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1.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e1900226, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432628

RESUMO

SCOPE: Insulin resistance (IR) and inflammation are hallmarks of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The nod-like receptor pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a metabolic sensor activated by saturated fatty acids (SFA) initiating IL-1ß inflammation and IR. Interactions between SFA intake and NLRP3-related genetic variants may alter T2D risk factors. METHODS: Meta-analyses of six Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (n = 19 005) tested interactions between SFA and NLRP3-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and modulation of fasting insulin, fasting glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. RESULTS: SFA interacted with rs12143966, wherein each 1% increase in SFA intake increased insulin by 0.0063 IU mL-1 (SE ± 0.002, p = 0.001) per each major (G) allele copy. rs4925663, interacted with SFA (ß ± SE = -0.0058 ± 0.002, p = 0.004) to increase insulin by 0.0058 IU mL-1 , per additional copy of the major (C) allele. Both associations are close to the significance threshold (p < 0.0001). rs4925663 causes a missense mutation affecting NLRP3 expression. CONCLUSION: Two NLRP3-related SNPs showed potential interaction with SFA to modulate fasting insulin. Greater dietary SFA intake accentuates T2D risk, which, subject to functional validation, may be further elaborated depending on NLRP3-related genetic variants.

3.
Nat Genet ; 51(2): 245-257, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643258

RESUMO

Humans vary substantially in their willingness to take risks. In a combined sample of over 1 million individuals, we conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of general risk tolerance, adventurousness, and risky behaviors in the driving, drinking, smoking, and sexual domains. Across all GWAS, we identified hundreds of associated loci, including 99 loci associated with general risk tolerance. We report evidence of substantial shared genetic influences across risk tolerance and the risky behaviors: 46 of the 99 general risk tolerance loci contain a lead SNP for at least one of our other GWAS, and general risk tolerance is genetically correlated ([Formula: see text] ~ 0.25 to 0.50) with a range of risky behaviors. Bioinformatics analyses imply that genes near SNPs associated with general risk tolerance are highly expressed in brain tissues and point to a role for glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. We found no evidence of enrichment for genes previously hypothesized to relate to risk tolerance.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genética Comportamental/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
4.
J Hypertens ; 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensive blood pressure lowering is increasingly gaining attention. In addition to higher baseline blood pressure, cumulative SBP, visit-to-visit variability, and treatment-induced serious adverse events (SAEs) could impact treatment efficacy over time. Our aim was to assess the impact of cumulative SBP and SAEs on intensive hypertension treatment efficacy in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) population during follow-up. METHODS: Secondary analysis of the SPRINT study: a randomized, controlled, open-label trial including 102 clinical sites in the United States. We included 9068 SPRINT participants with 128 139 repeated SBP measurements. Participants were randomly assigned to intensive (target SBP < 120 mmHg) versus standard treatment (target SBP between 135 and 139 mmHg). We used cumulative joint models for longitudinal and survival data analysis. Primary outcome was a composite outcome of myocardial infarction, other acute coronary syndromes, acute decompensated heart failure, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality. RESULTS: Although intensive treatment decreased the risk for the primary SPRINT outcome at the start of follow-up, its effect lost significance after 3.4 years of follow-up in the total SPRINT population and after 1.3, 1.3, 1.1, 1.8, 2.1, 1.8, and 3.4 years among participants with prevalent chronic kidney disease, prevalent cardiovascular disease, women, black individuals, participants less than 75 years, those with baseline SBP more than 132 mmHg, and individuals who suffered SAEs during follow-up, respectively. CONCLUSION: The initial beneficial impact of intensive hypertension treatment might be offset by cumulative SBP and development of SAEs during follow-up.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.

5.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 39(11): 4290-4301, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29935103

RESUMO

Increasing evidence shows that thinner retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL), assessed on optical coherence tomography (OCT), are reflecting global brain atrophy. Yet, little is known on the relation of these layers with specific brain regions. Using voxel-based analysis, we aimed to unravel specific brain regions associated with these retinal layers. We included 2,235 persons (mean age: 67.3 years, 55% women) from the Rotterdam Study (2007-2012) who had gradable retinal OCT images and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, including diffusion tensor (DT) imaging. Thicknesses of peripapillary RNFL and perimacular GCL were measured using an automated segmentation algorithm. Voxel-based morphometry protocols were applied to process DT-MRI data. We investigated the association between retinal layer thickness with voxel-wise gray matter density and white matter microstructure by performing linear regression models. We found that thinner RNFL and GCL were associated with lower gray matter density in the visual cortex, and with lower fractional anisotropy and higher mean diffusivity in white matter tracts that are part of the optic radiation. Furthermore, thinner GCL was associated with lower gray matter density of the thalamus. Thinner RNFL and GCL are associated with gray and white matter changes in the visual pathway suggesting that retinal thinning on OCT may be specifically associated with changes in the visual pathway rather than with changes in the global brain. These findings may serve as a basis for understanding visual symptoms in elderly patients, patients with Alzheimer's disease, or patients with posterior cortical atrophy.

