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1.
Pharmacol Res ; 176: 106052, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999224

RESUMO

Various melatonin supplementations have been developed to improve health outcomes in various clinical conditions. Thus, we sought to evaluate and summarize the effect of melatonin treatments in clinical settings for health outcomes. We searched PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library from inception to 4 February 2021. We included meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials investigating the melatonin intervention for any health outcome. Based on the different effect sizes of each meta-analysis, we calculated random models' standardized mean differences or risk ratios. We observed robust evidence supported by statistical significance with non-considerable heterogeneity between studies for sleep-related problems, cancer, surgical patients, and pregnant women. Patients with sleep disorder, sleep onset latency (SMD 0.33, 95% CI: 0.10 - 0.56, P < 0.01) were significantly improved whereas no clear evidence was shown with sleep efficiency (1.10, 95% CI: -0.26 to 2.45). The first analgesic requirement time (SMD 5.81, 95% CI: 2.57-9.05, P < 0.001) of surgical patients was distinctly improved. Female patients under artificial reproductive technologies had significant increase in the top-quality embryos (SMD 0.53, 95% CI: 0.27 - 0.79, P < 0.001), but no statistically clear evidence was found in the live birth rate (SMD 1.20, 95% CI: 0.83 - 1.72). Survival at one year (RR 1.90, 95% CI: 1.28 - 2.83, P < 0.005) significantly increased with cancer patients. Research on melatonin interventions to treat clinical symptoms and sleep problems among diverse health conditions was identified and provided considerable evidence. Future well-designed randomized clinical trials of high quality and subgroup quantitative analyses are essential.

2.
Clin Park Relat Disord ; 5: 100120, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34888519

RESUMO

Background: Little is known on the potential relationship between osteoarthritis and Parkinson's disease. Objective: Therefore, the objective of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the association between osteoarthritis and the incidence of Parkinson's disease in patients followed up for up to 10 years in general practices in the United Kingdom. Methods: This study included patients diagnosed for the first time with osteoarthritis in one of 256 general practices in the United Kingdom between 2000 and 2016 (index date). Patients without osteoarthritis were matched (1:1) to those with osteoarthritis using propensity scores based on sex, age and index year. In individuals without osteoarthritis, index date corresponded to a randomly selected visit date. The outcome of this study was the 10-year cumulative incidence of Parkinson's disease in patients with and without osteoarthritis. Cox regression analyses were adjusted for common comorbidities. Results: This study included 260,224 patients (62.0% women; mean [SD] age 66.4 [12.7] years). The 10-year cumulative incidence of Parkinson's disease was 1.2% in patients with osteoarthritis and 0.6% in their counterparts without osteoarthritis (log-rank p-value < 0.001). The adjusted Cox regression model further showed a positive and significant association between osteoarthritis and the incidence of Parkinson's disease (HR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.63-2.02). Similar results were obtained in all sex and age subgroups. Conclusions: In this retrospective cohort study conducted in the United Kingdom, there was a positive association between osteoarthritis and the incidence of Parkinson's disease. More research is warranted to confirm or refute these findings in other settings and countries.

3.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34958144

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic and related restrictions can impact mental health. To quantify the mental health burden of COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis, searching World Health Organization COVID-19/PsycInfo/PubMed databases (09/29/2020), including observational studies reporting on mental health outcomes in any population affected by COVID-19. Primary outcomes were the prevalence of anxiety, depression, stress, sleep problems, posttraumatic symptoms. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on severe mental health problems, in high-quality studies, and in representative samples. Subgroup analyses were conducted stratified by age, sex, country income level, and COVID-19 infection status. One-hundred-seventy-three studies from February to July 2020 were included (n = 502,261, median sample = 948, age = 34.4 years, females = 63%). Ninety-one percent were cross-sectional studies, and 18.5%/57.2% were of high/moderate quality. The highest prevalence emerged for posttraumatic symptoms in COVID-19 infected people (94%), followed by behavioral problems in those with prior mental disorders (77%), fear in healthcare workers (71%), anxiety in caregivers/family members of people with COVID-19 (42%), general health/social contact/passive coping style in the general population (38%), depression in those with prior somatic disorders (37%), and fear in other-than-healthcare workers (29%). Females and people with COVID-19 infection had higher rates of almost all outcomes; college students/young adults of anxiety, depression, sleep problems, suicidal ideation; adults of fear and posttraumatic symptoms. Anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic symptoms were more prevalent in low-/middle-income countries, sleep problems in high-income countries. The COVID-19 pandemic adversely impacts mental health in a unique manner across population subgroups. Our results inform tailored preventive strategies and interventions to mitigate current, future, and transgenerational adverse mental health of the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709664

