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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256732, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364524

RESUMO

Germin-like proteins (GLPs) play an important role against various stresses. Vitis vinifera L. genome contains 7 GLPs; many of them are functionally unexplored. However, the computational analysis may provide important new insight into their function. Currently, physicochemical properties, subcellular localization, domain architectures, 3D structures, N-glycosylation & phosphorylation sites, and phylogeney of the VvGLPs were investigated using the latest computational tools. Their functions were predicted using the Search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes/proteins (STRING) and Blast2Go servers. Most of the VvGLPs were extracellular (43%) in nature but also showed periplasmic (29%), plasma membrane (14%), and mitochondrial- or chloroplast-specific (14%) expression. The functional analysis predicted unique enzymatic activities for these proteins including terpene synthase, isoprenoid synthase, lipoxygenase, phosphate permease, receptor kinase, and hydrolases generally mediated by Mn+ cation. VvGLPs showed similarity in the overall structure, shape, and position of the cupin domain. Functionally, VvGLPs control and regulate the production of secondary metabolites to cope with various stresses. Phylogenetically VvGLP1, -3, -4, -5, and VvGLP7 showed greater similarity due to duplication while VvGLP2 and VvGLP6 revealed a distant relationship. Promoter analysis revealed the presence of diverse cis-regulatory elements among which CAAT box, MYB, MYC, unnamed-4 were common to all of them. The analysis will help to utilize VvGLPs and their promoters in future food programs by developing resistant cultivars against various biotic (Erysiphe necator and in Powdery Mildew etc.) and abiotic (Salt, drought, heat, dehydration, etc.) stresses.


As proteínas do tipo germin (GLPs) desempenham um papel importante contra vários estresses. O genoma de Vitis vinifera L. contém 7 GLPs; muitos deles são funcionalmente inexplorados. No entanto, a análise computacional pode fornecer informações importantes sobre sua função. Atualmente, as propriedades físico-químicas, localização subcelular, arquitetura de domínio, estruturas 3D, sítios de N-glicosilação e fosforilação e estudos filogenéticos dos VvGLPs foram conduzidos usando as ferramentas computacionais mais recentes. Suas funções foram previstas usando a ferramenta Search para recuperação de genes/proteínas em interação (STRING) e servidores Blast2Go. A maioria dos VvGLPs são extracelulares (43%) na natureza, mas também mostraram expressão periplasmática (29%), na membrana plasmática (14%) e específica para mitocôndrias ou cloroplastos (14%). A análise funcional previu atividades enzimáticas únicas para essas proteínas, incluindo terpeno sintase, isoprenoide sintase, lipoxigenase, fosfato permease, receptor quinase e hidrolases geralmente mediadas por cátion Mn +. VvGLPs mostraram similaridade na estrutura geral, forma e posição do domínio cupin. Funcionalmente, os VvGLPs controlam e regulam a produção de metabólitos secundários para lidar com vários estresses. Filogeneticamente, VvGLP1, -3, -4, -5 e VvGLP7 mostraram maior similaridade devido à duplicação, enquanto VvGLP2 e VvGLP6 revelaram uma relação distante. A análise do promotor revelou a presença de diversos elementos cis-reguladores, entre os quais CAAT box, MYB, MYC, sem nome-4, sendo comum a todos eles. A análise ajudará a utilizar VvGLPs e seus promotores em programas alimentares futuros, desenvolvendo cultivares resistentes contra vários estresses bióticos (Erysiphe necator e no oídio, etc.) e abióticos (sal, seca, calor, estresse hídrico, etc.).


Assuntos
Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Proteínas , Vitis/genética
2.
Neurosurg Focus Video ; 8(1): V6, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36628088

RESUMO

Smooth symmetric facial muscle function is important for social interactions. When lesions of the facial nerve occur, achieving complete restoration of balanced and spontaneous facial function can be challenging. In this video, the authors demonstrate the surgical details and long-term follow-up of a masseter-to-facial nerve transfer in a 3-year-old girl who had insidious onset of a left facial palsy due to a facial nerve schwannoma. After resection, she underwent distal nerve repair with a masseter-to-zygomatic branch transfer. She demonstrated decreased lagophthalmos and good activation and excursion on the left side with near symmetry to the right side, but lacked left frontalis function. The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2022.9.FOCVID22107.