6.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 32(1): 43-49, 2018 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29278559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of brain volumes, white matter lesion (WML) volumes, and lacunes, with cognitive decline in a population-based cohort of nondemented persons. METHODS: Within the Rotterdam Study, 3624 participants underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging. Cognition was evaluated at baseline (2005 to 2009) and at the follow-up visit (2011 to 2013). We used a test battery that tapped into domains of executive function, information processing speed, motor speed, and memory. The volumetric measures assessed were total brain volume, lobar (gray matter and white matter) volumes, and hippocampal volumes. We also studied the association of WML volumes and lacunes with cognitive decline using linear regression models. RESULTS: Total brain volume was associated with decline in global cognition, information processing, and motor speed (P<0.001) in analyses controlled for demographic and vascular factors. Specifically, smaller frontal and parietal lobes were associated with decline in information processing and motor speed, and smaller temporal and parietal lobes were associated with decline in general cognition and motor speed (P<0.001 for all tests). Total WML volume was associated with decline in executive function. Lobar WML volume, hippocampal volume, and lacunes were not associated with cognitive decline. CONCLUSIONS: Lower brain volume is associated with subsequent cognitive decline. Although lower total brain volume was significantly associated with decline in global cognition, specific lobar volumes were associated with decline in certain cognitive domains.

7.
Front Neurosci ; 11: 467, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28912672

RESUMO

Despite a wealth of activity across the globe in the area of longitudinal population cohorts, surprisingly little information is available on the natural biomedical history of a number of age-related neurodegenerative diseases (ND), and the scope for intervention studies based on these cohorts is only just beginning to be explored. The Joint Programming Initiative on Neurodegenerative Disease Research (JPND) recently developed a novel funding mechanism to rapidly mobilize scientists to address these issues from a broad, international community perspective. Ten expert Working Groups, bringing together a diverse range of community members and covering a wide ND landscape [Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, frontotemporal degeneration, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Lewy-body and vascular dementia] were formed to discuss and propose potential approaches to better exploiting and coordinating cohort studies. The purpose of this work is to highlight the novel funding process along with a broad overview of the guidelines and recommendations generated by the ten groups, which include investigations into multiple methodologies such as cognition/functional assessment, biomarkers and biobanking, imaging, health and social outcomes, and pre-symptomatic ND. All of these were published in reports that are now publicly available online.

8.
Neurobiol Aging ; 48: 204-211, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27718423

RESUMO

The neural substrate of genetic risk variants for Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unknown. We studied their effect on healthy brain morphology to provide insight into disease etiology in the preclinical phase. We included 4071 nondemented, elderly participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and genotyping. We performed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on all gray-matter voxels for 19 previously identified, common AD risk variants. Whole-brain expression data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas was used to examine spatial overlap between VBM association results and expression of genes in AD risk loci regions. Brain regions most significantly associated with AD risk variants were the left postcentral gyrus with ABCA7 (rs4147929, p = 4.45 × 10-6), right superior frontal gyrus by ZCWPW1 (rs1476679, p = 5.12 × 10-6), and right postcentral gyrus by APOE (p = 6.91 × 10-6). Although no individual voxel passed multiple-testing correction, we found significant spatial overlap between the effects of AD risk loci on VBM and the expression of genes (MEF2C, CLU, and SLC24A4) in the Allen Brain Atlas. Results are available online on www.imagene.nl/ADSNPs/. In this single largest imaging genetics data set worldwide, we found that AD risk loci affect cortical gray matter in several brain regions known to be involved in AD, as well as regions that have not been implicated before.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Antiporters , Clusterina , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição MEF2 , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Risco
9.
Neurology ; 84(9): 918-26, 2015 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25653287

