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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32021139

RESUMO

Purpose: There is an ongoing demand for easily accessible biomarkers that reflect the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms of COPD. To test if an exercise challenge could help to identify clinically relevant metabolic biomarkers in COPD. Patients and Methods: We performed two constant-load exercise challenges separated by 4 weeks including smokers with COPD (n=23/19) and sex- and age-matched healthy smokers (n=23/20). Two hours after a standardized meal venous blood samples were obtained before, 5 mins after the start, at the end of submaximal exercise, and following a recovery of 20 mins. Data analysis was performed using mixed- effects model, with the metabolite level as a function of disease, time point and interaction terms and using each individual's resting level as reference. Results: Exercise duration was longer in healthy smokers but lactate levels were comparable between groups at all four time points. Glucose levels were increased in COPD. Glutamine was lower, while glutamate and arginine were higher in COPD. Branched-chain amino acids showed a stronger decline during exercise in healthy smokers. Carnitine and the acyl-carnitines C16 and C18:1 were increased in COPD. These metabolite levels and changes were reproducible in the second challenge. Conclusion: Higher serum glucose, evidence for impaired utilization of amino acids during exercise and a shift of energy metabolism to enhanced consumption of lipids could be early signs for a developing metabolic syndrome in COPD. In COPD patients, deviations of energy and nitrogen metabolism are amplified by an exercise challenge.

2.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 28, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the significant contribution of transcriptomics to the fields of biological and biomedical research, interpreting long lists of significantly differentially expressed genes remains a challenging step in the analysis process. Gene set enrichment analysis is a standard approach for summarizing differentially expressed genes into pathways or other gene groupings. Here, we explore an alternative approach to utilizing gene sets from curated databases. We examine the method of deriving custom gene sets which may be relevant to a given experiment using reference data sets from previous transcriptomics studies. We call these data-derived gene sets, "gene signatures" for the biological process tested in the previous study. We focus on the feasibility of this approach in analyzing immune-related processes, which are complicated in their nature but play an important role in the medical research. RESULTS: We evaluate several statistical approaches to detecting the activity of a gene signature in a target data set. We compare the performance of the data-derived gene signature approach with comparable GO term gene sets across all of the statistical tests. A total of 61 differential expression comparisons generated from 26 transcriptome experiments were included in the analysis. These experiments covered eight immunological processes in eight types of leukocytes. The data-derived signatures were used to detect the presence of immunological processes in the test data with modest accuracy (AUC = 0.67). The performance for GO and literature based gene sets was worse (AUC = 0.59). Both approaches were plagued by poor specificity. CONCLUSIONS: When investigators seek to test specific hypotheses, the data-derived signature approach can perform as well, if not better than standard gene-set based approaches for immunological signatures. Furthermore, the data-derived signatures can be generated in the cases that well-defined gene sets are lacking from pathway databases and also offer the opportunity for defining signatures in a cell-type specific manner. However, neither the data-derived signatures nor standard gene-sets can be demonstrated to reliably provide negative predictions for negative cases. We conclude that the data-derived signature approach is a useful and sometimes necessary tool, but analysts should be weary of false positives.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Curadoria de Dados , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos , Leucócitos/imunologia , Camundongos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
Hepatol Int ; 14(3): 373-384, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Activation of Wnt/ß-catenin pathway is a frequent event in hepatocellular carcinoma and is associated with enhanced cell survival and proliferation. Therefore, targeting this signaling pathway is discussed as an attractive therapeutic approach for HCC treatment. BCL9 and BCL9L, two homologous coactivators of the ß-catenin transcription factor complex, have not yet been comprehensively characterized in HCC. We aimed to elucidate the roles of BCL9 and BCL9L, especially regarding Wnt/ß-catenin signaling and their prognostic value in HCC. METHODS: Expression of BCL9/BCL9L was determined in HCC cell lines (HLE, HLF, Huh7, HepG2, Hep3B, and Huh6) and normal liver cell lines (THLE-2 and THLE-3). To analyze proliferation and apoptosis, BCL9 and/or BCL9L were knocked down in Wnt-inactive HLE and Wnt-active HepG2 and Huh6 cells using siRNA. Subsequently, Wnt reporter assays were performed in HepG2 and Huh6 cells. BCL9 and BCL9L expression, clinicopathological and survival data of public HCC datasets were analyzed, taking the Wnt signaling status into account. RESULTS: Knockdown of BCL9L, but not of BCL9, reduced Wnt signaling activity. Knockdown of BCL9 and/or BCL9L reduced cell viability and increased apoptosis of Wnt-inactive HCC cells, but had no effect in Wnt-active cells. Expression of BCL9 and BCL9L was upregulated in human HCC and increased with progressing dedifferentiation. For BCL9L, higher expression was observed in tumors of larger size. Overexpression of BCL9 and BCL9L correlated with poor overall survival, especially in HCC without activated Wnt signaling. CONCLUSION: Oncogenic BCL9 proteins represent promising targets for cancer therapy and inhibiting them may be particularly beneficial in Wnt-inactive HCCs.