3.
Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) ; 24(2): 162-167, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36637300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grafts available for posterior fossa dural reconstruction after Chiari decompression surgery include synthetic, xenograft, allograft, and autograft materials. The reported rates of postoperative pseudomeningocele and cerebrospinal fluid leak vary, but so far, no dural patch material or technique has sufficiently eliminated these problems. OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of graft-related complications after posterior fossa surgery using AlloDerm alone vs AlloDerm with a DuraGen underlay. METHODS: We performed a retrospective single-center study of a cohort of 106 patients who underwent Chiari decompression surgery by a single surgeon from 2014 through 2021. Age, sex, body mass index, tonsillar descent, syrinx formation, type of dural graft, and follow-up data were analyzed using univariate and χ2 statistical tests. RESULTS: The AlloDerm-only group had a percutaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak rate of 8.6% vs a 0% rate in the dual graft group (P = .037). At initial follow-up, there was a 15.5% combined rate of pseudomeningocele formation plus CSF leak in the AlloDerm-only group vs 18.8% in the AlloDerm + DuraGen group (P = .659). However, the pseudomeningoceles were larger in the AlloDerm-only cohort (45.5 vs 22.4 mm anteroposterior plane, P = .004), and 5 patients in this group required operative repair (56%). All pseudomeningoceles resolved without reoperation in the AlloDerm + DuraGen group (P = .003). CONCLUSION: The use of a DuraGen underlay with a sutured AlloDerm dural patch resulted in significantly fewer CSF-related complications and eliminated the need for reoperation compared with AlloDerm alone. This single-center study provides evidence that buttressing posterior fossa dural grafts with a DuraGen underlay may decrease the risk of postoperative complications.


Assuntos
Malformação de Arnold-Chiari , Rinorreia de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano , Humanos , Descompressão Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/epidemiologia , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/cirurgia , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/complicações , Rinorreia de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/etiologia , Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia
5.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e259326, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703626

RESUMO

The Agrobacterium-mediated floral dip protocol is the most extensively used transformation method for a model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Several useful methods for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformations of Arabidopsis are existing, but they are time consuming and with low transformation efficiency. Here, we developed a transgenic Arabidopsis lines TET12p::TET12-RFP in a short period of time and enhanced transformation efficiency by using a modified transformation method by applying drought stress after floral dip. In this protocol, Agrobacterium cells carrying TET12p::TET12-RFP recombinant vectors were resuspended in a solution of 5% sucrose, 0.05% (v/v) silwet L-77 to transform female gametes of developing Arabidopsis inflorescences. Treated Arabidopsis were then applied with different levels of drought stresses to stimulate plants for the utilization of maximum plant energy in seed maturation process. The applied stresses achieved the fast maturation of already treated inflorescences while stopped the growing of newly arising untreated inflorescence, thus decreased the chances of wrong collection of untransformed seeds. Consequently, the collected seeds were mostly transgenic with a transformation frequency of at least 10%, thus the screening for positive transformants selection was more advantageous on a selective medium as compared to a classical floral dip method. Within 2-3 months, two hundred of individual transgenic plants were produced from just 10 infiltrated plants. This study concludes that application of drought stresses in a specific stage of plant is a beneficial strategy for achieving the transgenic Arabidopsis in a short period of time with high transformation efficiency.