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that common variants in the collagen genes COL4A1/COL4A2 are associated with sporadic forms of cerebral small vessel disease. METHODS: We conducted meta-analyses of existing genotype data among individuals of European ancestry to determine associations of 1,070 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the COL4A1/COL4A2 genomic region with the following: intracerebral hemorrhage and its subtypes (deep, lobar) (1,545 cases, 1,485 controls); ischemic stroke and its subtypes (cardioembolic, large vessel disease, lacunar) (12,389 cases, 62,004 controls); and white matter hyperintensities (2,733 individuals with ischemic stroke and 9,361 from population-based cohorts with brain MRI data). We calculated a statistical significance threshold that accounted for multiple testing and linkage disequilibrium between SNPs (p < 0.000084). RESULTS: Three intronic SNPs in COL4A2 were significantly associated with deep intracerebral hemorrhage (lead SNP odds ratio [OR] 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.46, p = 0.00003; r(2) > 0.9 between SNPs). Although SNPs associated with deep intracerebral hemorrhage did not reach our significance threshold for association with lacunar ischemic stroke (lead SNP OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.18, p = 0.0073), and with white matter hyperintensity volume in symptomatic ischemic stroke patients (lead SNP OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.13, p = 0.016), the direction of association was the same. There was no convincing evidence of association with white matter hyperintensities in population-based studies or with non-small vessel disease cerebrovascular phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate an association between common variation in the COL4A2 gene and symptomatic small vessel disease, particularly deep intracerebral hemorrhage. These findings merit replication studies, including in ethnic groups of non-European ancestry.


Assuntos
Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/diagnóstico , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/genética , Colágeno Tipo IV/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
10.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 34(5): 1093-101, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24578379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a serine protease, catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, the major enzyme responsible for endogenous fibrinolysis. In some populations, elevated plasma levels of tPA have been associated with myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular diseases. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies to identify novel correlates of circulating levels of tPA. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Fourteen cohort studies with tPA measures (N=26 929) contributed to the meta-analysis. Three loci were significantly associated with circulating tPA levels (P<5.0×10(-8)). The first locus is on 6q24.3, with the lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs9399599; P=2.9×10(-14)) within STXBP5. The second locus is on 8p11.21. The lead SNP (rs3136739; P=1.3×10(-9)) is intronic to POLB and <200 kb away from the tPA encoding the gene PLAT. We identified a nonsynonymous SNP (rs2020921) in modest linkage disequilibrium with rs3136739 (r(2)=0.50) within exon 5 of PLAT (P=2.0×10(-8)). The third locus is on 12q24.33, with the lead SNP (rs7301826; P=1.0×10(-9)) within intron 7 of STX2. We further found evidence for the association of lead SNPs in STXBP5 and STX2 with expression levels of the respective transcripts. In in vitro cell studies, silencing STXBP5 decreased the release of tPA from vascular endothelial cells, whereas silencing STX2 increased the tPA release. Through an in silico lookup, we found no associations of the 3 lead SNPs with coronary artery disease or stroke. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 3 loci associated with circulating tPA levels, the PLAT region, STXBP5, and STX2. Our functional studies implicate a novel role for STXBP5 and STX2 in regulating tPA release.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/enzimologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas R-SNARE/metabolismo , Sintaxina 1/metabolismo , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/sangue , Idoso , Células Cultivadas , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/enzimologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Inativação Gênica , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas R-SNARE/genética , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/enzimologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Sintaxina 1/genética , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/genética , Transfecção , Estados Unidos , Regulação para Cima
11.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 28(4): 352-7, 2014 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24577204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether the cerebellum affects cognitive function in an aging community-dwelling population. In a population-based study on 3745 nondemented individuals aged 45 years and above, we investigated the relationship between cerebellar volume and cognitive function. METHODS: Brain volumes were obtained using automatic tissue segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging scans. Cognitive functioning was assessed using MMSE and cognitive compound scores of global cognition, executive function, information processing speed, memory, and motor speed. Linear regression modeling was used to study the associations between cerebellar volumes and cognitive measures, independent of cerebral volumes. RESULTS: We found a relationship between larger cerebellar volume and better global cognition, executive function, information processing speed, and motor speed. After adjustment for cerebral volume, only cerebellar gray matter volume remained borderline significantly associated with global cognition and information processing speed. After Bonferroni correction, the few associations found between cerebellar volume and cognition disappeared. CONCLUSIONS: We only found a minor relationship between larger cerebellar volume and better cognition in healthy older adults, which further attenuated after correcting for cerebral volume. Our findings support the notion that cerebellar volume has an influence on cognition in aging, but that it is not the major leading structure.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cerebelo/anatomia & histologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Idoso , Cerebelo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Testes Neuropsicológicos
12.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 27(4): 351-5, 2013 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23632264

RESUMO

Cerebral small-vessel disease is thought to contribute to brain atrophy, but it remains unclear whether it affects the gray matter and white matter atrophy differentially. Retinal vessels provide a direct measure to study cerebral small-vessel disease in vivo. In a cohort of 1065 persons (mean age, 67.5 y and 51% women), from the population-based Rotterdam Study, we investigated how retinal vascular calibers relate to brain atrophy and to gray matter and white matter atrophy separately. Retinal arteriolar and venular calibers were semiautomatically measured on digitized fundus transparencies. Using automated quantification of MRI scans, we obtained whole-brain volume and volumes of gray matter and white matter. Both narrower arteriolar and wider venular calibers were associated with smaller brain volume, independent from each other. These associations were primarily driven by smaller white matter volume, whereas no associations were seen for gray matter volume. Adjustments for cardiovascular risk factors attenuated the results, but wider venular caliber remained borderline significantly associated with smaller white matter volume. Our data provide evidence that cerebral small-vessel disease contributes to brain atrophy primarily by affecting the cerebral white matter.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/diagnóstico , Fibras Nervosas Mielinizadas/patologia , Vasos Retinianos/patologia , Idoso , Atrofia/diagnóstico , Atrofia/epidemiologia , Atrofia/patologia , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/epidemiologia , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos
13.
Blood ; 120(24): 4873-81, 2012 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22990020