RESUMO

Two messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines developed by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna are being rolled out. Despite the high volume of emerging evidence regarding adverse events (AEs) associated with the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, previous studies have thus far been largely based on the comparison between vaccinated and unvaccinated control, possibly highlighting the AE risks with COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Comparing the safety profile of mRNA vaccinated individuals with otherwise vaccinated individuals would enable a more relevant assessment for the safety of mRNA vaccination. We designed a comparative safety study between 18 755 and 27 895 individuals who reported to VigiBase for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with mRNA COVID-19 and influenza vaccines, respectively, from January 1, 2020, to January 17, 2021. We employed disproportionality analysis to rapidly detect relevant safety signals and compared comparative risks of a diverse span of AEFIs for the vaccines. The safety profile of novel mRNA vaccines was divergent from that of influenza vaccines. The overall pattern suggested that systematic reactions like chill, myalgia, fatigue were more noticeable with the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, while injection site reactogenicity events were more prevalent with the influenza vaccine. Compared to the influenza vaccine, mRNA COVID-19 vaccines demonstrated a significantly higher risk for a few manageable cardiovascular complications, such as hypertensive crisis (adjusted reporting odds ratio [ROR], 12.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.47-65.54), and supraventricular tachycardia (adjusted ROR, 7.94; 95% CI, 2.62-24.00), but lower risk of neurological complications such as syncope, neuralgia, loss of consciousness, Guillain-Barre syndrome, gait disturbance, visual impairment, and dyskinesia. This study has not identified significant safety concerns regarding mRNA vaccination in real-world settings. The overall safety profile patterned a lower risk of serious AEFI following mRNA vaccines compared to influenza vaccines.

5.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079068

RESUMO

Promotion of good mental health, prevention, and early intervention before/at the onset of mental disorders improve outcomes. However, the range and peak ages at onset for mental disorders are not fully established. To provide robust, global epidemiological estimates of age at onset for mental disorders, we conducted a PRISMA/MOOSE-compliant systematic review with meta-analysis of birth cohort/cross-sectional/cohort studies, representative of the general population, reporting age at onset for any ICD/DSM-mental disorders, identified in PubMed/Web of Science (up to 16/05/2020) (PROSPERO:CRD42019143015). Co-primary outcomes were the proportion of individuals with onset of mental disorders before age 14, 18, 25, and peak age at onset, for any mental disorder and across International Classification of Diseases 11 diagnostic blocks. Median age at onset of specific disorders was additionally investigated. Across 192 studies (n = 708,561) included, the proportion of individuals with onset of any mental disorders before the ages of 14, 18, 25 were 34.6%, 48.4%, 62.5%, and peak age was 14.5 years (k = 14, median = 18, interquartile range (IQR) = 11-34). For diagnostic blocks, the proportion of individuals with onset of disorder before the age of 14, 18, 25 and peak age were as follows: neurodevelopmental disorders: 61.5%, 83.2%, 95.8%, 5.5 years (k = 21, median=12, IQR = 7-16), anxiety/fear-related disorders: 38.1%, 51.8%, 73.3%, 5.5 years (k = 73, median = 17, IQR = 9-25), obsessive-compulsive/related disorders: 24.6%, 45.1%, 64.0%, 14.5 years (k = 20, median = 19, IQR = 14-29), feeding/eating disorders/problems: 15.8%, 48.1%, 82.4%, 15.5 years (k = 11, median = 18, IQR = 15-23), conditions specifically associated with stress disorders: 16.9%, 27.6%, 43.1%, 15.5 years (k = 16, median = 30, IQR = 17-48), substance use disorders/addictive behaviours: 2.9%, 15.2%, 48.8%, 19.5 years (k = 58, median = 25, IQR = 20-41), schizophrenia-spectrum disorders/primary psychotic states: 3%, 12.3%, 47.8%, 20.5 years (k = 36, median = 25, IQR = 20-34), personality disorders/related traits: 1.9%, 9.6%, 47.7%, 20.5 years (k = 6, median = 25, IQR = 20-33), and mood disorders: 2.5%, 11.5%, 34.5%, 20.5 years (k = 79, median = 31, IQR = 21-46). No significant difference emerged by sex, or definition of age of onset. Median age at onset for specific mental disorders mapped on a time continuum, from phobias/separation anxiety/autism spectrum disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/social anxiety (8-13 years) to anorexia nervosa/bulimia nervosa/obsessive-compulsive/binge eating/cannabis use disorders (17-22 years), followed by schizophrenia, personality, panic and alcohol use disorders (25-27 years), and finally post-traumatic/depressive/generalized anxiety/bipolar/acute and transient psychotic disorders (30-35 years), with overlap among groups and no significant clustering. These results inform the timing of good mental health promotion/preventive/early intervention, updating the current mental health system structured around a child/adult service schism at age 18.

