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1.
J Biomed Opt ; 27(7)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713648

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Raman spectroscopy has emerged as a promising technique for a variety of biomedical applications. The unique ability to provide molecular specific information offers insight to the underlying biochemical changes that result in disease states such as cancer. However, one of the hurdles to successful clinical translation is a lack of international standards for calibration and performance assessment of modern Raman systems used to interrogate biological tissue. AIM: To facilitate progress in the clinical translation of Raman-based devices and assist the scientific community in reaching a consensus regarding best practices for performance testing. APPROACH: We reviewed the current literature and available standards documents to identify methods commonly used for bench testing of Raman devices (e.g., relative intensity correction, wavenumber calibration, noise, resolution, and sensitivity). Additionally, a novel 3D-printed turbid phantom was used to assess depth sensitivity. These approaches were implemented on three fiberoptic-probe-based Raman systems with different technical specifications. RESULTS: While traditional approaches demonstrated fundamental differences due to detectors, spectrometers, and data processing routines, results from the turbid phantom illustrated the impact of illumination-collection geometry on measurement quality. CONCLUSIONS: Specifications alone are necessary but not sufficient to predict in vivo performance, highlighting the need for phantom-based test methods in the standardized evaluation of Raman devices.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Análise Espectral Raman , Calibragem , Humanos , Imagens de Fantasmas
2.
Health Phys ; 120(1): 56-61, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264236

RESUMO

We performed optical radiation safety evaluations of LED flashlights to determine if they pose potential ocular hazards. Six commercially available flashlight samples were randomly selected from various vendors online. They were evaluated in accordance with specifications provided in the American National Standards Institute/Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (ANSI/IESNA) Standards RP 27.1 and RP 27.3. Four of the flashlights were found to have relatively high blue-light-weighted radiance values with short times (40 to 50 s) to reach the exposure limit specified in RP 27.1. These flashlights are in Risk Group 2 and present a moderate risk for retinal damage. Two of the flashlights are in Risk Group 1 and present a low risk for retinal damage. None of the flashlights present an ultraviolet (UV) radiation hazard or a retinal thermal hazard. Cautionary labeling on the packaging as required by RP 27.3 and on the flashlight handle is recommended for flashlights and on other handheld light sources that are in Risk Group 2 or Risk Group 3.


Assuntos
Luz/efeitos adversos , Iluminação/efeitos adversos , Iluminação/instrumentação , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Retina/lesões , Retina/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Iluminação/normas , Fenômenos Ópticos , Fotobiologia , Radiometria/instrumentação , Medição de Risco
3.
Analyst ; 145(18): 6045-6053, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766656

RESUMO

Recent advances in plasmonic nanoparticle synthesis have enabled extremely high per-particle surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) efficiencies. This has led to the development of SERS tags for in vivo applications (e.g. tumor targeting and detection), providing high sensitivity and fingerprint-like molecular specificity. While the SERS enhancement factor is a major contributor to SERS tag performance, in practice the throughput and excitation-collection geometry of the optical system can significantly impact detectability. Test methods to objectively quantify SERS particle performance under realistic conditions are necessary to facilitate clinical translation. Towards this goal, we have developed 3D-printed phantoms with tunable, biologically-relevant optical properties. Phantoms were designed to include 1 mm-diameter channels at different depths, which can be filled with SERS tag solutions. The effects of channel depth and particle concentration on the detectability of three different SERS tags were evaluated using 785 nm laser excitation at the maximum permissible exposure for skin. Two of these tags were commercially available, featuring gold nanorods as the SERS particle, while the third tag was prepared in-house using silver-coated gold nanostars. Our findings revealed that the measured SERS intensity of tags in solution is not always a reliable predictor of detectability when applied in a turbid medium such as tissue. The phantoms developed in this work can be used to assess the suitability of specific SERS tags and instruments for their intended clinical applications and provide a means of optimizing new SERS device-tag combination products.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Ouro , Impressão Tridimensional , Prata , Análise Espectral Raman
4.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 46(5): 762-773, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358273

