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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2033012, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416887

RESUMO

Importance: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) are implicated in the pathophysiological processes of dementia and potentially underlie the association of diabetes with neurodegeneration. However, longitudinal studies examining this association are lacking. Objective: To determine whether markers of the AGE-RAGE system are associated with prevalent and incident dementia and with cognition. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this population-based cohort study including participants from the prospective Rotterdam Study, extracellular newly identified RAGE binding protein (EN-RAGE) and soluble RAGE (S-RAGE) were measured in plasma collected between 1997 and 1999 in a random selection of participants, and additionally in participants with prevalent dementia. Participants without dementia were followed up for dementia until 2016. Skin AGEs, measured as skin autofluorescence, and cognition were measured between 2013 and 2016 in participants without dementia. Data analysis was performed from June 2019 to December 2019. Exposures: EN-RAGE, S-RAGE, and skin autofluorescence. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalent and incident dementia and cognition, adjusted for potential confounders, including age, sex, diabetes, educational level, APOE ε4 carrier status, smoking, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Results: Of 3889 included participants (mean [SD] age, 72.5 [8.9] years; 2187 [56.2%] women), 1021 participants had data on plasma markers (mean [SD] age 73.6 [7.8] years; 564 [55.2%] women), 73 participants had dementia at baseline, and during 10 711 person-years of follow-up, 161 participants developed incident dementia. Compared with low levels, high EN-RAGE level was associated with a higher prevalence of dementia (odds ratio [OR], 3.68 [95% CI, 1.50-8.03]; P = .003), while high S-RAGE level was associated with a lower prevalence of dementia (OR, 0.37 [95% CI, 0.17-0.78]; P = .01). These associations attenuated in a longitudinal setting, with hazard ratios of 0.65 (95% CI, 0.42-1.01) for high EN-RAGE (P = .05) and 1.22 (95% CI, 0.82-1.81) for high S-RAGE (P = .33). Among 2890 participants without dementia (mean [SD] age, 72.5 [9.4] years; 1640 [57%] women), higher skin autofluorescence was associated with lower global cognitive function (adjusted difference in z score per 1-SD higher skin autofluorescence, -0.07 [95% CI, -0.11 to -0.04]), especially among carriers of the APOE ε4 allele (adjusted difference in z score per 1-SD higher skin autofluorescence, -0.15 [95% CI, -0.22 to -0.07]). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that the AGE-RAGE system is associated with cognitive decline and dementia cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. This indicates either a short-term association or reverse causality. Findings of cross-sectional associations between higher skin autofluorescence and lower cognitive function and an association with APOE status also warrant replication and prospective studies.

2.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 76(2): 297-306, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To establish trajectories of cognitive and motor function, and to determine the sequence of change across individual tests in community-dwelling individuals aged 45-90 years. METHOD: Between 1997 and 2016, we repeatedly assessed cognitive function with 5 tests in 9514 participants aged 45-90 years from the population-based Rotterdam Study. Between 1999 and 2016, we measured motor function with 3 tests in 8297 participants. All participants were free from dementia, stroke, and parkinsonism. We assessed overall and education-specific cognitive and motor trajectories using linear mixed models with age as time scale. Next, we determined the sequence of change across individual tests. RESULTS: The number of assessments per participant ranged between 1 and 6 (mean interval, years [SD]: 5.1 [1.4]) for cognitive function, and 1 and 4 (5.4 [1.4]) for motor function. Cognitive and motor trajectories declined linearly between ages 45 and 65 years, followed by steeper declines after ages 65-70 years. Lower educated participants had lower cognitive function at age 45 years (baseline), and declined faster on most cognitive, but not on motor tests than higher educated participants. Up to a 25-year age difference between the fastest and slowest declining test scores was observed. CONCLUSIONS: On a population-level, cognitive and motor function decline similarly. Compared to higher educated individuals, lower educated individuals had lower cognitive function at baseline, and a faster rate of decline thereafter. These educational-effects were not seen for motor function. These findings benefit the understanding of the natural course of cognitive and motor function during aging, and highlight the role of education in the preservation of cognitive but not motor function.

