, and awareness are needed to reduce transmission among susceptible masses particularly elder people, children, and health care workers. In this review, we highlighted the basic genome organization and structure of SARS-CoV-2. Its transmission dynamics, symptoms, and associated risk factors are discussed. This review also presents the latest mutations identified in its genome, the potential therapeutic options being used, and a brief explanation of vaccine development efforts against COVID-19. The effort will not only help readers to understand the deadly SARS-CoV-2 virus but also provide updated information to researchers for their research work.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/terapia , Medição de Risco/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Criança , Genômica , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/genética
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 1313-1330, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33628022

RESUMO

Nanotechnology has been actively integrated as drug carriers over the last few years to treat various cancers. The main hurdle in the clinical management of cancer is the development of multidrug resistance against chemotherapeutic agents. To overcome the limitations of chemotherapy, the researchers have been developing technological advances for significant progress in the oncotherapy by enabling the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents at increased drug content levels to the targeted spots. Several nano-drug delivery systems designed for tumor-targeting are evaluated in preclinical and clinical trials and showed promising outcomes in cancerous tumors' clinical management. This review describes nanocarrier's importance in managing different types of cancers and emphasizing nanocarriers for drug delivery and cancer nanotherapeutics. It also highlights the recent advances in nanocarriers-based delivery systems, including polymeric nanocarriers, micelles, nanotubes, dendrimers, magnetic nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, and quantum dots (QDs). The nanocarrier-based composites are discussed in terms of their structure, characteristics, and therapeutic applications in oncology. To conclude, the challenges and future exploration opportunities of nanocarriers in chemotherapeutics are also presented.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Nanopartículas/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Humanos , Lipídeos/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Pontos Quânticos/química
9.
Arch Virol ; 165(11): 2419-2438, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778950

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019, also known as COVID-19, is caused by a novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2. The infection has now catapulted into a full-blown pandemic across the world, which has affected more than 2 million people and has led to approximately 150,000 fatalities all over the world (WHO). In this review, we elaborate all currently available data that shed light on possible methods for treatment of COVID-19, such as antiviral drugs, corticosteroids, convalescent plasma, and potentially effective vaccines. Additionally, ongoing and discontinued clinical trials that have been carried out for validating probable treatments for COVID-19 are discussed. The review also elaborates the prospective approach and the possible advantages of using convalescent plasma and stem cells for the improvement of clinical symptoms and meeting the demand for an instantaneous cure.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/prevenção & controle , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , COVID-19 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
10.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(8): 2023-2032, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504132

RESUMO

Streptococcus pyogenes is a species of Gram-positive bacteria. It is also known as Group A Streptococcus (GAS) that causes pathogenesis to humans only. The GAS infection has several manifestations including invasive illness. Current research has linked the molecular modes of GAS virulence with substantial sequencing determinations for the isolation of genomes. These advances help to comprehend the molecular evolution resulting in the pandemic strains. Thus, it is indispensable to reconsider the philosophy that involves GAS pathogenesis. The recent investigations involve studying GAS in the nasopharynx and its capability to cause infection or asymptomatically reside in the host. These advances have been discussed in this article with an emphasis on the natural history of GAS and the evolutionary change in the pandemic strains. In addition, this review describes the unique functions for major pathogenicity determinants to comprehend their physiological effects.


Assuntos
Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/genética , Streptococcus pyogenes/patogenicidade , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/patologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética
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