RESUMO

We conducted a genome-wide association study to identify novel associations between genetic variants and circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentration, and examined functional implications of variants and genes that were discovered. A discovery meta-analysis was performed in 19 599 subjects, followed by replication analysis of genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10(-8)) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 796 independent samples. We further examined associations with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease, assessed the functional significance of the SNPs for gene expression in human tissues, and conducted RNA-silencing experiments for one novel association. We confirmed the association of the 4G/5G proxy SNP rs2227631 in the promoter region of SERPINE1 (7q22.1) and discovered genome-wide significant associations at 3 additional loci: chromosome 7q22.1 close to SERPINE1 (rs6976053, discovery P = 3.4 × 10(-10)); chromosome 11p15.2 within ARNTL (rs6486122, discovery P = 3.0 × 10(-8)); and chromosome 3p25.2 within PPARG (rs11128603, discovery P = 2.9 × 10(-8)). Replication was achieved for the 7q22.1 and 11p15.2 loci. There was nominal association with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease at ARNTL (P < .05). Functional studies identified MUC3 as a candidate gene for the second association signal on 7q22.1. In summary, SNPs in SERPINE1 and ARNTL and an SNP associated with the expression of MUC3 were robustly associated with circulating levels of PAI-1.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/sangue , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/genética , ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Metanálise como Assunto , Monócitos/metabolismo , Mucina-3/genética , PPAR gama/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma , Interferência de RNA , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
14.
Brain ; 134(Pt 11): 3384-97, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22006983

RESUMO

Cerebral small vessel disease-related brain lesions such as white matter lesions and lacunes are common findings of magnetic resonance imaging in the elderly. These lesions are thought to be major contributors to disability in old age, and risk factors that include age and hypertension have been established. The radiological, histopathologic and clinical phenotypes of age-related cerebral small vessel disease remarkably resemble autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy, which is caused by mutations in NOTCH3. We hypothesized that genetic variations in NOTCH3 also play a role in age-related cerebral small vessel disease. We directly sequenced all 33 exons, the promoter and 3'-untranslated region of NOTCH3 in 195 participants with either coalescent white matter lesions or lacunes and compared the results to 82 randomly selected participants with no focal changes on magnetic resonance images in the Austrian Stroke Prevention Study. We detected nine common and 33 rare single nucleotide polymorphisms, of which 20 were novel. All common single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in the entire cohort (n = 888), and four of them, rs1043994, rs10404382, rs10423702 and rs1043997, were associated significantly with both the presence and progression of white matter lesions. The association was confined to hypertensives, a result which we replicated in the Cohorts for Heart and Ageing Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium on an independent sample of 4773 stroke-free hypertensive elderly individuals of European descent (P = 0.04). The 33 rare single nucleotide polymorphisms were scattered over the NOTCH3 gene with three being located in the promoter region, 24 in exons (18 non-synonymous), three in introns and three in the 3'-untranslated region. None of the single nucleotide polymorphisms affected a cysteine residue. Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant, PolyPhen2 analyses and protein structure simulation consistently predicted six of the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (H170R, P496L, V1183M, L1518M, D1823N and V1952M) to be functional, with four being exclusively or mainly detected in subjects with severe white matter lesions. In four individuals with rare non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms, we noted anterior temporal lobe hyperintensity, hyperintensity in the external capsule, lacunar infarcts or subcortical lacunar lesions. None of the observed abnormalities were specific to cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy. This is the first comprehensive study investigating (i) the frequency of NOTCH3 variations in community-dwelling elderly and (ii) their effect on cerebral small vessel disease related magnetic resonance imaging phenotypes. We show that the NOTCH3 gene is highly variable with both common and rare single nucleotide polymorphisms spreading across the gene, and that common variants at the NOTCH3 gene increase the risk of age-related white matter lesions in hypertensives. Additional investigations are required to explore the biological mechanisms underlying the observed association.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/genética , Hipertensão/genética , Receptores Notch/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/metabolismo , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/patologia , Éxons , Feminino , Seguimentos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptor Notch3 , Receptores Notch/metabolismo
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