3.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 53(3): 432-442, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatty liver disease (FLD) is the most common cause of liver dysfunction in developed countries. There is great interest in developing clinically valid and minimally invasive biomarkers to enhance early diagnosis of FLD. AIM: To investigate the potential of circulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) as biomarkers of FLD at the population level. METHODS: Plasma levels of 2083 miRNAs were measured by RNA sequencing in 1999 participants from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study cohort. The Hounsfield Unit (HU) attenuation of liver was measured using non-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan. Logistic and linear regression models adjusting for potential confounders were used to examine the association of circulatory miRNAs with liver enzymes (n = 1991) and CT-based FLD (n = 954). Moreover, the association of miRNAs with hepatic steatosis and liver fibrosis was assessed longitudinally in individuals who underwent abdominal ultrasound (n = 1211) and transient elastography (n = 777) after a median follow-up of >6 years. RESULTS: Cross-sectional analysis showed 61 miRNAs significantly associated with serum gamma-glutamyl transferase and/or alkaline phosphatase levels (Bonferroni-corrected P < 8.46 × 10-5 ). Moreover, 17 miRNAs were significantly associated with CT-based FLD (P < 8.46 × 10-5 ); 14 were among miRNAs associated with liver enzymes. Longitudinal analysis showed that 4 of these 14 miRNAs (miR-193a-5p, miR-122-5p, miR-378d and miR-187-3p) were significantly associated with hepatic steatosis (P < 3.57 × 10-3 ) and three (miR-193a-5p, miR-122-5p and miR-193b-3p) were nominally associated with liver fibrosis (P < 0.05). Nine of the 14 identified miRNAs were involved in pathways underlying liver diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma levels of several miRNAs can be used as biomarkers of FLD, laying the groundwork for future clinical applications.

4.
Clin Nutr ; 40(1): 72-78, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIM: Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of dementia. To strengthen this evidence and establish whether vitamin D can indeed play a role in early prevention of neurodegeneration, knowledge on underlying pathways is crucial. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association of vitamin D status with brain tissue volumes, hippocampus volume, white matter integrity, and markers of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) in a dementia-free population. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, 2,716 participants free of dementia from the population-based Rotterdam Study underwent serum 25(OH)D concentration assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning between 2006 and 2009. Outcomes of interest included brain tissue volume (total, white matter, grey matter and hippocampus volume), white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD)), and markers of CSVD (white matter hyper intensity (WMH) volume, presence of lacunes and microbleeds). Associations between vitamin D status, both in categories and continuous, and these brain measurements were assessed using multivariable linear and logistic regression models, adjusting for lifestyle and other disease risk factors. RESULTS: We observed that vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L) was independently associated with smaller brain tissue volume, smaller white matter volume and smaller hippocampus volume as compared to a sufficient vitamin D status (≥50 nmol/L). Vitamin D per 10 nmol/L increment and an insufficient (30-50 nmol/L) as compared to sufficient vitamin D status were not associated with the brain measures of interest. Moreover, vitamin D status was not associated with grey matter volume, white matter integrity or CSVD markers. CONCLUSIONS: In this dementia-free population, vitamin D deficiency was associated with a smaller brain tissue volume and hippocampus volume. More research, in particular with a longitudinal design, is needed to further elucidate the role of vitamin D in neurodegeneration.

5.
Neurology ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive analysis of circulating metabolites and incident stroke in large prospective population-based settings. METHODS: We investigated the association of metabolites with risk of stroke in seven prospective cohort studies including 1,791 incident stroke events among 38,797 participants in whom circulating metabolites were measured by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) technology. The relationship between metabolites and stroke was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. The analyses were performed considering all incident stroke events and ischemic and hemorrhagic events separately. RESULTS: The analyses revealed ten significant metabolite associations. Amino acid histidine (hazard ratio (HR) per standard deviation (SD) = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 0.94; P = 4.45×10-5), glycolysis-related metabolite pyruvate (HR per SD = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.14; P = 7.45×10-4), acute phase reaction marker glycoprotein acetyls (HR per SD = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.15; P = 1.27×10-3), cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) 2 and several other lipoprotein particles were associated with risk of stroke. When focusing on incident ischemic stroke, a significant association was observed with phenylalanine (HR per SD = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.19; P = 4.13×10-4) and total and free cholesterol in large HDL particles. CONCLUSIONS: We found association of amino acids, glycolysis-related metabolites, acute phase reaction markers, and several lipoprotein subfractions with the risk of stroke. These findings support the potential of metabolomics to provide new insights into the metabolic changes preceding stroke.