Assuntos
Agrobacterium , Arabidopsis , Agrobacterium/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Secas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Transformação Genética
6.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e256732, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35293478

RESUMO

Germin-like proteins (GLPs) play an important role against various stresses. Vitis vinifera L. genome contains 7 GLPs; many of them are functionally unexplored. However, the computational analysis may provide important new insight into their function. Currently, physicochemical properties, subcellular localization, domain architectures, 3D structures, N-glycosylation & phosphorylation sites, and phylogeney of the VvGLPs were investigated using the latest computational tools. Their functions were predicted using the Search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes/proteins (STRING) and Blast2Go servers. Most of the VvGLPs were extracellular (43%) in nature but also showed periplasmic (29%), plasma membrane (14%), and mitochondrial- or chloroplast-specific (14%) expression. The functional analysis predicted unique enzymatic activities for these proteins including terpene synthase, isoprenoid synthase, lipoxygenase, phosphate permease, receptor kinase, and hydrolases generally mediated by Mn+ cation. VvGLPs showed similarity in the overall structure, shape, and position of the cupin domain. Functionally, VvGLPs control and regulate the production of secondary metabolites to cope with various stresses. Phylogenetically VvGLP1, -3, -4, -5, and VvGLP7 showed greater similarity due to duplication while VvGLP2 and VvGLP6 revealed a distant relationship. Promoter analysis revealed the presence of diverse cis-regulatory elements among which CAAT box, MYB, MYC, unnamed-4 were common to all of them. The analysis will help to utilize VvGLPs and their promoters in future food programs by developing resistant cultivars against various biotic (Erysiphe necator and in Powdery Mildew etc.) and abiotic (Salt, drought, heat, dehydration, etc.) stresses.


Assuntos
Vitis , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vitis/genética
7.
J Vis Exp ; (179)2022 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35156661

RESUMO

Understanding the mechanisms that underpin post-natal maturation of articular cartilage is of crucial importance for designing the next generation of tissue engineering strategies and potentially repairing diseased or damaged cartilage. In general, postnatal maturation of the articular cartilage, which is a wholesale change in collagen structure and function of the tissue to accommodate growth of the organism, occurs over a timescale ranging from months to years. Conversely dissolution of the structural organization of the cartilage that also occurs over long timescales is the hallmark of tissue degeneration. Our ability to study these biological processes in detail have been enhanced by the findings that growth factors can induce precocious in vitro maturation of immature articular cartilage. The developmental and disease related changes that occur in the joint involve bone and cartilage and an ability to co-image these tissues would significantly increase our understanding of their intertwined roles. The simultaneous visualization of soft tissue, cartilage and bone changes is nowadays a challenge to overcome for conventional preclinical imaging modalities used for the joint disease follow-up. Three-dimensional X-ray Phase-Contrast Imaging methods (PCI) have been under perpetual developments for 20 years due to high performance for imaging low density objects and their ability to provide additional information compared to conventional X-ray imaging. In this protocol we detail the procedure used in our experiments from biopsy of the cartilage, generation of in vitro matured cartilage to data analysis of image collected using X-ray phase contrast imaging.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular , Animais , Cartilagem Articular/diagnóstico por imagem , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Bovinos , Microscopia de Contraste de Fase , Radiografia , Engenharia Tecidual , Raios X
8.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 16: 817752, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35221924

RESUMO

To identify cellular and molecular gradients following spinal cord injury (SCI), a rat contusion model of severe SCI was used to investigate the expression of NG2 and molecules that identify astrocytes and axons of the ventral horns (VH) at different distances on 7 and 30 days post-injury (dpi). A gradient of expression of NG2+/Olig2+ cells was determined, with the highest concentrations focused close to the injury site. A decrease in NG2 mean intensity correlates with a decrease in the number of NG2+ cells more distally. Immunoelectron microscopy subsequently revealed the presence of NG2 in connection with the membrane and within the cytoplasm of NG2+ glial cells and in large amounts within myelin membranes. Analysis of the astrocyte marker GFAP showed increased expression local to injury site from 7 dpi, this increase in expression spread more distally from the injury site by 30 dpi. Paradoxically, astrocyte perisynaptic processes marker GLT-1 was only increased in expression in areas remote from the epicenter, which was traced both at 7 and 30 dpi. Confocal microscopy showed a significant decrease in the number of 5-HT+ axons at a distance from the epicenter in the caudal direction, which is consistent with a decrease in ß3-tubulin in these areas. The results indicate significant cellular and molecular reactions not only in the area of the gray matter damage but also in adjacent and remote areas, which is important for assessing the possibility of long-distance axonal growth.

