Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 169
Filtrar
1.
Anesthesiology ; 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation is an analgesic technique involving the percutaneous implantation of a lead followed by the delivery of electric current using an external pulse generator. Percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation has been used extensively for chronic pain, but only uncontrolled series have been published for acute postoperative pain. The current multicenter study was undertaken to (1) determine the feasibility and optimize the protocol for a subsequent clinical trial and (2) estimate the treatment effect of percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation on postoperative pain and opioid consumption. METHODS: Preoperatively, an electrical lead was percutaneously implanted to target the sciatic nerve for major foot/ankle surgery (e.g., hallux valgus correction), the femoral nerve for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, or the brachial plexus for rotator cuff repair, followed by a single injection of long-acting local anesthetic along the same nerve/plexus. Postoperatively, participants were randomized to 14 days of either electrical stimulation (n = 32) or sham stimulation (n = 34) using an external pulse generator in a double-masked fashion. The dual primary treatment effect outcome measures were (1) cumulative opioid consumption (in oral morphine equivalents) and (2) mean values of the "average" daily pain scores measured on the 0 to 10 Numeric Rating Scale within the first 7 postoperative days. RESULTS: During the first 7 postoperative days, opioid consumption in participants given active stimulation was a median (interquartile range) of 5 mg (0 to 30) versus 48 mg (25 to 90) in patients given sham treatment (ratio of geometric means, 0.20 [97.5% CI, 0.07 to 0.57]; P < 0.001). During this same period, the average pain intensity in patients given active stimulation was a mean ± SD of 1.1 ± 1.1 versus 3.1 ± 1.7 in those given sham (difference, -1.8 [97.5% CI, -2.6 to -0.9]; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation reduced pain scores and opioid requirements free of systemic side effects during at least the initial week after ambulatory orthopedic surgery.

2.
A A Pract ; 15(4): e01442, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793427
3.
Anesthesiology ; 134(5): 818-819, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721910
5.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; : 1-6, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446005

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ultrasound-guided percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) may be used to treat acute postoperative pain for various types of surgeries. This modality avoids several limitations of traditional local anesthetic-based peripheral nerve blocks including avoidance of motor blockade and sensory deficits. AREAS COVERED: In this review, we discuss the use of SPRINT (SPR Therapeutics, Cleveland, OH) neuromodulation system in the setting of acute postoperative pain management. EXPERT OPINION: PNS is a novel modality in regional anesthesia that has much promise in reducing overall opioid use after surgery. Placement of PNS is very similar to that of catheter-based regional anesthesia techniques. Ultrasound is used to guide the percutaneously placed introducer needle in proximity to the target nerve. There are several benefits of PNS over catheter-based approaches, including: 1) avoidance of motor or sensory blockade; 2) no medication bag required to be carried; and 3) electric leads may be kept in situ safely for up to 60 days. While several proof-of-concept studies have been published highlighting its use in various types of surgeries, large high-quality randomized controlled trials are still needed.

6.
Anesthesiology ; 134(2): 283-344, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372949

RESUMO

The authors provide a comprehensive summary of all randomized, controlled trials (n = 76) involving the clinical administration of liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel; Pacira Pharmaceuticals, USA) to control postoperative pain that are currently published. When infiltrated surgically and compared with unencapsulated bupivacaine or ropivacaine, only 11% of trials (4 of 36) reported a clinically relevant and statistically significant improvement in the primary outcome favoring liposomal bupivacaine. Ninety-two percent of trials (11 of 12) suggested a peripheral nerve block with unencapsulated bupivacaine provides superior analgesia to infiltrated liposomal bupivacaine. Results were mixed for the 16 trials comparing liposomal and unencapsulated bupivacaine, both within peripheral nerve blocks. Overall, of the trials deemed at high risk for bias, 84% (16 of 19) reported statistically significant differences for their primary outcome measure(s) compared with only 14% (4 of 28) of those with a low risk of bias. The preponderance of evidence fails to support the routine use of liposomal bupivacaine over standard local anesthetics.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Bupivacaína/uso terapêutico , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Nervos Periféricos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
A A Pract ; 14(14): e01353, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278086

RESUMO

Phantom limb pain is a common condition occurring after amputations. Percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) has been reported to provide analgesia for established lower extremity phantom pain. However, this modality has never been applied to upper extremity phantom pain. A patient presented with acute exacerbation of established upper extremity phantom pain 2 years following forequarter amputation. A percutaneous PNS lead placed adjacent to the patient's brachial plexus under ultrasound guidance provided analgesia of the phantom pain for several weeks. PNS of the brachial plexus may provide analgesia for patients with upper extremity phantom pain.

