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1.
J Virol ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597210

RESUMO

Opium poppy mosaic virus (OPMV) is a recently discovered umbravirus in family Tombusviridae OPMV has a plus-sense genomic (g)RNA of 4241 nt from which replication protein p35 and p35-extension product p98, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), are expressed. Movement proteins p27 (long-distance) and p28 (cell-to-cell) are expressed from a 1440 nt subgenomic RNA (sgRNA2). A highly conserved structure was identified just upstream from the sgRNA2 transcription start site in all umbraviruses, which includes a carmovirus consensus sequence, denoting generation by an RdRp-mediated mechanism. OPMV also has a second sgRNA of 1554 nt (sgRNA1) that starts just downstream of a canonical exoribonuclease-resistant sequence (xrRNAD). sgRNA1 codes for a 30 kDa protein in vitro that is in-frame with p28 and cannot be synthesized in other umbraviruses. Eliminating sgRNA1 or truncating the p30 ORF without affecting p28 substantially reduced accumulation of OPMV gRNA, suggesting a functional role for the protein. The 652 nt 3' untranslated region of OPMV contains two 3' cap-independent translation enhancers (3' CITEs): a T-shaped structure (TSS) near its 3' end, and a Barley yellow dwarf virus-like translation element (BTE) in the central region. Only the BTE is functional in luciferase reporter constructs containing gRNA or sgRNA2 5' sequences in vivo, which differs from how umbravirus 3' CITEs are used in a previous study. Similar to most 3' CITEs, the OPMV BTE links to the 5' end via a long-distance RNA:RNA interaction. Analysis of 14 BTEs revealed additional conserved sequences and structural features beyond the previously identified 17-nt conserved sequence.Importance Opium poppy mosaic virus (OPMV) is an umbravirus in family Tombusviridae We determined that OPMV accumulates two similarly sized subgenomic (sg)RNAs, with the smaller known to code for proteins expressed from overlapping open reading frames. The slightly larger sgRNA1 has a 5' end just upstream from a previously predicted xrRNAD site, identifying this sgRNA as an unusually long product produced by exoribonuclease trimming. Although four umbraviruses have similar predicted xrRNAD sites, only sgRNA1 of OPMV can code for a protein that is an extension product of umbravirus ORF4. Inability to generate the sgRNA or translate this protein was associated with reduced gRNA accumulation in vivo We also characterized the OPMV BTE structure, a 3' cap-independent translation enhancer (3'CITE). Comparisons of 13 BTEs with the OPMV BTE revealed additional stretches of sequence similarity beyond the 17-nt signature sequence, as well as conserved structural features not previously recognized in these 3' CITEs.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445168

RESUMO

A series of green emitting Gd2O3:Tb3+ (Tb: 0-10% mol) nanoparticles (NP) were synthesized using the hydrothermal method, then characterized and evaluated for latent fingerprint visualization. X-ray diffraction study (XRD) revealed a cubic structure of the nanoparticles and the total incorporation of the terbium in the Gd2O3 matrix. Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDX) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to study the morphology and the elementary composition of the NP. Photoluminescence (PL) studies showed strong green emission around 540 nm due to the transition 5D4→7F5. The luminescence color of the synthesized NP was characterized by the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram. The potential use of the NP powders for the visualization of latent fingerprint under UV irradiation was assessed on various substrates. The latent fingerprint images revealed by the Gd2O3:Tb3+ NP powders are clear enough to extract and analyze reliable fingerprint features. The fingerprint quality was evaluated using three fingerprint quality assessment metrics and by extracting and measuring the visibility of the minutiae. The experimental results show very good quality images of the latent fingerprint acquired using the Gd2O3:Tb3+ NP and yield good minutiae extraction.