4.
Ann Hum Genet ; 84(2): 195-200, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596515

RESUMO

Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from copper excess. Some patients with clinical Wilson's disease symptoms exhibit no or only heterozygous pathogenic variants in the coding region of the disease-causing ATP7B gene. Therefore, the ATP7B promoter region is of special interest. Metal-responsive elements (MREs) located in the ATP7B promoter are promising motifs in modulating the ATP7B expression. We studied protein interaction of MREe, MREc, and MREd by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and revealed specific interactions for all MREs. We further narrowed down the specific binding site. Proteins potentially binding to the three MREs were identified by MatInspector analyses. Metal regulatory transcription factor 1 (MTF1) could be validated to bind to MREe by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. ATP7B promoter-driven reporter gene expression was significantly increased because of this interaction. MTF1 is a strong candidate in regulating the ATP7B expression through MREe binding.

5.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 238, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric community acquired pneumonia (pedCAP) is one of the leading causes for childhood morbidity accounting for up to 20% of pediatric hospital admissions in high income countries. In spite of its high morbidity, updated epidemiological and pathogen data after introduction of preventive vaccination and novel pathogen screening strategies are limited. Moreover, there is a need for validated recommendations on diagnostic and treatment regimens in pedCAP. Through collection of patient data and analysis of pathogen and host factors in a large sample of unselected pedCAP patients in Germany, we aim to address and substantially improve this situation. METHODS: pedCAPNETZ is an observational, multi-center study on pedCAP. Thus far, nine study centers in hospitals, outpatient clinics and practices have been initiated and more than 400 patients with radiologically confirmed pneumonia have been enrolled, aiming at a total of 1000 study participants. Employing an online data base, information on disease course, treatment as well as demographical and socioeconomical data is recorded. Patients are followed up until day 90 after enrollment; Comprehensive biosample collection and a central pedCAPNETZ biobank allow for in-depth analyses of pathogen and host factors. Standardized workflows to assure sample logistics and data management in more than fifteen future study centers have been established. DISCUSSION: Through comprehensive epidemiological, clinical and biological analyses, pedCAPNETZ fills an important gap in pediatric and infection research. To secure dissemination of the registry, we will raise clinical and scientific awareness at all levels. We aim at participating in decision making processes for guidelines and prevention strategies. Ultimately, we hope the results of the pedCAPNETZ registry will help to improve care and quality of life in pedCAP patients in the future.

6.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 365, 2019 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There continues to be a great need for better biomarkers and host-directed treatment targets for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Alterations in phospholipid metabolism may constitute a source of small molecule biomarkers for acute infections including CAP. Evidence from animal models of pulmonary infections and sepsis suggests that inhibiting acid sphingomyelinase (which releases ceramides from sphingomyelins) may reduce end-organ damage. METHODS: We measured concentrations of 105 phospholipids, 40 acylcarnitines, and 4 ceramides, as well as acid sphingomyelinase activity, in plasma from patients with CAP (n = 29, sampled on admission and 4 subsequent time points), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation with infection (COPD, n = 13) as a clinically important disease control, and 33 age- and sex-matched controls. RESULTS: Phospholipid concentrations were greatly decreased in CAP and normalized along clinical improvement. Greatest changes were seen in phosphatidylcholines, followed by lysophosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and ceramides (three of which were upregulated), and were least in acylcarnitines. Changes in COPD were less pronounced, but also differed qualitatively, e.g. by increases in selected sphingomyelins. We identified highly accurate biomarkers for CAP (AUC ≤ 0.97) and COPD (AUC ≤ 0.93) vs. Controls, and moderately accurate biomarkers for CAP vs. COPD (AUC ≤ 0.83), all of which were phospholipids. Phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelins were also markedly decreased in S. aureus-infected human A549 and differentiated THP1 cells. Correlations with C-reactive protein and procalcitonin were predominantly negative but only of mild-to-moderate extent, suggesting that these markers reflect more than merely inflammation. Consistent with the increased ceramide concentrations, increased acid sphingomyelinase activity accurately distinguished CAP (fold change = 2.8, AUC = 0.94) and COPD (1.75, 0.88) from Controls and normalized with clinical resolution. CONCLUSIONS: The results underscore the high potential of plasma phospholipids as biomarkers for CAP, begin to reveal differences in lipid dysregulation between CAP and infection-associated COPD exacerbation, and suggest that the decreases in plasma concentrations are at least partially determined by changes in host target cells. Furthermore, they provide validation in clinical blood samples of acid sphingomyelinase as a potential treatment target to improve clinical outcome of CAP.