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop an advanced test methodology for quantification of scattered light from intraocular lenses (IOLs) and to evaluate the correlation between IOL vacuole characteristics and measured scattered light. SETTING: U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Optical Therapeutics and Medical Nanophotonics Laboratory, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA. DESIGN: Experimental and analytical study. METHODS: Twenty-four IOLs containing vacuoles were evaluated using a digital microscopy approach for identifying and characterizing the vacuoles present. A scanning light scattering profiler (SLSP) was used to evaluate and quantify the amount of scattered light from each IOL and from a 25th control IOL without any vacuoles. A variety of IOLs and vacuoles were also modeled in a Zemax simulation of the SLSP, and the simulated scattered light was modeled. RESULTS: The scattered light as measured with SLSP was well correlated with vacuole characteristics, specifically density and size, as measured under the digital microscope for the 24 vacuole-containing IOLs. Additional correlations were found between vacuole sizes, orientations, and the angle at which light was scattered most severely. These correlations were also present in the Zemax model. CONCLUSIONS: Vacuole optical characteristics can be well correlated with measured scatter, demonstrating an ability to predict scattered light based solely on microscope evaluation. Furthermore, the quantitative amount of scatter predicted with Zemax simulations trended closely with the experimentally measured trends.


Assuntos
Lentes Intraoculares , Vacúolos , Humanos , Maryland , Espalhamento de Radiação , Visão Ocular
5.
J Ophthalmol ; 2019: 7929014, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467695

RESUMO

As small imperfections with micrometric sizes, fluid-filled vacuoles, also referred to as glistenings, in intraocular lenses (IOLs) have been known to induce significant unwanted light scattering that in several cases presumably cause complaints and sometimes lead to IOL explantation and replacement. This unwanted scatter is of particular concern for patients viewing bright light in reduced-light conditions such as when driving at night, as the scattered light toward the retina can cause temporary blindness. In this study, we have developed and implemented an accurate test methodology based on a high-magnification digital microscopy approach for quantitative multiparameter evaluation and classification of IOL vacuoles depending on their critical optical characteristics including vacuole size, density, shape, and orientation within the IOL material. Using the multiparameter database developed by evaluating vacuole characteristics, we established a classification grading system that can be used to evaluate vacuole effects on light scattering.

6.
J Biomed Opt ; 24(6): 1-10, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230425

RESUMO

Plasmonic nanoparticles (PNPs) continue to see increasing use in biophotonics for a variety of applications, including cancer detection and treatment. Several PNP-based approaches involve the generation of highly transient nanobubbles due to pulsed laser-induced vaporization and cavitation. While much effort has been devoted to elucidating the mechanisms behind bubble generation with spherical gold nano particles, the effects of particle shape on bubble generation thresholds are not well understood, especially in the nanosecond pulse regime. Our study aims to compare the bubble generation thresholds of gold nanospheres, gold nanorods, and silica-core gold nanoshells with different sizes, resonances, and surface coatings. Bubble generation is detected using a multimodality microscopy platform for simultaneous, nanosecond resolution pump-probe imaging, integrated scattering response, and acoustic transient detection. Nanoshells and large (40-nm width) nanorods were found to have the lowest thresholds for bubble generation, and in some cases they generated bubbles at radiant exposures below standard laser safety limits for skin exposure. This has important implications for both safety and performance of techniques employing pulsed lasers and PNPs.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/efeitos da radiação , Nanoestruturas/efeitos da radiação , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/métodos , Acústica , Ouro , Modelos Logísticos , Teste de Materiais , Nanoconchas , Espalhamento de Radiação
7.
Biomed Opt Express ; 10(4): 1919-1934, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061767

RESUMO

Innovative biophotonic modalities such as photoacoustic imaging (PAI) have the potential to provide enhanced sensitivity and molecule-specific detection when used with nanoparticles. However, high peak irradiance levels generated by pulsed lasers can lead to modification of plasmonic nanoparticles. Thus, there is an outstanding need to develop practical methods to effectively predict the onset nanoparticle photomodification as well as a need to better understand the process during PAI. To address this need, we studied pulsed laser damage of gold nanorods (GNRs) using turbid phantoms and a multi-spectral near-infrared PAI system, comparing results with spectrophotometric measurements of non-scattering samples. Transmission electron microscopy and Monte Carlo modeling were also performed to elucidate damage processes. In the phantoms, shifts in PAI-detected spectra indicative of GNR damage were initiated at exposure levels one-third of that seen in non-scattering samples, due to turbidity-induced enhancement of subsurface fluence. For exposures approaching established safety limits, damage was detected at depths of up to 12.5 mm. Typically, GNR damage occurred rapidly, over the course of a few laser pulses. This work advances the development of test methods and numerical models as tools for assessment of nanoparticle damage and its implications, and highlights the importance of considering GNR damage in development of PAI products, even for exposures well below laser safety limits.