9.
Cell Mol Neurobiol ; 42(3): 647-664, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128689

RESUMO

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a fundamental component of biological tissues. The ECM in the central nervous system (CNS) is unique in both composition and function. Functions such as learning, memory, synaptogenesis, and plasticity are regulated by numerous ECM molecules. The neural ECM acts as a non-specific physical barrier that modulates neuronal plasticity and axon regeneration. There are two specialized types of ECM in the CNS, diffuse perisynaptic ECM and condensed ECM, which selectively surround the perikaryon and initial part of dendritic trees in subtypes of neurons, forming perineuronal nets. This review presents the current knowledge about the role of important neuronal ECM molecules in maintaining the basic functions of a neuron, including electrogenesis and the ability to form neural circuits. The review mainly focuses on the role of ECM components that participate in the control of key events such as cell survival, axonal growth, and synaptic remodeling. Particular attention is drawn to the numerous molecular partners of the main ECM components. These regulatory molecules are integrated into the cell membrane or disposed into the matrix itself in solid or soluble form. The interaction of the main matrix components with molecular partners seems essential in molecular mechanisms controlling neuronal functions. Special attention is paid to the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4, type 1 transmembrane protein, neural-glial antigen 2 (NG2/CSPG4), whose cleaved extracellular domain is such a molecular partner that it not only acts directly on neural and vascular cells, but also exerts its influence indirectly by binding to resident ECM molecules.


Assuntos
Axônios , Regeneração Nervosa , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo
10.
World Neurosurg ; 159: e32-e39, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861449

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) techniques have advanced the treatment of metastatic diseases to the spine. The objective of this review is to describe clinical outcomes, benefits, and complications of these techniques. METHODS: All relevant clinical studies describing the role of MIS, computer-assisted navigation (CAN), robot-assisted (RA) procedures, and laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) in the treatment of metastatic spine diseases were identified from PubMed, MEDLINE, and relevant article bibliographies. RESULTS: For MIS articles, we filtered 1480 results and identified 26 studies. For CAN, we searched 464 articles to identify 18 articles for review. For RA, we searched 321 results to identify 7 studies for review. For LITT, we identified 21 articles for review. CONCLUSIONS: MIS for the treatment of spine metastasis has significant potential benefits in reducing surgical site infections, hospital stay, and blood loss without compromising instrument accuracy or overall outcomes. Overall, MIS and its adjuncts have the potential to reduce the risks involved in the treatment of patients with metastatic disease to the spinal column without compromising the benefits of decompression and stabilization of the spine.


Assuntos
Fusão Vertebral , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238891, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249229

RESUMO

Abstract Food handlers plays a primary role in the transmission of pathogenically important protozoans and helminth parasites. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal pathogenic protozoans and helminth parasites among food handlers in and around University of Malakand, Lower Dir, Pakistan. Stool samples were collected from 642 food handlers (all of male) in a cross-sectional study from January to November, 2017. Wet Mount Techniques and concentration methods by using salt and formol-ether solutions. Three hundred and eighty four cases (59.8%) were found infected with one more parasites. Most of the individuals were found infected with helminth (47.6%) as compared to intestinal protozoans (0.93%). Seventy two cases (11.2%) of the cases presented mixed infection with both intestinal protozoan and helminth parasites. The order of prevalence for intestinal helminth was Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40.1%), followed by Taeniasa ginata (n=96, 14.9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8.40%) and Trichuris trichura (n=30, 4.60%). For intestinal protozoa, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (n = 36, 5.64%) was the only protozoan detected. Mono-parasitism was higher than poly-parasitism. Family size income and education level were the factors significantly (P<0.05) associated in the parasites prevalence. Current research showed that IPIs are primarily the foodborne pathogens still an important public health problem in Pakistan. Effective control programs on parasitic diseases transfer and their associated factors are recommended.