6.
Depress Anxiety ; 38(4): 439-446, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the association between self-reported food insecurity and depression in 34,129 individuals aged ≥50 years from six low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa). METHODS: Cross-sectional, community-based, nationally representative data from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) were analyzed. Self-reported past 12-month food insecurity was assessed with two questions on frequency of eating less and hunger due to lack of food. Questions based on the World Mental Health Survey version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview were used for the endorsement of past 12-month DSM-IV depression. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were conducted to assess associations. RESULTS: In total, 34,129 individuals aged ≥50 years [mean (SD) age, 62.4 (16.0) years; 52.1% females] were included in the analysis. Overall, the prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity was 6.7% and 5.1%, respectively, while the prevalence of depression was 6.0%. Meta-analyses based on countrywise estimates showed that overall, moderate food insecurity (vs. no food insecurity) is associated with a nonsignificant 1.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.82-3.48) times higher odds for depression, while severe food insecurity is significantly associated with 2.43 (95% CI = 1.65-3.57) times higher odds for depression. CONCLUSIONS: In this large representative sample of older adults from six LMICs, those with severe food insecurity were over two times more likely to suffer from depression (compared with no food insecurity). Utilizing lay health counselors and psychological interventions may be effective mechanisms to reduce depression among food-insecure populations. Interventions to address food insecurity (e.g., supplemental nutrition programs) may reduce depression at the population level but future longitudinal studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Depressão , Países em Desenvolvimento , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Federação Russa , África do Sul
7.
Eye (Lond) ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the association between visual difficulty and physical activity (PA) from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are scarce. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the association between visual difficulty and PA among adults from 36 LMICs, and to assess the mediators in this association. METHODS: Cross-sectional, community-based, predominantly nationally representative data from the World Health Survey were analysed. The final sample included 199,110 individuals aged ≥18 years [mean (SD) age 38.6 (16.1) years; 49.4% males]. Visual difficulty referred to having severe/extreme difficulties in seeing and recognizing a person that the participant knows across the road. Low PA was defined as not complying with PA recommendations of 150 min of moderate-vigorous PA per week. Multivariable logistic regression, meta-analysis, and mediation analysis were conducted to assess associations. RESULTS: Meta-analysis based on country-wise multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that overall, visual difficulty is associated with a 1.53 (95% CI = 1.38-1.71) times higher odds for low PA. Particularly strong associations were observed in males (OR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.45-2.05) and adults aged ≥65 years (OR = 1.95; 95% CI = 1.67-2.29). Interpersonal activities, cognition, and sleep/energy explained >10% of the association between visual difficulty and low PA. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we found evidence that especially in the case of males and older adults with visual difficulties in LMICs, there were low levels of engagement with PA. Addressing issues such as interpersonal activities, cognition, and sleep/energy in people with visual difficulties may increase levels of PA.

9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16494, 2018 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405154

RESUMO

Hyponatremia can be a life-threatening illness among hospitalized children. The aims of this study were to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of hyponatremia in 3938 children who were admitted to the Cheil General Hospital and Women's Health Care Center with respiratory infections. Clinical data were collected, and multiplex RT-PCR analyses were done for various microorganisms. Hyponatremia was observed in 531 (13.5%) patients. The incidence of hyponatremia differed according to the respiratory tract infection (P < 0.0001) and microorganism (P = 0.001). In children with hyponatremia, the age at admission was significantly older (P < 0.0001), male gender was more frequent (P = 0.019), CRP was higher (P < 0.0001), and coinfection with multiple organisms was more common (P = 0.001) than in children without hyponatremia. In multivariate analyses, an older age at admission (P = 0.006), male gender (P = 0.004), and increased CRP (P < 0.0001) were independent risk factors. Sodium levels correlated negatively with WBC (P = 0.037), CRP (P < 0.0001), and number of hospital days (P = 0.020). The AUC values of age (0.586, P < 0.0001), CRP (0.599, P < 0.0001), and blood urea nitrogen (0.559, P < 0.0001) were all significant predictors of hyponatremia. This study is the first to show that the incidence of hyponatremia differs according to infecting microorganism and radiological findings.


Assuntos
Hiponatremia/epidemiologia , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hiponatremia/sangue , Hiponatremia/diagnóstico , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prognóstico , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Sci Rep ; 6: 25566, 2016 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27193532

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine whether decreased serum sodium concentration could be associated with the disease activity in SLE. We retrospectively analyzed the data of the two independent cohorts of children and adults with SLE in two centers. Hyponatremia was associated with serum chloride (p = 0.004), albumin (p = 0.002) and SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) (p = 0.026) in children with SLE. Serum sodium levels were correlated negatively with ESR (p =0.001) and positively with serum albumin levels (p < 0.0001) and C3 (p = 0.008) in children with SLE and those levels were correlated negatively with serum interleukin-6 levels (p = 0.003) in adults with SLE. Independent risk factors for the development of hyponatremia were the decreased serum C3 levels (OR 1.069, p = 0.031), the decreased serum chloride levels (OR 2.054, p = 0.006) and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (OR 1.066, p = 0.03) in children with SLE and increased C-reactive protein (CRP) (OR 1.480, p = 0.023) in combined cohorts with SLE by multiple logistic regression analyses. Our study firstly showed that hyponatremia could reflect a disease activity and severe inflammation of SLE.


Assuntos
Cloretos/sangue , Hiponatremia/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Sódio/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Complemento C3/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/patologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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