8.
J Biomed Opt ; 23(6): 1-6, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29916216

RESUMO

We present a fiber-optic dual-confocal laser caliper method for noncontact high-precision sensing and measuring thickness and refractive index of intraocular lens (IOL) implants. The principle of the method is based on sensing and measuring the confocal intensity response of the laser beam reflection from the opposite object surfaces, which provides the advanced feature of having no limitations on the object shape, thickness, and transparency. Using single-mode optical fibers and a 658-nm laser source, the thickness measurement accuracy was assessed to be as high as 5 µm. In addition, refractive index of a transparent object with thickness smaller than the working distance of the focusing lenses can be measured. The thickness and refractive index of a planoconvex IOL were measured with a high accuracy.


Assuntos
Lentes Intraoculares , Microscopia Confocal/instrumentação , Refratometria , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Calibragem , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Imagem Óptica/instrumentação
9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6360, 2018 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29670224

RESUMO

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

10.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 15704, 2017 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29146935

RESUMO

The rapid growth of gold nanoparticle applications in laser therapeutics and diagnostics has brought about the need for establishing innovative standardized test methods for evaluation of safety and performance of these technologies and related medical products. Furthermore, given the incomplete and inconsistent data on nanoparticle photomodification thresholds provided in the literature, further elucidation of processes that impact the safety and effectiveness of laser-nanoparticle combination products is warranted. Therefore, we present a proof-of-concept study on an analytical experimental test methodology including three approaches (transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and spectrophotometry) for experimental evaluation of damage thresholds in nanosecond pulsed laser-irradiated gold nanospheres, and compared our results with a theoretical model and prior studies. This thorough evaluation of damage threshold was performed based on irradiation with a 532 nm nanosecond-pulsed laser over a range of nanoparticle diameters from 20 to 100 nm. Experimentally determined damage thresholds were compared to a theoretical heat transfer model of pulsed laser-irradiated nanoparticles and found to be in reasonably good agreement, although some significant discrepancies with prior experimental studies were found. This study and resultant dataset represent an important foundation for developing a standardized test methodology for determination of laser-induced nanoparticle damage thresholds.

11.
Health Phys ; 113(5): 375-381, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28961585

RESUMO

A novel test methodology was developed for quantitative evaluation of critical radiant power characteristics as a function of time for diode pumped solid state (DPSS) laser pointers. It is based on a simultaneous measurement of time-dependent radiant power characteristics of multi-wavelength spectral components emitted by DPSS laser pointers. The authors tested green DPSS laser pointers, which emit three spectral components at the fundamental near-infrared (1064-nm), pumping near-infrared (808-nm), and second-harmonic green (532-nm) wavelengths. The obtained experimental results are employed for performing eye hazard evaluation according to U.S. and International laser safety standards. All tested green laser pointers demonstrated significant variability of radiant power as a function of time and wavelength. Thus, the severity of the potential eye hazard from DPSS laser pointers for a given exposure time depends on when a person was exposed after the pointer was turned on. Most laser pointers emitted radiation in excess of their classification limits, including unwanted infrared radiation that is not necessary for their intended use as laser pointers.


Assuntos
Olho/efeitos da radiação , Lasers/efeitos adversos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Raios Infravermelhos/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
J Vis Exp ; (124)2017 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28654033

RESUMO

The scanning light scattering profiler (SLSP) methodology has been developed for the full-angle quantitative evaluation of forward and backward light scattering from intraocular lenses (IOLs) using goniophotometer principles. This protocol describes the SLSP platform and how it employs a 360° rotational photodetector sensor that is scanned around an IOL sample while recording the intensity and location of scattered light as it passes through the IOL medium. The SLSP platform can be used to predict, non-clinically, the propensity for current and novel IOL designs and materials to induce light scatter. Non-clinical evaluation of light scattering properties of IOLs can significantly reduce the number of patient complaints related to unwanted glare, glistening, optical defects, poor image quality, and other phenomena associated with the unintended light scattering. Future studies should be conducted to correlate SLSP data with clinical results to help identify which measured light scatter is most problematic for patients that have undergone cataract surgery subsequent to IOL implantation.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata/instrumentação , Lentes Intraoculares , Espalhamento de Radiação , Extração de Catarata/métodos , Humanos
13.
Health Phys ; 112(1): 11-17, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27906783