7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 656, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The immune response to seasonal influenza vaccines decreases with advancing age. Therefore, an adjuvanted inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (Fluad®) exists for elderly individuals. Fluad® is more immunogenic and efficacious than conventional influenza vaccines. However, the immune response varies and may still result in high frequencies of poor responders. Therefore, we aimed to a) examine the prevalence of a weak response to Fluad® and b) identify potential risk factors. METHODS: A prospective population-based study among individuals 65-80 years old was conducted in 2015/2016 in Hannover, Germany (n = 200). Hemagglutination-inhibition titers 21 days after vaccination with Fluad® served as indicator of vaccine responsiveness. RESULTS: The percentage of vaccinees with an inadequate vaccine response varied depending on the influenza strain: it was lowest for H3N2 (13.5%; 95% CI, 9.4-18.9%), intermediate for B strain (37.0%; 30.6-43.9%), and highest for H1N1 (49.0%; 42.2-55.9%). The risk of a weak response to the influenza A H1N1 strain was independently associated with self-reported diabetes (AOR, 4.64; 95% CI, 1.16-18.54), a history of herpes zoster (2.27; 1.01-5.10) and, to a much lesser extent, increasing age (change per year, 1.08; 0.99-1.16). In addition, herpes zoster was the only risk factor for a weak response to the H3N2 antigen (AOR, 3.12; 1.18-8.23). We found no significant association between sex, Body Mass Index, cancer, hypertension, heart attack and CMV seropositivity and a weak response to these two influenza A antigens. Despite its occurence in over one third of vaccinees, none of the variables examined proved to be risk factors for a weak response to the B antigen. CONCLUSIONS: A considerable proportion of elderly individuals displayed a weak vaccine response to this adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine and further efforts are thus needed to improve immune responses to influenza vaccination among the elderly. Diabetes and herpes zoster were identified as potentially modifiable risk factors for a poor vaccine response against influenza A antigens, but the results also reveal the need for broader investigations to identify risk factors for inadequate responses to influenza B antigens. TRIAL REGISTRATION: No. NCT02362919 (ClinicalTrials.gov, date of registration: 09.02.2015).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/imunologia , Herpes Zoster/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Influenza/farmacologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estações do Ano , Autorrelato
8.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 17(5): 458-467, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339743

RESUMO

The scientific impact of translational biomedical research largely depends on the availability of high-quality biomaterials. However, evidence-based and robust quality indicators (QIs) covering the most relevant preanalytical variations are still lacking. The aim of this study was to identify and validate a QI suitable for assessing time-to-centrifugation (TTC) delays in human liquid biospecimens originating from both healthy and diseased individuals. Serum and plasma samples with varying TTCs were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in a pilot cohort of healthy individuals to identify a suitable QI candidate. Taurine (TAU), as a TTC QI candidate, was validated in healthy individuals and patients with rheumatologic and cardiologic diseases, considering the (1) preanalytical handling temperature, (2) platelet count, and (3) postcentrifugation delay. For discrimination of high TTC (TTC >60 minutes) from low TTC serum specimens, a probability calculation tool was developed (Triple-T-cutoff-model). TTC-dependent changes in healthy individuals were observed for amino acids, particularly TAU. Validation of the TAU levels in an independent cohort of healthy individuals revealed a time-dependent increase in serum, but not in plasma, for a TTC delay of 30-240 minutes. TAU increases were dependent on the handling temperature and platelet count and volume. By contrast, no changes in TAU concentrations were observed for additional postcentrifugation delays. Validation of TAU and the Triple-T-cutoff-model, in rheumatologic/cardiologic patient collectives, allowed the discrimination of samples with TTC ≤60 min/>60 min with estimated AUROC (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) values of 89% [78%-100%]/86% [71%-100%] and 91% [79%-100%]/84% [68%-100%], respectively. Considering the preanalytical handling temperature and platelet count and volume, TAU and the Triple-T-cutoff-model represent reliable QIs for TTC >60 minutes in serum samples from healthy individuals and selected rheumatologic/cardiologic patients. However, further studies in larger patient collectives with various diseases are needed to assess the robustness and potential of the QIs presented in this article as biobanking quality assurance/quality control tools to support high-quality biomedical research.