6.
Neurology ; 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and cognitive impairment fifteen years after pregnancy, we measured cognitive performance in 115 women with a history of HDP and in 481 women with a previous normotensive pregnancy. METHODS: This was a nested cohort study embedded in a population-based prospective cohort from early pregnancy onwards. Cognitive function was assessed with cognitive tests fifteen years after the index pregnancy (median 14.7 years, 90% range [13.9 to 16.1]). Cognitive performance was measured in different cognitive domains: executive function, processing speed, verbal memory, motor function, and visuospatial ability. A global cognition factor (g-factor) was derived from principal component analysis. RESULTS: Of the women with HDP, n = 80 (69.6%) had gestational hypertension (GH) and n = 35 (30.4%) had pre-eclampsia. Women with HDP had a lower g-factor than women with a previous normotensive pregnancy (mean difference -0.22, 90% range [-2.06; 1.29)]). HDP was negatively associated with the 15-word learning test: immediate recall (-0.25, 95% CI [-0.44 to -0.06]) and delayed recall (-0.30, 95% CI [-0.50 to -0.10]). Women with GH perform significantly worse on their 15-word learning test than women with a previous normotensive pregnancy. CONCLUSION: A history of HDP is independently associated with poorer working memory and verbal learning, fifteen years after pregnancy. This association is mainly driven by women with GH. Clinicians and women who experienced HDP should be aware of this risk.

7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taste preference is an important determinant of dietary intake and is influenced by taste exposure in early life. However, data on dietary taste patterns in early childhood are scarce. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate dietary taste patterns in early childhood, to examine their tracking between the ages of 1 and 2 y, and to examine their associations with socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. METHODS: Dietary intake of children participating in a population-based cohort was assessed with a 211-item age-specific FFQ at the ages of 1 y ( n = 3629) and 2 y (n = 844) (2003-2007). Taste intensity values of FFQ food items were calculated based on a food taste database that had been previously constructed and evaluated using a trained adult sensory panel. Cluster analysis based on taste values identified 5 taste clusters that we named: "neutral," "sweet and sour," "sweet and fat," "fat," and "salt, umami and fat." Linear regression models were used to examine associations of percentage energy (E%) intake from these taste clusters with socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: At the age of 1 y, 64% ± 13% (mean ± SD) of energy intake was obtained from the "neutral" cluster, whereas at age 2 y, this was 42% ± 8%. At age 2 y, children had higher energy intakes from the "sweet and fat" (18% ± 7%), "fat" (11% ± 4%), and "salt, umami, and fat" (18% ± 6%) clusters than at age 1 y (7% ± 6%, 6% ± 4%, and 11% ± 6%, respectively). In multivariable models, older maternal age, longer breastfeeding duration, and later introduction of complementary feeding were associated with more energy from the "neutral" cluster (e.g., ß: 0.31 E%; 95% CI: 0.19, 0.43 E% per 1 mo longer breastfeeding). Higher child BMI was associated with more energy from the "salt, umami, and fat" cluster (ß: 0.22 E%; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.38 E% per BMI standard deviation score). CONCLUSIONS: Dietary taste patterns in this Dutch cohort were more varied and intense in taste at age 2 y than at 1 y, reaching a level similar to that previously observed in Dutch adults. Important factors related to dietary taste patterns of young children are maternal sociodemographic factors and feeding practices.This trial was registered at trialregister.nl as NL6484.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214188