RESUMO

The authors evaluated the potential for ocular damage from optical radiation emitted by Light Emitting Diode (LED) based lamps used for general illumination. Ten LED lamps were randomly selected off the shelf from a local home improvement store. The LEDs were behind diffusers in half of these lamps, while in the other half, the LEDs were clearly visible. In addition, a battery powered LED lantern having a LED source behind a diffuser was measured. The optical radiation emissions from two common incandescent lamps were also measured to compare the relative hazards of LED and incandescent lamps. All lamp samples were evaluated in accordance with procedures specified in the American National Standards Institute/Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (ANSI/IESNA) Standard RP-27.3. For comparison purposes, the lantern and 100 W incandescent lamps were also evaluated according to ANSI RP-27.1. These measurements indicate that no lamp evaluated poses any photobiological hazard, and therefore, all lamps fall in the RP-27.3 category of Exempt Group. However, when evaluated in accordance with RP-27.1, the 100 W incandescent lamp would be classified in Risk Group 1 (low risk), while the LED lantern would be classified in Risk Group 2 (moderate risk).


Assuntos
Guias como Assunto , Iluminação/instrumentação , Iluminação/normas , Doses de Radiação , Radiometria/normas , Semicondutores , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento/normas , Traumatismos Oculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Iluminação/efeitos adversos , Concentração Máxima Permitida , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Proteção Radiológica/normas
14.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 42(3): 455-61, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27063527

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To present a proof-of-concept study on the development and implementation of an innovative confocal laser method platform for precise quantitative evaluation of critical optical properties unique to toric intraocular lenses (IOLs). SETTING: U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Optical Therapeutics and Medical Nanophotonics Laboratory, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: The optical properties of hydrophobic toric IOLs were evaluated with a confocal laser method that was modified to isolate the 2 planes of focus that are observed with toric IOLs. RESULTS: The results show the confocal laser method has the potential to measure the orthogonally separated optical powers and then calculate them to the commonly referenced spherical equivalent and cylinder powers of toric IOLs with high accuracy (≤1 µm of focal length measurement). Furthermore, the proposed confocal laser method design includes a new component for precise differentiation of the 2 focal planes and isolation of the 2 focal points, and thus for accurate measurement of the anterior cylinder axis of toric IOLs. CONCLUSION: The modifications to the confocal laser method platform enabled the quantitative evaluation of optical properties attributed to toric IOLs. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned.


Assuntos
Lentes Intraoculares/normas , Fenômenos Ópticos , Óptica e Fotônica/normas , Humanos , Microscopia Confocal , Refração Ocular
15.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 86(9): 095004, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26429472

RESUMO

Glare, glistenings, optical defects, dysphotopsia, and poor image quality are a few of the known deficiencies of intraocular lenses (IOLs). All of these optical phenomena are related to light scatter. However, the specific direction that light scatters makes a critical difference between debilitating glare and a slightly noticeable decrease in image quality. Consequently, quantifying the magnitude and direction of scattered light is essential to appropriately evaluate the safety and efficacy of IOLs. In this study, we introduce a full-angle scanning light scattering profiler (SLSP) as a novel approach capable of quantitatively evaluating the light scattering from IOLs with a nearly 360° view. The SLSP method can simulate in situ conditions by controlling the parameters of the light source including angle of incidence. This testing strategy will provide a more effective nonclinical approach for the evaluation of IOL light scatter.


Assuntos
Lentes Intraoculares , Luz , Dispositivos Ópticos , Espalhamento de Radiação , Rotação
16.
Lasers Med Sci ; 30(4): 1341-6, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25779115

RESUMO

Clinical therapy incorporating femtosecond laser (FSL) devices is a quickly growing field in modern biomedical technology due to their precision and ability to generate therapeutic effects with substantially less laser pulse energy. FSLs have the potential to produce nonlinear optical effects such as harmonic generation (HG), especially in tissues with significant nonlinear susceptibilities such as the cornea. HG in corneal tissue has been demonstrated in nonlinear harmonic microscopy using low-power FSLs. Furthermore, the wavelength ranges of harmonic spectral emissions generated in corneal tissues are known to be phototoxic above certain intensities. We have investigated how the critical FSL parameters pulse energy, pulse repetition rate, and numerical aperture influence both second (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) in corneal tissue. Experimental results demonstrated corresponding increases in HG intensity with increasing repetition rate and numerical aperture. HG duration decreased with increasing repetition rate and pulse energy. The data also demonstrated a significant difference in HG between FSL parameters representing the two most common classes of FSL therapeutic devices.