Resumo Os manipuladores de alimentos desempenham um papel fundamental na transmissão de protozoários e helmintos parasitas patogenicamente importantes. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de protozoários patogênicos intestinais e helmintos parasitas entre manipuladores de alimentos na Universidade de Malakand, Lower Dir, Paquistão. Amostras de fezes foram coletadas de 642 manipuladores de alimentos (todos do sexo masculino) em um estudo transversal de janeiro a novembro de 2017. Técnicas de montagem úmida e métodos de concentração usando soluções de sal e formol-éter. Trezentos e oitenta e quatro casos (59,8%) foram encontrados infectados com mais um parasita. A maioria dos indivíduos foi encontrada infectada por helmintos (47,6%) em comparação com protozoários intestinais (0,93%). Setenta e dois casos (11,2%) dos casos apresentavam infecção mista com protozoários intestinais e helmintos parasitas. A ordem de prevalência de helmintos intestinais foi Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40,1%), seguido por Taeniasa ginata (n = 96, 14,9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8,40%) e Trichuris trichura (n = 30, 4,60 %). Para protozoários intestinais, Entamoeba histolytica / dispar (n = 36, 5,64%) foi o único protozoário detectado. Monoparasitismo foi maior do que poliparasitismo. A renda familiar e o nível de escolaridade foram os fatores significativamente (P <0,05) associados na prevalência de parasitos. A pesquisa atual mostrou que os IPIs são principalmente os patógenos de origem alimentar, ainda um importante problema de saúde pública no Paquistão. Programas eficazes de controle da transferência de doenças parasitárias e seus fatores associados são recomendados.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Parasitos , Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Fezes
12.
Mar Drugs ; 19(8)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436244

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease leading to degeneration of articular cartilage, causing morbidity in approximately 8.5 million of the UK population. As the dense extracellular matrix of articular cartilage is primarily composed of collagen, cartilage repair strategies have exploited the biocompatibility and mechanical strength of bovine and porcine collagen to produce robust scaffolds for procedures such as matrix-induced chondrocyte implantation (MACI). However, mammalian sourced collagens pose safety risks such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy and possible transmission of viral vectors. This study characterised a non-mammalian jellyfish (Rhizostoma pulmo) collagen as an alternative, safer source in scaffold production for clinical use. Jellyfish collagen demonstrated comparable scaffold structural properties and stability when compared to mammalian collagen. Jellyfish collagen also displayed comparable immunogenic responses (platelet and leukocyte activation/cell death) and cytokine release profile in comparison to mammalian collagen in vitro. Further histological analysis of jellyfish collagen revealed bovine chondroprogenitor cell invasion and proliferation in the scaffold structures, where the scaffold supported enhanced chondrogenesis in the presence of TGFß1. This study highlights the potential of jellyfish collagen as a safe and biocompatible biomaterial for both OA repair and further regenerative medicine applications.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Condrogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno/química , Osteoartrite/terapia , Cifozoários , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Colágeno/farmacologia , Humanos , Engenharia Tecidual
13.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 625497, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336816

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint degenerative disease that is an exceedingly common problem associated with aging. Aging is the principal risk factor for OA, but damage-related physiopathology of articular chondrocytes probably drives the mechanisms of joint degeneration by a progressive decline in the homeostatic and regenerative capacity of cells. Cellular aging is the manifestation of a complex interplay of cellular and molecular pathways underpinned by transcriptional, translational, and epigenetic mechanisms and niche factors, and unraveling this complexity will improve our understanding of underlying molecular changes that affect the ability of the articular cartilage to maintain or regenerate itself. This insight is imperative for developing new cell and drug therapies for OA disease that will target the specific causes of age-related functional decline. This review explores the key age-related changes within articular chondrocytes and discusses the molecular mechanisms that are commonly perturbed as cartilage ages and degenerates. Current efforts and emerging potential therapies in treating OA that are being employed to halt or decelerate the aging processes are also discussed.