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pre-diabetes, a status conferring high risk of overt diabetes, is defined differently by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the WHO. We investigated the impact of applying definitions of pre-diabetes on lifetime risk of diabetes in women and men from the general population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used data from 8844 women without diabetes and men aged ≥45 years from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study in the Netherlands. In both gender groups, we calculated pre-diabetes prevalence according to ADA and WHO criteria and estimated the 10-year and lifetime risk to progress to overt diabetes with adjustment for competing risk of death. RESULTS: Out of 8844 individuals, pre-diabetes was identified in 3492 individuals (prevalence 40%, 95% CI 38% to 41%) according to ADA and 1382 individuals (prevalence 16%, 95% CI 15% to 16%) according to WHO criteria. In both women and men and each age category, ADA prevalence estimates doubled WHO-defined pre-diabetes. For women and men aged 45 years having ADA-defined pre-diabetes, the 10-year risk of diabetes was 14.2% (95% CI 6.0% to 22.5%) and 9.2% (95% CI 3.4% to 15.0%) compared with 23.2% (95% CI 6.8% to 39.6%) and 24.6% (95% CI 8.4% to 40.8%) in women and men with WHO-defined pre-diabetes. At age 45 years, the remaining lifetime risk to progress to overt diabetes was 57.5% (95% CI 51.8% to 63.2%) vs 80.2% (95% CI 74.1% to 86.3%) in women and 46.1% (95% CI 40.8% to 51.4%) vs 68.4% (95% CI 58.3% to 78.5%) in men with pre-diabetes according to ADA and WHO definitions, respectively. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of pre-diabetes differed considerably in both women and men when applying ADA and WHO pre-diabetes definitions. Women with pre-diabetes had higher lifetime risk to progress to diabetes. The lifetime risk of diabetes was lower in women and men with ADA-defined pre-diabetes as compared with WHO. Improvement of pre-diabetes definition considering appropriate sex-specific and age-specific glycemic thresholds may lead to better identification of individuals at high risk of diabetes.

9.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215849

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We investigated how components of immunity relate to biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in plasma and explored the influence of AD genetic risk factors in the population-based Rotterdam Study. METHODS: In 7397 persons, we calculated the granulocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (GLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII). In 3615 of these persons, plasma amyloid-beta (Aß)42 and Aß40 were measured. Next, we constructed an overall genetic risk score (GRS) based on genome-wide significant variants, both including and excluding APOE ε4. RESULTS: All innate immunity phenotypes were related to higher Aß, most strongly with a doubling in GLR leading to a 1.9% higher Aß42 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.4 to 3.3%) and 3.2% higher Aß40 (95% CI 2.0 to 4.3%). Higher AD GRS including APOE ε4 was associated with higher immunity markers. DISCUSSION: Higher levels of immunity markers were associated with higher Aß in plasma. Participants with a higher genetic predisposition to AD had higher immunity markers, where these effects were mainly driven by APOE ε4.

10.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199855

RESUMO

We aimed to obtain reliable reference charts for sleep duration, estimate the prevalence of sleep complaints across the lifespan and identify risk indicators of poor sleep. Studies were identified through systematic literature search in Embase, Medline and Web of Science (9 August 2019) and through personal contacts. Eligible studies had to be published between 2000 and 2017 with data on sleep assessed with questionnaires including ≥100 participants from the general population. We assembled individual participant data from 200,358 people (aged 1-100 years, 55% female) from 36 studies from the Netherlands, 471,759 people (40-69 years, 55.5% female) from the United Kingdom and 409,617 people (≥18 years, 55.8% female) from the United States. One in four people slept less than age-specific recommendations, but only 5.8% slept outside of the 'acceptable' sleep duration. Among teenagers, 51.5% reported total sleep times (TST) of less than the recommended 8-10 h and 18% report daytime sleepiness. In adults (≥18 years), poor sleep quality (13.3%) and insomnia symptoms (9.6-19.4%) were more prevalent than short sleep duration (6.5% with TST < 6 h). Insomnia symptoms were most frequent in people spending ≥9 h in bed, whereas poor sleep quality was more frequent in those spending <6 h in bed. TST was similar across countries, but insomnia symptoms were 1.5-2.9 times higher in the United States. Women (≥41 years) reported sleeping shorter times or slightly less efficiently than men, whereas with actigraphy they were estimated to sleep longer and more efficiently than man. This study provides age- and sex-specific population reference charts for sleep duration and efficiency which can help guide personalized advice on sleep length and preventive practices.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20691, 2020 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244083