Assuntos
Córnea/cirurgia , Cirurgia da Córnea a Laser/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Córnea/patologia
17.
Cornea ; 34(2): 228-34, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25522222

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clarity of gamma-irradiated sterile corneal donor lenticules. METHODS: Broadband UV, visible, and near-infrared (200-850 nm) light transmission was measured through gamma-irradiated, sterile partial-thickness, and full-thickness donor lenticules and fresh corneal tissues and compared with standard acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) implants using a conventional spectrophotometer technique. RESULTS: All tissues had high light transmission (≥ 90%) in the visible and near-infrared regions and very low (<2%) transmission below 290 nm. Differences in light transmission between irradiated and fresh cornea types were observed between 300 and 450 nm, which mirrored differences in light transmission through their respective storage solutions. Light transmission through partial-thickness irradiated donor lenticules was greatest across all wavelengths. All corneal tissues exhibited higher transmission than acrylic IOL implant across all wavelengths. CONCLUSIONS: Gamma-irradiated donor lenticules are comparable with fresh corneas regarding light transmission, with both partial-thickness and full-thickness lenticules having greater transmission than standard IOL. We would expect the optical performance of gamma-irradiated donor lenticules to be comparable to fresh cornea if used for lamellar corneal procedures that do not require a viable endothelium.


Assuntos
Córnea/fisiologia , Córnea/efeitos da radiação , Raios gama , Raios Infravermelhos , Luz , Raios Ultravioleta , Humanos , Preservação de Órgãos , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Esterilização/métodos , Doadores de Tecidos
18.
J Biomed Opt ; 19(5): 055004, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24817618

RESUMO

The design and manufacture of intraocular lenses (IOLs) depend upon the identification and quantitative preclinical evaluation of key optical properties and environmental parameters. The confocal laser method (CLM) is a new technique for measuring IOL optical properties, such as dioptric power, optical quality, refractive index, and geometrical parameters. In comparison to competing systems, the CLM utilizes a fiber-optic confocal laser design that significantly improves the resolution, accuracy, and repeatability of optical measurements. Here, we investigate the impact of changing the beam diameter on the CLM platform for the evaluation of IOL dioptric powers. Due to the Gaussian intensity profile of the CLM laser beam, the changes in focal length and dioptric power associated with changes in beam diameter are well within the tolerances specified in the ISO IOL standard. These results demonstrate some of the advanced potentials of the CLM toward more effectively and quantitatively evaluating IOL optical properties.


Assuntos
Lasers , Lentes Intraoculares , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Óptica e Fotônica/métodos , Microscopia Confocal/instrumentação , Óptica e Fotônica/instrumentação
19.
Appl Opt ; 53(3): 453-7, 2014 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24514132

RESUMO

Optical power properties of lenses and materials in general can be influenced by thermal changes of the material and surrounding medium. In the case of an intraocular lens (IOL) implant, the spherical power (SP), cylinder power, (CP), astigmatism, and spherical aberration are the critical fundamental properties that can significantly impact its efficacy. Directly evaluating how changes in temperature can affect these optical properties may show the importance of considering temperature when evaluating IOL optical characteristics. In this paper, we present a quantitative study on evaluating the impact of environmental temperature changes on IOL fundamental optical properties by testing IOL samples with different materials (e.g., hydrophobic and hydrophilic) and designs (e.g., monofocal and toric) to better encompass types of IOLs in conventional use today. The results from this study demonstrate that significant changes are observed as temperatures are changed from room temperature (20°C) to slightly above body temperature (40°C). Findings indicate that evaluating optical properties at arbitrary temperatures could significantly affect the characterization of IOLs that are already near the tolerance thresholds.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Lentes Intraoculares , Refratometria/instrumentação , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Desenho de Prótese , Espalhamento de Radiação , Temperatura
20.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 84(8): 084301, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24007081

RESUMO

We developed and validated a versatile test method for precise quantification of phase retardation in corneal tissues using a femtosecond laser. It is based on an experimental system for direct measurement of corneal phase rotation due to corneal birefringence effects using a dual-polarizer, computer-controlled, femtosecond laser design. It also includes a comprehensive analytical model using Jones matrices. The test method presented is used for quantification of phase retardation in corneal tissues by employing the experimental data obtained from corneal phase rotation measurements and using analytical model assessments. The experimental and theoretical results obtained, and thus, the system's high accuracy and repeatability potential for assessing the corneal phase retardation are validated using control phase retardation evaluation.


Assuntos
Córnea/citologia , Lasers , Fenômenos Ópticos , Animais , Bovinos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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