8.
Pain Med ; 21(Suppl 2): S53-S61, 2020 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) is an analgesic modality involving the insertion of a lead through an introducer needle followed by the delivery of electric current after needle withdrawal. This modality has been used extensively to treat chronic pain, but only small series have been published involving postoperative pain. The ultimate objective of this study is to determine the postoperative effects of percutaneous PNS following moderately to severely painful ambulatory surgery within a real-world clinical practice setting. The primary hypothesis is that surgical pain and opioid consumption during the initial 7 days after surgery will be reduced by percutaneous PNS compared with usual and customary analgesia (dual primary outcome measures). DESIGN: A multicenter pragmatic effectiveness trial. We are randomizing participants having painful orthopedic surgical procedures of the upper and lower extremity to receive 14 days of either 1) electrical stimulation or 2) sham in a double-masked fashion. End points are being assessed at various time points over 12 postoperative months. SUMMARY: The postoperative experience will be much improved if percutaneous PNS provides potent analgesia while concurrently decreasing opioid requirements following painful surgery. Because this modality can be administered for up to 60 days at home, it may provide postoperative analgesia that outlasts surgical pain yet has relatively few risks and, unlike opioids, has no systemic side effects or potential for abuse, addiction, and overdose. Percutaneous PNS has the potential to revolutionize postoperative analgesia as it has been practiced for the past century. This study will inform key stakeholders regarding an evidence-based nonpharmacologic approach to the management of postoperative pain.

9.
Pain ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021563

RESUMO

Phantom limb pain is thought to be sustained by reentrant neural pathways which provoke dysfunctional reorganization in the somatosensory cortex. We hypothesized that disrupting reentrant pathways with a 6-day-long continuous peripheral nerve block reduces phantom pain 4 weeks after treatment. We enrolled patients who had an upper- or lower-limb amputation and established phantom pain. Each was randomized to receive a 6-day perineural infusion of either ropivacaine or normal saline. The primary outcome was the average phantom pain severity as measured with a Numeric Rating Scale (0-10) at 4 weeks, after which an optional crossover treatment was offered within the following 0-12 weeks. Pretreatment pain scores were similar in both groups, with a median [interquartile range] of 5.0 [4.0, 7.0] for each. After 4 weeks, average phantom limb pain intensity was a mean (SD) of 3.0 (2.9) in patients given local anesthetic versus 4.5 (2.6) in those given placebo (difference (95% CI) 1.3 (0.4, 2.2), P=0.003). Patients given local anesthetic had improved global impression of change and less pain-induced physical and emotional dysfunction, but did not differ on depression scores. For subjects who received only the first infusion (no self-selected crossover), the median decrease in phantom limb pain at 6 months for treated subjects was 3.0 [0, 5.0] vs. 1.5 [0, 5.0] for the placebo group; there appeared to be little residual benefit at 12 months. We conclude that a 6-day continuous peripheral nerve block reduces phantom limb pain as well as physical and emotional dysfunction for at least 1 month.

10.
A A Pract ; 14(9): e01250, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909710

RESUMO

Renal colic is a common cause of pain; however, there have been few reports of treating this pain with regional anesthesia. We report on a 49-year-old man presenting with severe left flank pain resulting from a 4-mm stone in the left ureter. The pain was minimally responsive to intravenous opioids. Left-sided paravertebral blocks were performed at T7 and T9 with 10 mL bupivacaine 0.5% with epinephrine 2.5 µg/mL to each paravertebral space. The pain resolved over the following 30 minutes, and the patient was discharged home. No further pain was experienced before and while subsequently passing the stone.

11.
Anesthesiology ; 133(5): 1127-1149, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898231

RESUMO

Two regional analgesic modalities currently cleared by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration hold promise to provide postoperative analgesia free of many of the limitations of both opioids and local anesthetic-based techniques. Cryoneurolysis uses exceptionally low temperature to reversibly ablate a peripheral nerve, resulting in temporary analgesia. Where applicable, it offers a unique option given its extended duration of action measured in weeks to months after a single application. Percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation involves inserting an insulated lead through a needle to lie adjacent to a peripheral nerve. Analgesia is produced by introducing electrical current with an external pulse generator. It is a unique regional analgesic in that it does not induce sensory, motor, or proprioception deficits and is cleared for up to 60 days of use. However, both modalities have limited validation when applied to acute pain, and randomized, controlled trials are required to define both benefits and risks.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/terapia , Analgesia/métodos , Crioterapia/métodos , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Nervos Periféricos/fisiologia , Dor Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Nervos Periféricos/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471921
16.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 45(4): 287-292, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryoneurolysis of peripheral nerves uses localised intense cold to induce a prolonged block over multiple weeks that has the promise of providing potent analgesia outlasting the duration of postoperative pain following surgery, as well as treat other acute and chronic pain states. However, it remains unclear whether persistent functional motor deficits remain following cryoneurolysis of mixed sensorimotor peripheral nerves, greatly limiting clinical application of this modality. To help inform future research, we used a rat peroneal nerve injury model to evaluate if cryoneurolysis results in persistent deficits in motor function. METHODS: Male Lewis rats (n=30) had their common peroneal nerves exposed bilaterally at the proximal lateral margin of the knee and subsequently underwent cryoneurolysis on one limb and sham treatment on the contralateral limb. Outcomes were evaluated on days 3, 14, 30, 90 and 180. The primary end point was motor function, based on ankle dorsiflexion torque. In addition, sensory function was tested based on von Frey's filament sensitivity to the peroneal sensory distribution. A subset of animals was sacrificed following functional testing at each time point, and general tissue morphology, connective tissue deposition, and axon counts were evaluated. RESULTS: Motor deficits in treated limbs were observed at 3 and 14 days but had resolved at time points beyond 1 month. Bilateral sensory deficits were also observed at 3 and 14 days, and also resolved within 1 month. Consistent with motor functional deficits, axon counts trended lower in treated nerves compared with contralateral controls at 3 days; however, axon counts were not significantly different at later time points. CONCLUSIONS: When applied to a mixed sensorimotor nerve, cryoneurolysis did not result in persistent motor deficits.