Assuntos
Bancos de Sangue/normas , Cardiopatias/sangue , Doenças Reumáticas/sangue , Taurina/sangue , Adulto , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Líquida , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Doenças Reumáticas/metabolismo , Soro/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fluxo de Trabalho
9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8887, 2019 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222113

RESUMO

We analyzed the associations between whole blood microRNA profiles and the indices of glucose metabolism and impaired fasting glucose and examined whether the discovered microRNAs correlate with the expression of their mRNA targets. MicroRNA and gene expression profiling were performed for the Young Finns Study participants (n = 871). Glucose, insulin, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured, the insulin resistance index (HOMA2-IR) was calculated, and the glycemic status (normoglycemic [n = 534]/impaired fasting glucose [IFG] [n = 252]/type 2 diabetes [T2D] [n = 24]) determined. Levels of hsa-miR-144-5p, -122-5p, -148a-3p, -589-5p, and hsa-let-7a-5p associated with glycemic status. hsa-miR-144-5p and -148a-3p associated with glucose levels, while hsa-miR-144-5p, -122-5p, -184, and -339-3p associated with insulin levels and HOMA2-IR, and hsa-miR-148a-3p, -15b-3p, -93-3p, -146b-5p, -221-3p, -18a-3p, -642a-5p, and -181-2-3p associated with HbA1c levels. The targets of hsa-miR-146b-5p that correlated with its levels were enriched in inflammatory pathways, and the targets of hsa-miR-221-3p were enriched in insulin signaling and T2D pathways. These pathways showed indications of co-regulation by HbA1c-associated miRNAs. There were significant differences in the microRNA profiles associated with glucose, insulin, or HOMA-IR compared to those associated with HbA1c. The HbA1c-associated miRNAs also correlated with the expression of target mRNAs in pathways important to the development of T2D.

10.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 116(14): 251, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092313
11.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(6): 879-887, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723317

RESUMO

Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disease of copper excess due to pathogenic variants in the ATP7B gene coding for a copper-transporting ATPase. We present a 5-year-old girl with the homozygous frame shift variant NM_000053.3: c.19_20del in exon 1 of ATP7B (consecutive exon numbering with c.1 as first nucleotide of exon 1), detected by whole-exome sequencing as a secondary finding. The variant leads to a premature termination codon in exon 2. The girl exhibited no WD symptoms and no abnormalities in liver biopsy. ATP7B liver mRNA expression was comparable to healthy controls suggesting that nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) could be bypassed by the mechanism of translation reinitiation. To verify this hypothesis, a CMV-driven ATP7B minigene (pcDNA3) was equipped with the authentic ATP7B 5' untranslated region  and a truncated intron 2. We introduced c.19_20del by site-directed mutagenesis and overexpressed the constructs in HEK293T cells. We analyzed ATP7B expression by qRT-PCR, northern and western blot, and examined protein function by copper export capacity assays. Northern blot, qRT-PCR, and western blot revealed that c.19_20del ATP7B mRNA and protein is expressed in size and amount comparable to wild-type. Copper export capacity was also comparable to wild-type. Our results indicate that c.19_20del in ATP7B is able to bypass NMD by translation reinitiation, demonstrating that the classification of truncating variants as pathogenic without additional investigations should be done carefully.

