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1.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; : 1-7, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396925

RESUMO

Human milk is the best possible nutrition for infants, as it supplies them with nutrients, bioactive molecules as well as antibodies, which contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonisation. Few situations are considered definitive contraindications for breastfeeding. The disastrous Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic raised many health issues, including the safety of breastfeeding for infants born to affected mothers. To date relevant data are limited. This review will make an account of the published data so far, regarding the transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 via human milk; it will also present the current feeding recommendations, issued by several international boards, though not always in agreement, for infants born to mothers suspected or positive for SARS-CoV-2. In most studies existing so far on women with COVID-19, the virus was not detected in breastmilk. Based on currently available data, it seems that breastfeeding and human milk are not contraindicated for infants born to mothers suspected or confirmed with COVID-19.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371873

RESUMO

Menopause, probably the most important natural change in a woman's life and a major component of female senescence, is characterized, inter alia, by cessation of ovarian estrogen and progesterone production, resulting in a gradual deterioration of the female immune system. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is used in postmenopausal women to relieve some of the peri- and postmenopausal symptoms, while there is also evidence that the therapy may additionally partially reverse menopausal immune senescence. Flavonoids, and especially isoflavones, are widely used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, although it is not at present clear whether they can reverse or alleviate other menopausal changes. HRT reverses the menopausal CD4/CD8 ratio and also limits the general peri- and postmenopausal inflammatory state. Moreover, the increased levels of interleukins (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and IL-8, as well as of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are decreased after the initiation of HRT. However, some reports show no effect of HRT on IL-4, IL-10, and IL-12. It is thus evident that the molecular pathways connecting HRT and female immune senescence need to be clarified. Interestingly, recent studies have suggested that the anti-inflammatory properties of isoflavones possibly interact with inflammatory cytokines when applied in menopause treatments, thereby potentially reversing immune senescence. This narrative review presents the latest data on the effect of menopausal therapies, including administration of flavonoid-rich products, on age-associated immune senescence reversal with the aim of revealing possible directions for future research and treatment development.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossenescência/efeitos dos fármacos , Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoestrógenos/uso terapêutico , Fatores Etários , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Flavonoides/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Menopausa/imunologia , Menopausa/metabolismo , Fitoestrógenos/efeitos adversos , Fatores Sexuais
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371934

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC), is increasingly hypothesized to be a factor contributing to changes in fetal growth velocity. BPA exposure may be environmental, occupational, and/or dietary, with canned foods and plastic bottles contributing significantly. Our systematic review aims to evaluate the current literature and to investigate the role of BPA in abnormal fetal growth patterns. A search was conducted in the PubMed and Cochrane databases. A total of 25 articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in this systematic review. Eleven of them failed to show a clear relationship between BPA and abnormal fetal growth. The majority of the remaining studies (9/14) found an inverse association of BPA with indicators of fetal growth, whereas three studies suggested increased fetal growth, and two studies produced contradictory findings. Of note, both of the studies that collected a sample (amniotic fluid) directly reflecting BPA concentration in the fetus during the first half of pregnancy revealed an inverse association with birth weight. In conclusion, there is mounting evidence that combined exposure to BPA from dietary and non-dietary sources during pregnancy may contribute to abnormal fetal growth; a tendency towards fetal growth restriction was shown, especially when exposure occurs during the first half.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/induzido quimicamente , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Animais , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/fisiopatologia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
4.
Am J Emerg Med ; 49: 83-88, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089968