4.
Clin Nucl Med ; 46(1): 43-44, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156044

RESUMO

Metastatic involvement of the thyroid cartilage is rare due to the absence of vessels within the cartilaginous tissue. We present the case of a 65-year-old woman recently diagnosed with breast cancer referred for skeletal staging with F-NaF PET/CT. She was found to have multiple osteoblastic metastases along with thyroid cartilage metastasis. Rare thyroid cartilage metastasis on F-NaF PET/CT may have prognostic significance in cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Radioisótopos de Flúor , Neoplasias Laríngeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Laríngeas/secundário , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Fluoreto de Sódio , Cartilagem Tireóidea/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Feminino , Humanos , Prognóstico
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2029655, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337494

RESUMO

Importance: Worldwide, preterm birth (PTB) is the single largest cause of deaths in the perinatal and neonatal period and is associated with increased morbidity in young children. The cause of PTB is multifactorial, and the development of generalizable biological models may enable early detection and guide therapeutic studies. Objective: To investigate the ability of transcriptomics and proteomics profiling of plasma and metabolomics analysis of urine to identify early biological measurements associated with PTB. Design, Setting, and Participants: This diagnostic/prognostic study analyzed plasma and urine samples collected from May 2014 to June 2017 from pregnant women in 5 biorepository cohorts in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs; ie, Matlab, Bangladesh; Lusaka, Zambia; Sylhet, Bangladesh; Karachi, Pakistan; and Pemba, Tanzania). These cohorts were established to study maternal and fetal outcomes and were supported by the Alliance for Maternal and Newborn Health Improvement and the Global Alliance to Prevent Prematurity and Stillbirth biorepositories. Data were analyzed from December 2018 to July 2019. Exposures: Blood and urine specimens that were collected early during pregnancy (median sampling time of 13.6 weeks of gestation, according to ultrasonography) were processed, stored, and shipped to the laboratories under uniform protocols. Plasma samples were assayed for targeted measurement of proteins and untargeted cell-free ribonucleic acid profiling; urine samples were assayed for metabolites. Main Outcomes and Measures: The PTB phenotype was defined as the delivery of a live infant before completing 37 weeks of gestation. Results: Of the 81 pregnant women included in this study, 39 had PTBs (48.1%) and 42 had term pregnancies (51.9%) (mean [SD] age of 24.8 [5.3] years). Univariate analysis demonstrated functional biological differences across the 5 cohorts. A cohort-adjusted machine learning algorithm was applied to each biological data set, and then a higher-level machine learning modeling combined the results into a final integrative model. The integrated model was more accurate, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.83 (95% CI, 0.72-0.91) compared with the models derived for each independent biological modality (transcriptomics AUROC, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.61-0.83]; metabolomics AUROC, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.47-0.72]; and proteomics AUROC, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.64-0.85]). Primary features associated with PTB included an inflammatory module as well as a metabolomic module measured in urine associated with the glutamine and glutamate metabolism and valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis pathways. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that, in LMICs and high PTB settings, major biological adaptations during term pregnancy follow a generalizable model and the predictive accuracy for PTB was augmented by combining various omics data sets, suggesting that PTB is a condition that manifests within multiple biological systems. These data sets, with machine learning partnerships, may be a key step in developing valuable predictive tests and intervention candidates for preventing PTB.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Assistência Perinatal , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Adulto , Causalidade , Regras de Decisão Clínica , Países em Desenvolvimento , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Aprendizado de Máquina , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Assistência Perinatal/normas , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez/sangue , Gravidez/urina , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle
6.
Cureus ; 12(10): e10907, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194474

RESUMO

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is the most common prion disease. It is characterized by neuronal loss, glial cell proliferation, and inflammatory reaction absence. It typically involves deep grey structures, including the caudate nucleus, putamen, and thalamus, with sparing of the hippocampus. Death usually occurs within one year of the onset of symptoms. A 59-year-old male presented to the outpatient department (OPD) with involuntary jerky movements of his right arm, progressive stiffness of the right half of his body, and slurring of speech for two months. His stiffness had led him to be completely bed-bound. He was admitted and during the hospital stay, he started showing cognitive decline. His MRI brain revealed a bright FLAIR signal in the left basal ganglia, claustrum, sub-, and peri-insular cortex extending into the left parietal parasagittal cortex. He was discharged with a probable diagnosis of CJD with advice to undergo a follow-up MRI brain after one month. He presented again to the hospital after four months with sepsis secondary to urinary tract infection, bedsores, and infected percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) site. His Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on presentation was 8/15, with a fixed gaze and tonic posturing of upper and lower limbs. A follow-up MRI brain showed rapidly progressive cortical atrophy and communicating hydrocephalus consistent with CJD. The diagnosis of CJD requires the presence of clinical findings with a positive electroencephalogram (EEG), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings, and neuroimaging, or pathological findings. In our patient, a diagnosis of probable CJD was made based on clinical symptoms and positive cortical ribboning on the MRI brain using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. EEG was nonspecific, and CSF tau proteins and brain biopsy could not be done.