14.
Neuroscience ; 467: 142-149, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102261

RESUMO

Emerging evidence supports an increased role for NG2/CSPG4-expressing cells in the process of neuroregeneration and synaptic plasticity, due to the increased production of multifunctional chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (NG2/CSPG4). However, the response of NG2/CSPG4-expressing cells in spinal cord injury (SCI) remains to be elcudiated. Expression and distribution of NG2/CSPG4-expressing cells were studied by immunoelectron microscopy in the ventral horns (VH) of an intact and injured rat spinal cord. In the intact spinal cord, NG2/CSPG4 expression was detected on the cell membrane and in the cytoplasm of NG2 glia and was absent in neurons. Large amounts of NG2/CSPG4 were found on myelin membranes. The ability of intact astrocytes to produce NG2/CSPG4 was shown, although to a lesser extent than oligodendrocytes and NG2 glia. At 7 days after SCI at the Th8 level in the reactive glial zone of VH, the expression of NG2/CSPG4 sharply increased in NG2 glia at a distance of 3-5 mm and in reactive astrocytes were observed at all investigated distances caudally from the epicenter of injury. The obtained results indicate the presence of NG2/CSPG4-positive astrocytes in the intact spinal cord, and in the case of damage, an increase in the ability of reactive astrocytes to produce NG2/CSPG4. SCI leads to increased expression of NG2/CSPG4 by NG2 glia in the early stages after injury, which decreases with distance from the epicenter of the injury, as well as at later stages.


Assuntos
Proteoglicanas , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Animais , Antígenos , Astrócitos , Proteoglicanas de Sulfatos de Condroitina , Microscopia Imunoeletrônica , Ratos , Medula Espinal
15.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238891, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037080

RESUMO

Food handlers plays a primary role in the transmission of pathogenically important protozoans and helminth parasites. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal pathogenic protozoans and helminth parasites among food handlers in and around University of Malakand, Lower Dir, Pakistan. Stool samples were collected from 642 food handlers (all of male) in a cross-sectional study from January to November, 2017. Wet Mount Techniques and concentration methods by using salt and formol-ether solutions. Three hundred and eighty four cases (59.8%) were found infected with one more parasites. Most of the individuals were found infected with helminth (47.6%) as compared to intestinal protozoans (0.93%). Seventy two cases (11.2%) of the cases presented mixed infection with both intestinal protozoan and helminth parasites. The order of prevalence for intestinal helminth was Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40.1%), followed by Taeniasa ginata (n=96, 14.9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8.40%) and Trichuris trichura (n=30, 4.60%). For intestinal protozoa, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (n = 36, 5.64%) was the only protozoan detected. Mono-parasitism was higher than poly-parasitism. Family size income and education level were the factors significantly (P<0.05) associated in the parasites prevalence. Current research showed that IPIs are primarily the foodborne pathogens still an important public health problem in Pakistan. Effective control programs on parasitic diseases transfer and their associated factors are recommended.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Fezes , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública
16.
Malays Orthop J ; 15(1): 72-78, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880151