RESUMO

Sleep and 24-h activity rhythm disturbances are associated with development of neurodegenerative diseases and related pathophysiological processes in the brain. We determined the cross-sectional relation of sleep and 24-h activity rhythm disturbances with plasma-based biomarkers that might signal neurodegenerative disease, in 4712 middle-aged and elderly non-demented persons. Sleep and activity rhythms were measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and actigraphy. Simoa assays were used to measure plasma levels of neurofilament light chain, and additionally ß-amyloid 40, ß-amyloid 42, and total-tau. We used linear regression, adjusting for relevant confounders, and corrected for multiple testing. We found no associations of self-rated sleep, actigraphy-estimated sleep and 24-h activity rhythms with neurofilament light chain after confounder adjustment and correction for multiple testing, except for a non-linear association of self-rated time in bed with neurofilament light chain (P = 2.5*10-4). Similarly, we observed no significant associations with ß-amyloid 40, ß-amyloid 42, and total-tau after multiple testing correction. We conclude that sleep and 24-h activity rhythm disturbances were not consistently associated with neuronal damage as indicated by plasma neurofilament light chain in this population-based sample middle-aged and elderly non-demented persons. Further studies are needed to determine the associations of sleep and 24-h activity rhythm disturbances with NfL-related neuronal damage.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151443

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Breast cancer treatment has been associated with vascular pathology. It is unclear if such treatment is also associated with long-term cerebrovascular changes. We studied the association between radiotherapy and chemotherapy with carotid pathology and brain perfusion in breast cancer survivors. METHODS: We included 173 breast cancer survivors exposed to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, assessed ± 21.2 years after cancer diagnosis, and 346 age-matched cancer-free women (1:2) selected from the population-based Rotterdam Study. Outcome measures were carotid plaque score, intima-media thickness (IMT), total cerebral blood flow (tCBF), and brain perfusion. Additionally, we investigated the association between inclusion of the carotid artery in the radiation field (no/small/large part), tumor location, and these outcome measures within cancer survivors. RESULTS: Cancer survivors had lower tCBF (- 19.6 ml/min, 95%CI - 37.3;- 1.9) and brain perfusion (- 2.5 ml/min per 100 ml, 95%CI - 4.3;- 0.7) than cancer-free women. No statistically significant group differences were observed regarding plaque score or IMT. Among cancer survivors, a large versus a small part of the carotid artery in the radiation field was associated with a higher IMT (0.05, 95%CI0.01;0.09). Also, survivors with a right-sided tumor had lower left carotid plaque score (- 0.31, 95%CI - 0.60;- 0.02) and higher brain perfusion (3.5 ml/min per 100 ml, 95%CI 0.7;6.2) than those with a left-sided tumor. CONCLUSIONS: On average two decades post-diagnosis, breast cancer survivors had lower tCBF and brain perfusion than cancer-free women. Also, survivors with a larger area of the carotid artery within the radiation field had a larger IMT. Future studies should confirm if these cerebrovascular changes underlie the frequently observed cognitive problems in cancer survivors.

13.
Thyroid ; 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198599

RESUMO

Background: Thyroid hormones are important metabolic regulators exerting effects in multiple systemic functions including muscular and cardiorespiratory function. Thyroid hormones may influence physical activity levels. However, there are currently no studies evaluating the association between thyroid function and physical activity levels in the general population. Methods: In a population-based cohort study between 2006 and 2013, we assessed the cross-sectional and longitudinal (with a mean follow-up time of 5 years) association of serum thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) with physical activity (metabolic equivalent task [MET] hours per week). Information on physical activity was collected using a validated questionnaire (Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, median 22.50 MET hours per week). The association of TSH and fT4 with physical activity was examined using linear regression models in the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, adjusted for age, sex, lifestyle factors, and cardiovascular disease. In sensitivity analyses, we examined the association between thyroid function and physical activity including only participants within the reference range of thyroid function. We additionally examined moderate and vigorous physical activity separately as outcomes. Results: We included 2470 participants for the cross-sectional analysis (mean age 57.3 years, 58% women) and 1907 participants for the longitudinal analysis (mean age 56.9 years). There was no association between TSH (mIU/L) or fT4 (ng/dL) and physical activity (ß = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI, -1.67 to 2.98] and ß = 2.76, [CI -7.15 to 12.66], respectively) on cross-sectional analysis. Similarly, in the longitudinal analyses, we observed no association of TSH (ß = 1.16, [CI -1.31 to 3.63]) or fT4 (ß = -6.63, [CI -17.06 to 3.80]) with physical activity. Conclusions: We did not observe an association between the endogenous thyroid hormone level and total physical activity. Further studies need to be performed to evaluate whether thyroid hormone replacement therapy is associated with physical activity.