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The European Resuscitation Council Newborn Life Support Course (ERC- NLS) aims at training healthcare professionals, involved in perinatal care, in order to intervene efficiently and promptly to assist transition or resuscitate neonates who require help at birth. However, limited data exists for the retention of the theoretical knowledge and practical skills provided by the course. This study aims to evaluate the degree of knowledge and skill retention 3 and 6 months after the ERC-NLS provider course. METHODS: This is a prospective study. Theoretical knowledge was evaluated using the ERC-approved NLS written test (50 True/False questions). Evaluation of technical skills included performance, on an Advanced Life Support neonatal maniquin (LAERDAL), of airway management, ventilation and support of circulation (21 detailed skills). The effect of certain factors on theoretical skill retention was also evaluated. RESULTS: One hundred and sixteen (n = 116) participants were initially recruited in the study (12 males and 104 females). Theoretical knowledge was evaluated in 113 participants (3 participants missed follow-up appointments) and technical skills in 80 participants. The mean score for theoretical knowledge was 86.24% ± 5.3, 80.88% ± 7.43 and 80.04% ± 7.04 at baseline, at 3 and 6 months, respectively. This difference was significant among the three time points (baseline vs 3 months: p < 0.001; baseline vs 6 months: p < 0.001; 3 month's vs 6 months: p = 0.034). Although gender did not have an effect, doctors and participants of higher education yielded higher score of success. Regarding technical skills, 9 skills showed a continuous decline of performance from baseline to 6 months, while no difference existed for 12 skills. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare professionals after the NLS provider course retain satisfactory levels of theoretical knowledge and technical skills even at 6 months post-training, although, there is a decline compared to baseline. Further research is needed in order to establish the proper time and type of refreshment course in order to improve outcomes.

5.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 129, 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) is strongly associated with premature birth, but it can also affect term neonates. Unlike the extent of research in preterm neonates, risk factors associated with incidence and severity of NRDS in term neonates are not well studied. In this study, we examined the association of maternal and neonatal risk factors with the incidence and severity of NRDS in term neonates admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in Cyprus. METHODS: In a prospective, case-control design we recruited term neonates with NRDS and non-NRDS admitted to the NICU of Archbishop Makarios III hospital, the only neonatal tertiary centre in Cyprus, between April 2017-October 2018. Clinical data were obtained from patients' files. We used univariate and multivariate logistic and linear regression models to analyse binary and continuous outcomes respectively. RESULTS: During the 18-month study period, 134 term neonates admitted to NICU were recruited, 55 (41%) with NRDS diagnosis and 79 with non-NRDS as controls. In multivariate adjusted analysis, male gender (OR: 4.35, 95% CI: 1.03-18.39, p = 0.045) and elective caesarean section (OR: 11.92, 95% CI: 1.80-78.95, p = 0.01) were identified as independent predictors of NRDS. Among neonates with NRDS, early-onset infection tended to be associated with increased administration of surfactant (ß:0.75, 95% CI: - 0.02-1.52, p = 0.055). Incidence of pulmonary hypertension or systemic hypotension were associated with longer duration of parenteral nutrition (pulmonary hypertension: 11Vs 5 days, p < 0.001, systemic hypotension: 7 Vs 4 days, p = 0.01) and higher rate of blood transfusion (pulmonary hypertension: 100% Vs 67%, p = 0.045, systemic hypotension: 85% Vs 55%, p = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the role of elective caesarean section and male gender as independent risk factors for NRDS in term neonates. Certain therapeutic interventions are associated with complications during the course of disease. These findings can inform the development of evidence-based recommendations for improved perinatal care.

6.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-14, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467971

RESUMO

Fetuses that have not achieved their full growth potential are associated with adverse perinatal and long-term outcomes; thus, it is essential to identify environmental factors that can potentially impair normal intrauterine development. Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), substances capable of altering the homeostasis of the endocrine system, are thought to play a role in restriction of growth velocity, with phthalates being among the most common EDCs to which pregnant women are exposed. Such exposure can potentially lead to changes to the epigenome, placental structure, and hormone function and trigger oxidative stress. Given that these pathways have been linked to fetal growth restriction, we reviewed the literature on the relationship between phthalates and fetal growth. The majority of the studies, which used birth weight as an indicator of intrauterine development, showed contradictory results, the main reason being the EDCs' rapid metabolism. However, we can draw more consistent conclusions when phthalates are quantified at more than one time point during pregnancy. In this narrative review, we present current data indicating the role of phthalates, and especially di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), in abnormal fetal growth velocity.