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to target the current practices of the orthopaedic community in outpatient (OPD), emergency (ER) and surgical services (OT) during COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This study surveyed 303 orthopaedic surgeons from all over Pakistan. The survey had 30 questions targeting the setup of outpatient, emergency and operation services in orthopaedic departments of different hospitals in Pakistan. RESULT: A total of 302 surgeons were included from 53 cities all over Pakistan. Between 35-48% of the respondents reported lack of availability of standard operating procedures in OPD, ER and in OT. Majority of the respondents noted that their OPD and surgical practice had been affected to some degree and 69% of the surgeons were only doing trauma surgery. This trend was higher in younger consultants of less than 45 years of age (p<0.001). Almost two-third of the surgeons, mostly senior (p=0.03) were using surgical masks as the only protective measure during various practices of OPD, ER and OT, while most of the setups were not assessing patients even for signs and symptoms of COVID. Almost 89% of the orthopaedic community is facing definite to mild stress during this pandemic and this has significantly affected the senior surgeons (p=0.01). CONCLUSION: Our study highlighted that COVID-19 has resulted in marked changes to the practices of the majority of Pakistani orthopaedic surgeons. Despite a sharp upsurge in the number of cases and mortality due to COVID-19, guidelines were still lacking at most of the settings and a substantial percentage of the orthopaedic community were not following adequate safety measures while attending to patients.

17.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(7): 508-513, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913774

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Autologous stem cell progenitor implantation into necrotic lesions of the femoral head has previously been described as a potential treatment for avascular necrosis (AVN), on the basis that there is a reduced number of functioning stem cells in the marrow within the necrotic segment. We present a case series of patients with AVN that underwent core decompression with autologous stem cell implantation using a new device. METHODS: The records and imaging of patients with AVN of the femoral head treated by a single surgeon were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were treated with core decompression and stem cell progenitor implantation, using the PerFuse system. Preoperatively, demographic information, AVN staging (as per Ficat and Arlet classification) and visual analogue pain scores (VAS) of the hips were recorded. These results were compared with postoperative VAS and imaging, with further review on the progression of AVN. RESULTS: We treated 14 hips in 13 patients with an average follow up of 12 months. Patients with Ficat I-II were selected for the procedure. The average preoperative VAS was 3.9. Postoperatively, this dropped to 2.6, with over half of patients reporting at least a two-point decrease in pain. Eight of the 14 treated hips showed no radiological progression of the disease, while six showed femoral head collapse requiring total hip arthroplasty (THA) at an average of ten months after treatment. CONCLUSION: Our early findings indicate that hip decompression with stem cell progenitor implantation for AVN of the femoral head provides symptomatic relief and may be beneficial in arresting progression of disease using this simple new device.


Assuntos
Artralgia/cirurgia , Descompressão Cirúrgica/instrumentação , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/cirurgia , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Artralgia/diagnóstico , Artralgia/etiologia , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Cabeça do Fêmur/patologia , Cabeça do Fêmur/cirurgia , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/complicações , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/diagnóstico , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/patologia , Articulação do Quadril/patologia , Articulação do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Surg Neurol Int ; 12: 453, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjacent-segment disease (ASD) is a well-described long-term complication after lumbar fusion. There is a lack of consensus about the risk factors for development of ASD, but identifying them could improve surgical outcomes. Our goal was to analyze the effect of patient characteristics and radiographic parameters on the development of symptomatic ASD requiring revision surgery after posterior lumbar fusion. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we identified patients who underwent lumbar fusion surgery and revision surgery from May 2012 to November 2018 using an institutional lumbar fusion registry. Patients having both pre- and post-operative upright radiographs were included in the study. Revision surgeries for which the index operation was performed at an outside hospital were excluded from analysis. Univariate analysis was conducted on candidate variables, and variables with P< 0.2 were selected for multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 106 patients identified, 21 required reoperation (29 months average follow-up). Age >65 years (OR 4.14, 95% CI 1.46-11.76, P= 0.008), body mass index (BMI) >34 (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.23, P = 0.004), and osteoporosis (OR 14, 95% CI 1.38-142.42, P = 0.03) were independent predictors of reoperation in the multivariate analysis. Increased facet diastasis at fusion levels (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.42-0.85, P = 0.004) was associated with reduced reoperation rates. Change in segmental LL at the index operation level, rostral and caudal facet diastasis, vacuum discs, and T2 hyperintensity in the facets were not predictors of reoperation. CONCLUSION: Age >65, BMI >34, and osteoporosis were independent predictors of adjacent-segment reoperation after lumbar spinal fusion.

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