12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(2): 276-287, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721968

RESUMO

Background: Lean body mass (LM) plays an important role in mobility and metabolic function. We previously identified five loci associated with LM adjusted for fat mass in kilograms. Such an adjustment may reduce the power to identify genetic signals having an association with both lean mass and fat mass. Objectives: To determine the impact of different fat mass adjustments on genetic architecture of LM and identify additional LM loci. Methods: We performed genome-wide association analyses for whole-body LM (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, age2, and height with or without fat mass adjustments (Model 1 no fat adjustment; Model 2 adjustment for fat mass as a percentage of body mass; Model 3 adjustment for fat mass in kilograms). Results: Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in separate loci, including one novel LM locus (TNRC6B), were successfully replicated in an additional 47,227 individuals from 29 cohorts. Based on the strengths of the associations in Model 1 vs Model 3, we divided the LM loci into those with an effect on both lean mass and fat mass in the same direction and refer to those as "sumo wrestler" loci (FTO and MC4R). In contrast, loci with an impact specifically on LM were termed "body builder" loci (VCAN and ADAMTSL3). Using existing available genome-wide association study databases, LM increasing alleles of SNPs in sumo wrestler loci were associated with an adverse metabolic profile, whereas LM increasing alleles of SNPs in "body builder" loci were associated with metabolic protection. Conclusions: In conclusion, we identified one novel LM locus (TNRC6B). Our results suggest that a genetically determined increase in lean mass might exert either harmful or protective effects on metabolic traits, depending on its relation to fat mass.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Composição Corporal/genética , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Impedância Elétrica , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética , Versicanas/genética , Adulto Jovem
13.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(8): 1381-1391, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629177

RESUMO

The effect of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation on peripheral blood transcriptomics in health and disease is not fully known. Sex-specific mitochondrially controlled gene expression patterns have been shown in Drosophila melanogaster but in humans, evidence is lacking. Functional variation in mtDNA may also have a role in the development of type 2 diabetes and its precursor state, i.e. prediabetes. We examined the associations between mitochondrial single-nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs) and peripheral blood transcriptomics with a focus on sex- and prediabetes-specific effects. The genome-wide blood cell expression data of 19 637 probes, 199 deep-sequenced mtSNPs and nine haplogroups of 955 individuals from a population-based Young Finns Study cohort were used. Significant associations were identified with linear regression and analysis of covariance. The effects of sex and prediabetes on the associations between gene expression and mtSNPs were studied using random-effect meta-analysis. Our analysis identified 53 significant expression probe-mtSNP associations after Bonferroni correction, involving 7 genes and 31 mtSNPs. Eight probe-mtSNP signals remained independent after conditional analysis. In addition, five genes showed differential expression between haplogroups. The meta-analysis did not show any significant differences in linear model effect sizes between males and females but identified the association between the OASL gene and mtSNP C16294T to show prediabetes-specific effects. This study pinpoints new independent mtSNPs associated with peripheral blood transcriptomics and replicates six previously reported associations, providing further evidence of the mitochondrial genetic control of blood cell gene expression. In addition, we present evidence that prediabetes might lead to perturbations in mitochondrial control.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Células Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Células Sanguíneas/fisiologia , DNA Mitocondrial/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Variação Genética/genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transcriptoma/genética
14.
Infect Genet Evol ; 68: 84-90, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529560

RESUMO

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in initiating an immune response to infections. In this study, we examined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR pathway genes are associated with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in a Moldavian population. Thirty-four SNPs in genes associated with the TLR pathway and two SNPs in ASAP1 gene identified by GWAS were selected for genotyping in 272 patients and 251 community-matched healthy controls. Twenty-nine SNPs passed quality control and were statistically evaluated. SNPs TLR9 rs352139, TLR2 rs3804099 and MYD88 rs4988453 were associated with PTB in females (OR = 0.49, p = 0.0009; OR = 0.51, p = 0.0008; OR = 0.33, p = 0.027; here and below log-additive model with minor alleles assumed as effect associated alleles), while SNP TLR8 rs3764880 showed a significant association in males (OR = 0.44, p = 0.0087). Furthermore, SNPs TLR9 rs352139 and TLR8 rs3764880 were associated with PTB in the late-onset (≥39-year-old) patient group (OR = 0.60, p = 0.0029 and OR = 0.70, p = 0.021, respectively) and SNPs TLR2 rs3804099, TLR4 rs4986790 and TLR4 rs1927906 in the early-onset (≤ 38-year-old) group (OR = 0.53, p = 0.0012; OR = 3.45, p = 0.013; OR = 2.31, p = 0.044, respectively). After correction for multiple testing, only SNPs TLR9 rs352139 and TLR2 rs3804099 in the female group and SNP TLR2 rs3804099 in the early-onset group remained significant. In summary, we show an association of SNP TLR8 rs3764880 with PTB in the Moldavian male population, providing support to previous studies conducted on other populations. Polymorphisms rs3804099 (TLR2) and rs352139 (TLR9) may also be associated with PTB risk in the Moldavian population but their effect is less consistent across different studies. Additional large-scale association studies along with functional tests are required to dissect the relevance of these associations.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto , Idade de Início , Feminino , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moldávia/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vigilância da População , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia
15.
Int J Cancer ; 144(11): 2683-2694, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30426508