7.
Children (Basel) ; 7(12)2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thromboelastometry (ROTEM), as a point of care test, is an attractive tool for rapid evaluation of hemostasis. Currently, no reference ranges exist for all ROTEM assays in neonates, limiting its use in this vulnerable population. The aim of the present study was: (1) to establish reference ranges for standard extrinsically activated (EXTEM), intrinsically activated (INTEM), and fibrinogen polymerization (FIBTEM) ROTEM assays in whole blood samples of healthy term neonates; (2) to determine the impact of gender, delivery mode, and hematocrit on ROTEM parameters. METHODS: EXTEM, INTEM, and FIBTEM ROTEM assays were performed simultaneously with complete blood count in 215 healthy term neonates. RESULTS: Reference ranges (2.5th and 97.5th percentiles) were obtained for clotting time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), α-angle, clot firmness at 10 min (A10), maximum clot firmness (MCF), and lysis index at 60 min (LI60, %). Reference ranges for EXTEM were CT 38-78 s, CFT 49-148 s, A10 40-65 mm, and MCF 47-69 mm, LI60 83-98%. For INTEM, CT 134-270 s, CFT 50-142 s, A10 41-63 mm, and MCF 48-67 mm, LI60 85-97%, and finally, for FIBTEM: CT 36-85 s, A10 9-25 mm and MCF 10-26 mm, LI60 92-100%. Hematocrit values were positively correlated with CT, CFT and negatively with A10, MCF values. CONCLUSION: This study provides, for the first time, reference ranges for ROTEM EXTEM/INTEM/FIBTEM values simultaneously in healthy term neonates. The combined evaluation of ROTEM tests increases its diagnostic accuracy, contributing to the expansion of ROTEM use in the neonatal population.

8.
BMC Med Ethics ; 21(1): 121, 2020 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: End-of-life decisions for neonates with adverse prognosis are controversial and raise ethical and legal issues. In Greece, data on physicians' profiles, motivation, values and attitudes underlying such decisions and the correlation with their background are scarce. The aim was to investigate neonatologists' attitudes in Neonatal Intensive Care Units and correlate them with self-reported practices of end-of-life decisions and with their background data. METHODS: A structured questionnaire was distributed to all 28 Neonatal Intensive Care Units in Greece. One hundred and sixty two out of 260 eligible physicians answered anonymously the questionnaire (response rate 66%). Demographic and professional characteristics, self-reported practices and opinions were included in the questionnaire, along with a questionnaire of 12 items measuring physicians' attitude and views ranging from value of life to quality of life approach (scale 1-5). RESULTS: Continuation of treatment in neonates with adverse prognosis without adding further therapeutic interventions was the most commonly reported EoL practice, when compared to withdrawal of mechanical ventilation. Physicians with a high attitude score (indicative of value of quality-of-life) were more likely to limit, while those with a low score (indicative of value of sanctity-of-life) were more likely for continuation of intensive care. Physicians' educational level (p:0.097), involvement in research (p:0.093), religion (p:0.024) and position on the existing legal framework (p < 0.001) were factors that affected the attitude score. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians presented with varying end-of-life practices. Limiting interventions in neonates with poor prognosis was strongly related to their attitudes. The most important predictors for physicians' attitudes were religiousness and belief for Greek legal system reform.

9.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 588738, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194922

RESUMO

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common cause of respiratory illness in preterm newborns with high morbidity and mortality rates. At present, there are no early prognostic biomarkers that can be used in clinical practice to predict the development of BPD. In this review, we critically appraise evidence regarding the use of serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) levels as a biomarker for BPD in neonates. Furthermore, we summarize studies assessing the feasibility of urinary NTproBNP levels as a non-invasive method to predict BPD in preterm infants. Multiple studies reported a strong association between NTproBNP serum levels and the onset of BPD. For urinary NTproBNP there is scarce evidence showing an association with BPD. Given the promising data obtained by preliminary studies, further assessment of this biomarker in both serum and urine is needed. Standardized reference values should be defined before conducting any further clinical studies.

10.
Urol Case Rep ; 33: 101348, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102049

RESUMO

Empty scrotum is a relatively rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature, so far; if it coexists with bilateral ectopic femoral testes, it then constitutes an extremely rare congenital abnormality. We report a case of empty scrotum revealed at the first physical examination of a neonate. The scrotum appeared empty and no testes could be palpated in the scrotum or the inguinal canal. Two solitary, oval masses were palpable laterally of each hemiscrotum, close to femoral canal and the diagnosis of bilateral femoral ectopic testes was confirmed by the consultant pediatric surgeon.