14.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(5): 541-547, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The blood metabolome incorporates cues from the environment and the host's genetic background, potentially offering a holistic view of an individual's health status. METHODS: We have compiled a vast resource of proton nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics and phenotypic data encompassing over 25 000 samples derived from 26 community and hospital-based cohorts. RESULTS: Using this resource, we constructed a metabolomics-based age predictor (metaboAge) to calculate an individual's biological age. Exploration in independent cohorts demonstrates that being judged older by one's metabolome, as compared with one's chronological age, confers an increased risk on future cardiovascular disease, mortality, and functionality in older individuals. A web-based tool for calculating metaboAge (metaboage.researchlumc.nl) allows easy incorporation in other epidemiological studies. Access to data can be requested at bbmri.nl/samples-images-data. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we present a vast resource of metabolomics data and illustrate its merit by constructing a metabolomics-based score for biological age that captures aspects of current and future cardiometabolic health.

15.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886448

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to study whether systemic metabolites are associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of brain and hippocampal atrophy and white matter hyperintensities (WMH). METHODS: We studied associations of 143 plasma-based metabolites with MRI measures of brain and hippocampal atrophy and WMH in three independent cohorts (n = 3962). We meta-analyzed the results of linear regression analyses to determine the association of metabolites with MRI measures. RESULTS: Higher glucose levels and lower levels of three small high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles were associated with brain atrophy. Higher glucose levels were associated with WMH. DISCUSSION: Glucose levels were associated with brain atrophy and WMH, and small HDL particle levels were associated with brain atrophy. Circulating metabolites may aid in developing future intervention trials.

16.
Otol Neurotol ; 41(9): 1202-1209, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Brain volumetric declines may underlie the association between hearing loss and dementia. While much is known about the peripheral auditory function and brain volumetric declines, poorer central auditory speech processing may also be associated with decreases in brain volumes. METHODS: Central auditory speech processing, measured by the speech recognition threshold (SRT) from the Digits-in-Noise task, and neuroimaging assessments (structural magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] and fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity from diffusion tensor imaging), were assessed cross-sectionally in 2,368 Rotterdam Study participants aged 51.8 to 97.8 years. SRTs were defined continuously and categorically by degrees of auditory performance (normal, insufficient, and poor). Brain volumes from structural MRI were assessed on a global and lobar level, as well as for specific dementia-related structures (hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus). Multivariable linear regression models adjusted by age, age-squared, sex, educational level, alcohol consumption, intracranial volume (MRI only), cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, obesity, current smoking), and pure-tone average were used to determine associations between SRT and brain structure. RESULTS: Poorer central auditory speech processing was associated with larger parietal lobe volume (difference in mL per dB increase= 0.24, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.42), but not with diffusion tensor imaging measures. Degrees of auditory performance were not associated with brain volumes and white matter microstructure. CONCLUSIONS: Central auditory speech processing in the presence of both vascular burden and pure-tone average may not be related to brain volumes and white matter microstructure. Longitudinal follow-up is needed to explore these relationships thoroughly.

17.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889542

RESUMO

Case-control studies are an important part of the epidemiologic literature, yet there remains a lot of confusion about how to interpret estimates from different case-control study designs. We demonstrate that not all case-control study designs estimate odds ratios. In contrast, case-control studies in the literature often report odds ratios as their main parameter even when using designs that do not estimate odds ratios. Therefore, only studies using specific case-control designs should report odds ratios, whereas the case-cohort and incidence density sampled case-control studies must report risk ratio and incidence rate ratios, respectively. This also applies to case-control studies conducted in open cohorts which often estimate incidence rate ratios. We also demonstrate the misinterpretation of case-control study estimates in a small sample of highly-cited case-control studies in general epidemiologic and medical journals. We therefore suggest greater care be taken when considering which parameter is to be reported from a case-control study.