17.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 45(4): 260-266, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paravertebral nerve blocks (PVBs) are frequently used to treat pain during and following breast surgery, but have various undesirable risks such as pneumothorax. The erector spinae plane block (ESPB) also provides perioperative breast analgesia, but is purported to be easier to administer with a favorable safety profile. However, it remains unknown if the new ESPB provides comparable analgesia as the decades-old PVB technique. METHODS: Subjects undergoing unilateral or bilateral non-mastectomy breast surgery were randomized to a single-injection ESPB or PVB in a subject-blinded fashion (ropivacaine 0.5% with epinephrine; 20 mL unilateral or 16 mL/side for bilateral). We hypothesized that (1) analgesia would be non-inferior in the recovery room as measured on a Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) with ESPB, and (2) opioid consumption would be non-inferior in the operating and recovery rooms with ESPB. RESULTS: Both pain scores and opioid consumption were higher in subjects with ESPBs (n=50) than PVBs (n=50; median NRS 3.0 vs 0; 95% CI -3.0 to 0; p=0.0011; and median morphine equivalents 2.0 vs 1.5 mg; 95% CI -1.2 to -0.1; p=0.0043). No block-related adverse events occurred in either group. CONCLUSIONS: PVBs provided superior analgesia and reduced opioid requirements following non-mastectomy breast surgery. To compare the relatively rare complications between the techniques will require a sample size 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than the current investigation; however, without a dramatic improvement in safety profile for ESPBs, it appears that PVBs are superior to ESPBs for postoperative analgesia after non-mastectomy breast surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03549234.

18.
Anesthesiology ; 132(4): 854-866, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The basic perineural catheter design has changed minimally since inception, with the catheter introduced through or over a straight needle. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently cleared a novel perineural catheter design comprising a catheter attached to the back of a suture-shaped needle that is inserted, advanced along the arc of its curvature pulling the catheter past the target nerve, and then exited through the skin in a second location. The authors hypothesized that analgesia would be noninferior using the new versus traditional catheter design in the first two days after painful foot/ankle surgery with a primary outcome of average pain measured with the Numeric Rating Scale. METHODS: Subjects undergoing painful foot or ankle surgery with a continuous supraparaneural popliteal-sciatic nerve block 5 cm proximal to the bifurcation were randomized to either a suture-type or through-the-needle catheter and subsequent 3-day 0.2% ropivacaine infusion (basal 6 ml/h, bolus 4 ml, lockout 30 min). Subjects received daily follow-up for the first four days after surgery, including assessment for evidence of malfunction or dislodgement of the catheters. RESULTS: During the first two postoperative days the mean ± SD average pain scores were lower in subjects with the suture-catheter (n = 35) compared with the through-the-needle (n = 35) group (2.7 ± 2.4 vs. 3.4 ± 2.4) and found to be statistically noninferior (95% CI, -1.9 to 0.6; P < 0.001). No suture-style catheter was completely dislodged (0%), whereas the tips of three (9%) traditional catheters were found outside of the skin before purposeful removal on postoperative day 3 (P = 0.239). CONCLUSIONS: Suture-type perineural catheters provided noninferior analgesia compared with traditional catheters for continuous popliteal-sciatic blocks after painful foot and ankle surgery. The new catheter design appears to be a viable alternative to traditional designs used for the past seven decades.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Bloqueio Nervoso Autônomo/métodos , Cateteres de Demora , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Nervo Isquiático/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas de Sutura , Adulto , Idoso , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico por imagem , Nervo Isquiático/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos
20.
Korean J Anesthesiol ; 73(5): 455-459, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684715

RESUMO

BACKGRUOND: Rib fractures are a common injury in trauma patients and account for significant morbidity and mortality within this population. Local anesthetic-based nerve blocks have been demonstrated to provide significant pain relief and reduce complications. However, the analgesia provided by these blocks is limited to hours for single injection blocks or days for continuous infusions, while the duration of this pain often lasts weeks. CASE: This case series describes five patients with rib fractures whose pain was successfully treated with cryoneurolysis. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound-guided percutaneous cryoneurolysis is a modality that has the potential to provide analgesia matching the duration of pain following rib fractures.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...