RESUMO

NGS-based multiple gene panel resequencing in combination with a high resolution CGH-array was used to identify genetic risk factors for hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer in 237 high risk patients who were previously tested negative for pathogenic BRCA1/2 variants. All patients were screened for pathogenic variants in 94 different cancer predisposing genes. We identified 32 pathogenic variants in 14 different genes (ATM, BLM, BRCA1, CDH1, CHEK2, FANCG, FANCM, FH, HRAS, PALB2, PMS2, PTEN, RAD51C and NBN) in 30 patients (12.7%). Two pathogenic BRCA1 variants that were previously undetected due to less comprehensive and sensitive methods were found. Five pathogenic variants are novel, three of which occur in genes yet unrelated to hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer (FANCG, FH and HRAS). In our cohort we discovered a remarkably high frequency of truncating variants in FANCM (2.1%), which has recently been suggested as a susceptibility gene for hereditary breast cancer. Two patients of our cohort carried two different pathogenic variants each and 10 other patients in whom a pathogenic variant was confirmed also harbored a variant of unknown significance in a breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene. We were able to identify pathogenic variants predisposing for tumor formation in 12.3% of BRCA1/2 negative breast and/or ovarian cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 172(3): 561-569, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191368

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to characterize a novel structural variant, a large duplication involving exons 1-19 of the BRCA1 gene in four independent families, and to provide diagnostically valuable information including the position of the breakpoints as well as clues to its clinical significance. METHODS: The duplication of exons 1-19 of the BRCA1 gene was initially detected by routine laboratory testing including MLPA analysis and next generation sequencing. For detailed characterization we performed array-comparative genome hybridization analysis, fluorescent in situ hybridization, next generation mapping, and long-distance PCR for break-point sequencing. RESULTS: Our data revealed a tandem duplication on chromosome 17 that encompassed 357 kb and included exons 1-19 of the BRCA1 gene and the genes NBR2, NBR1, TMEM106A, LOC100130581, ARL4D, MIR2117 up to parts of the DHX8 gene. This structural variant appeared as a tandem duplication with breakpoints in intron 19 of the BRCA1 gene and in intron 3 of the DHX8 gene (HGVS:chr17(hg19):g.41210776_41568516dup). Segregation analysis indicated that this structural rearrangement is phased in trans with a known pathogenic exon deletion of the BRCA1 gene in one family. CONCLUSIONS: The copy number variation initially recognized as duplication of exon 1-19 of the BRCA1 gene by MLPA analysis is a structural variation with breakpoints in the BRCA1 and DHX8 genes. Although currently to be classified as a variant of unknown significance, our family data indicates that this duplication may be a benign variation or at least of markedly reduced penetrance since it occurs in trans with another known fully pathogenic variant in the BRCA1 gene.


Assuntos
RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Éxons , Duplicação Gênica , Genes BRCA1 , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Adulto , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos
17.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(11): 1572-1581, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089824