18.
Mov Disord ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension is common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it remains unknown whether orthostatic hypotension is a marker of prodromal PD or more advanced disease. The objectives of this study were to assess whether orthostatic hypotension is a prodromal marker of PD in the general population. METHODS: This study was embedded in the Rotterdam Study, a large prospective population-based cohort in the Netherlands. We measured orthostatic hypotension in 6910 participants. First, we determined the relation between prevalent PD and orthostatic hypotension using logistic regression. Second, we followed PD-free participants for the occurrence of PD until 2016 and studied the association between orthostatic hypotension and the risk of PD using Cox proportional hazards models. All models were adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: At baseline, the mean age ± standard deviation of the study population was 69.0 ± 8.8 years, and 59.1% were women. Orthostatic hypotension was present in 1245 participants (19.8%), and 62 participants (1.0%) had PD at the time of orthostatic hypotension measurement. Participants with PD were significantly more likely to have orthostatic hypotension (odds ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.24). During a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 16.1 years (8.5-22.7 years), 122 participants were diagnosed with incident PD. Orthostatic hypotension at baseline was not associated with an increased risk of PD (hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.59-1.58). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that orthostatic hypotension is common in patients with PD, but that orthostatic hypotension is not associated with an increased risk of PD and thus is not a prodromal marker of PD in the general population. © 2020 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

19.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989287

RESUMO

Handedness has been extensively studied because of its relationship with language and the over-representation of left-handers in some neurodevelopmental disorders. Using data from the UK Biobank, 23andMe and the International Handedness Consortium, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of handedness (N = 1,766,671). We found 41 loci associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with left-handedness and 7 associated with ambidexterity. Tissue-enrichment analysis implicated the CNS in the aetiology of handedness. Pathways including regulation of microtubules and brain morphology were also highlighted. We found suggestive positive genetic correlations between left-handedness and neuropsychiatric traits, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Furthermore, the genetic correlation between left-handedness and ambidexterity is low (rG = 0.26), which implies that these traits are largely influenced by different genetic mechanisms. Our findings suggest that handedness is highly polygenic and that the genetic variants that predispose to left-handedness may underlie part of the association with some psychiatric disorders.

20.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 263, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence has pointed towards differences in the burden of arteriosclerosis according to its location and sex. Yet there is a scarcity of population-based data on aggregated sex-specific cardiovascular risk profiles, instead of single risk factors, and mortality risk according to the location of arteriosclerosis. We assessed sex-specific cardiovascular risk profiles and mortality risk associated with arteriosclerosis. METHODS: From the population-based Rotterdam Study, 2357 participants (mean age 69 years, 53% women) underwent non-contrast computed tomography to quantify calcification, as a proxy for arteriosclerosis, in the coronary arteries (CAC), aortic arch (AAC), extracranial (ECAC) and intracranial carotid arteries (ICAC), vertebrobasilar arteries (VBAC), and aortic valve (AVC). Principal component analysis (PCA) of eight distinct cardiovascular risk factors was performed, separately for women and men, to derive risk profiles based on the shared variance between factors. We used sex-stratified multivariable logistic regression to examine the associations between PCA-derived risk profiles and severe calcification at different locations. We investigated the associations of severe calcification with mortality risk using sex-stratified multivariable Cox regression. RESULTS: PCA identified three cardiovascular risk profiles in both sexes: (1) anthropometry, glucose, and HDL cholesterol; (2) blood pressure; and (3) smoking and total cholesterol. In women, the strongest associations were found for profile 2 with severe ECAC and ICAC (adjusted OR [95% CI] 1.32 [1.14-1.53]) and for profile 3 with severe at all locations, except AVC. In men, the strongest associations were found for profile 2 with VBAC (1.31 [1.12-1.52]) and profile 3 with severe AAC (1.28 [1.09-1.51]). ECAC and AVC in women and CAC in men showed the strongest, independent associations with cardiovascular mortality (HR [95% CI] 2.11 [1.22-3.66], 2.05 [1.21-3.49], 2.24 [1.21-3.78], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings further underline the existence of sex- and location-specific differences in the etiology and consequences of arteriosclerosis. Future research should unravel which distinct pathological processes underlie differences in risk profiles for arteriosclerosis.

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