11.
Public Health Nutr ; 23(6): 961-970, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951189

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate breast-feeding prevalence in Greece in 2007 and 2017, compare breast-feeding indicators and maternity hospital practices between these years, and investigate breast-feeding determinants. DESIGN: Two national cross-sectional studies (2007 and 2017) using systematic cluster sampling of babies with the same sampling design, data collection and analysis methodology. SETTING: Telephone interview with babies' mothers or fathers. PARTICIPANTS: Representative sample of infants who participated in the national neonatal screening programme (n 549 in 2017, n 586 in 2007). RESULTS: We found that breast-feeding indicators were higher in 2017 compared with 10 years before. In 2017, 94 % of mothers initiated breast-feeding. Breast-feeding rates were 80, 56 and 45 % by the end of the 1st, 4th and 6th completed month of age, respectively. At the same ages, 40, 25 and <1 % of babies, respectively, were exclusively breast-feeding. We also found early introduction of solid foods (after the 4th month of age). Maternity hospital practices favouring breast-feeding were more prevalent in 2017, but still suboptimal (63 % experienced rooming-in; 51 % experienced skin-to-skin contact in the first hour after birth; 19 % received free sample of infant formula on discharge). CONCLUSIONS: We observed an increasing trend in all breast-feeding indicators in the past decade in Greece, but breast-feeding rates - particularly rates of exclusive breast-feeding - remain low. Systematic public health initiatives targeted to health professionals and mothers are needed in order to change the prevailing baby feeding 'culture' and successfully implement the WHO recommendations for exclusive breast-feeding during the first 6 months of life.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/tendências , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grécia , Maternidades/tendências , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência
12.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 46(4): 435-445, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858517

RESUMO

Primary hemostasis, similar to other systems in the adjusting and transitioning neonate, undergoes developmental adaptations in the first days of life. Although platelets of neonates do not differ quantitatively compared with those of adults, they functionally present with major differences, thus supporting the theory of a "hypofunctional" phenotype that is counterbalanced by high hematocrit and more potent von Willebrand factor multimers. No clinical effect of bleeding tendency has hence been established so far for healthy term neonates. However, discrepancies in functionality have been noted, associated with gestational age, with more pronounced platelet hyporesponsiveness in preterm neonates. Multiple methods of in vitro platelet function evaluation such as PFA-100/200, platelet aggregometry, flow cytometry, and cone and platelet analyzer have been used for assessment of neonatal primary hemostasis. Several pregnancies are characterized as "high-risk" when risk factors preexist in maternal history or evolve during pregnancy. These pregnancies require specialized observation as they may have unpredictable outcome. High-risk pregnancies include clinical entities such as preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced smoking during pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), autoimmune diseases, and other maternal hematological conditions. In some cases, like systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, and maternal immunologically based thrombocytopenia, neonatal thrombocytopenia is regarded as a prominent hemostasis defect, while in others, like pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia, both quantitative and qualitative disorders of neonatal platelets have been reported. In other pathologies, like GDM, neonatal primary hemostasis remains vastly unexplored, which raises the need for further investigation. The extent to which primary hemostasis is affected in neonates of high-risk pregnancies is the main objective of this narrative review.

13.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(8)2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443289

RESUMO

Perineal groove is a well-defined clinical entity that belongs to a broader group of anorectal malformations. It is characterized by a non-epithelialized mucous membrane that appears as an erythematous sulcus in the perineal midline, extending from the posterior vaginal fourchette to the anterior anal orifice. The defect is gradually cicatrized, unless there are complications like infection, defecation disorders, trauma, and bleeding. The differential diagnosis includes several other conditions like trauma, infection, irritant dermatitis, lichen sclerosis, and ulcerated hemangioma. Since it is a rare malformation, it is often misdiagnosed and its presence often elicits unnecessary diagnostic workup and intervention. In this respect, neonatologists, dermatologists, or pediatric surgeons may under- or overestimate it. We report four cases of perineal groove out of 2250 live births at a Greek Maternity Hospital between September 2016 and April 2019. The "high" incidence of perineal groove cases in our Department allowed us to familiarize with this rare defect and minimize our clinical interventions.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Bandas Amnióticas/diagnóstico , Malformações Anorretais/diagnóstico , Períneo/anormalidades , Canal Anal/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Grécia , Maternidades , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Vagina/patologia
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