RESUMO

Human biological materials and related data stored in biobanks are valuable resources for biomedical research. Transparent, effective, and efficient governance structures and procedures for access, compensation, and priority setting are needed, but recent debates indicate challenges in the practical application of such governance processes. This study aimed to assess the practical experiences and attitudes of biobank experts regarding the governance of biosample access, prioritization, and compensation. Qualitative, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 20 biobank directors from eight countries. Respondents highlighted the need for sound governance structures in order to ensure acceptance by all stakeholders (patients/donors, researchers, research funders, public, and others). They stressed practical difficulties in trying to make best use of biomaterials. As biobanks often form part of larger academic and clinical settings, the different and sometimes conflicting interests of researchers, clinicians, patients, funders, and biobank staff currently affect the governance of access decisions. Investments such as intellectual input, financial, and human resources need to be compensated adequately. Biobanks thereby have a dual role stewarding the hosted biosamples and acting as a service provider for local researchers from universities or hospitals. In order to facilitate efficient use of human biological materials, greater harmonization of at least minimum standards for access and compensation are required at both a national and an international level.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/normas , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/economia , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/organização & administração , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 87, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30086788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most prevalent tumor entity in Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Up to 80% of individuals with a Li-Fraumeni-like phenotype do not harbor detectable causative germline TP53 variants. Yet, no systematic panel analyses for a wide range of cancer predisposition genes have been conducted on cohorts of women with breast cancer fulfilling Li-Fraumeni(-like) clinical diagnostic criteria. METHODS: To specifically help explain the diagnostic gap of TP53 wild-type Li-Fraumeni(-like) breast cancer cases, we performed array-based CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and panel-based sequencing of 94 cancer predisposition genes on 83 breast cancer patients suggestive of Li-Fraumeni syndrome who had previously had negative test results for causative BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53 germline variants. RESULTS: We identified 13 pathogenic or likely pathogenic germline variants in ten patients and in nine genes, including four copy number aberrations and nine single-nucleotide variants or small indels. Three patients presented as double-mutation carriers involving two different genes each. In five patients (5 of 83; 6% of cohort), we detected causative pathogenic variants in established hereditary breast cancer susceptibility genes (i.e., PALB2, CHEK2, ATM). Five further patients (5 of 83; 6% of cohort) were found to harbor pathogenic variants in genes lacking a firm association with breast cancer susceptibility to date (i.e., Fanconi pathway genes, RECQ family genes, CDKN2A/p14ARF, and RUNX1). CONCLUSIONS: Our study details the mutational spectrum in breast cancer patients suggestive of Li-Fraumeni syndrome and indicates the need for intensified research on monoallelic variants in Fanconi pathway and RECQ family genes. Notably, this study further reveals a large portion of still unexplained Li-Fraumeni(-like) cases, warranting comprehensive investigation of recently described candidate genes as well as noncoding regions of the TP53 gene in patients with Li-Fraumeni(-like) syndrome lacking TP53 variants in coding regions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto Jovem
19.
Metabolites ; 8(3)2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134533

RESUMO

Night shift work can have a serious impact on health. Here, we assess whether and how night shift work influences the metabolite profiles, specifically with respect to different chronotype classes. We have recruited 100 women including 68 nurses working both, day shift and night shifts for up to 5 consecutive days and collected 3640 spontaneous urine samples. About 424 waking-up urine samples were measured using a targeted metabolomics approach. To account for urine dilution, we applied three methods to normalize the metabolite values: creatinine-, osmolality- and regression-based normalization. Based on linear mixed effect models, we found 31 metabolites significantly (false discovery rate <0.05) affected in nurses working in night shifts. One metabolite, acylcarnitine C10:2, was consistently identified with all three normalization methods. We further observed 11 and 4 metabolites significantly associated with night shift in early and late chronotype classes, respectively. Increased levels of medium- and long chain acylcarnitines indicate a strong impairment of the fatty acid oxidation. Our results show that night shift work influences acylcarnitines and BCAAs, particularly in nurses in the early chronotype class. Women with intermediate and late chronotypes appear to be less affected by night shift work.

20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 10358, 2018 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985430

RESUMO

Fatty liver (FL) disease is the most common type of chronic liver disease. We hypothesized that liver's response to the process where large droplets of triglyceride fat accumulate in liver cells is reflected also in gene pathway expression in blood. Peripheral blood genome wide gene expression analysis and ultrasonic imaging of liver were performed for 1,650 participants (316 individuals with FL and 1,334 controls) of the Young Finns Study. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed for the expression data. Fourteen gene sets were upregulated (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.05) in subjects with FL. These pathways related to extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover, immune response regulation, prothrombotic state and neural tissues. After adjustment for known risk factors and biomarkers of FL, we found i) integrin A4B1 signaling, ii) leukocyte transendothelial migration, iii) CD40/CD40L and iv) netrin-1 signaling pathways to be upregulated in individuals with FL (nominal p < 0.05). From these all but not ii) remained significantly upregulated when analyzing only subjects without history of heavy alcohol use. In conclusion, FL was associated with blood gene sets of ECM turnover, inflammatory response, immune system activation and prothrombotic state. These may form a systemic link between FL and the development of cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/sangue , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Antígenos CD40/genética , Antígenos CD40/metabolismo , Ligante de CD40/genética , Ligante de CD40/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Feminino , Finlândia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Integrina alfa4beta1/genética , Integrina alfa4beta1/metabolismo , Leucócitos/citologia , Leucócitos/fisiologia , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Netrina-1/genética , Netrina-1/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
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