7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(21)2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153217

RESUMO

The health industry is one of the most auspicious domains for the application of Internet of Things (IoT) based technologies. Lots of studies have been carried out in the health industry field to minimize the use of resources and increase the efficiency. The use of IoT combined with other technologies has brought quality advancement in the health sector at minimum expense. One such technology is the use of wireless body area networks (WBANs), which will help patients incredibly in the future and will make them more productive because there will be no need for staying at home or a hospital for a long time. WBANs and IoT have an integrated future as WBANs, like any IoT application, are a collection of heterogeneous sensor-based devices. For the better amalgamation of the IoT and WBANs, several hindrances blocking their integration need to be addressed. One such problem is the efficient routing of data in limited resource sensor nodes (SNs) in WBANs. To solve this and other problems, such as transmission of duplicate sensed data, limited network lifetime, etc., energy harvested and cooperative-enabled efficient routing protocol (EHCRP) for IoT-WBANs is proposed. The proposed protocol considers multiple parameters of WBANs for efficient routing such as residual energy of SNs, number of hops towards the sink, node congestion levels, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and available network bandwidth. A path cost estimation function is calculated to select forwarder node using these parameters. Due to the efficient use of the path-cost estimation process, the proposed mechanism achieves efficient and effective multi-hop routing of data and improves the reliability and efficiency of data transmission over the network. After extensive simulations, the achieved results of the proposed protocol are compared with state-of-the-art techniques, i.e., E-HARP, EB-MADM, PCRP and EERP. The results show significant improvement in network lifetime, network throughout, and end-to-end delay.

8.
Front Psychol ; 11: 570236, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192855

RESUMO

Background: The global spread of COVID-19 makes Pakistan as vulnerable as any other developing country and the risk posed by the weak health system increases the fears in people's minds. The government is strategically expanding the scope of community ownership and increasing understanding in the population through risk communication and engagement; still, the situation remains very austere and is even affecting the psychological health of caregivers. We, therefore, sought to determine the impact of psychosocial job demands and resources associated with the psychological health of nurses in a time lag duration of 3 months, i.e., since the start of the pandemic, from January to March 2020. We hypothesized the significant mediating roles of stress and eustress in a direct relationship with psychosocial work environment job demands, job resources, and nurses' wellbeing. Methods: In this cross-sectional self-administrated study, we distributed the survey in two parts by using a time-lag strategy to collect data at the start of pandemic (Time 1) and then again 3 months later (Time 2). Data on 53 items was collected from 208 female nurses who had participated in both the time phases and met the eligibility protocols of the study (such as being certified female nurses who have a registration number (RN) through the Pakistan Nursing Council (PNC), having 4 years of a generic nursing degree, and 2 years of nursing experience). Findings: We have achieved three stages through our analytic study on the nurses' samples to determine the predictive abilities for the quality of the psychosocial work environment model. The coefficient of determination is R2, while the effect size is f2. We found 29.0% variance, 0.05 and 0.03 effect size, and 0.153 predictive abilities on stress as explained by job demands, and 53.4% variance, 0.19 and 0.39 effect size, and 0.275 predictive abilities on eustress as explained by job resources. And finally, there was 71.2% variance, 0.00, 0.02, 0.02, 0.03, 0.42, and 0.07 effect sizes, and 0.545 predictive abilities on our third endogenous construct, wellbeing, which is explained by both the psychosocial job demands and job resource variables. From partial to full mediation, stress and eustress significantly impact the psychosocial work environment of nurses.

9.
Chem Asian J ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108039

RESUMO

The potential of Scenedesmus dimorphus microalgae for CO2 biofixation and lipid biosynthesis for bioenergy applications was evaluated in this study. Batch experiments were conducted using synthetic tertiary municipal wastewater samples at several nitrogen to phosphorus (NP) ratios (1 : 1 to 8 : 1) and CO2 concentrations (∼0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% CO2 in supplied air). Scenedesmus dimorphus was cultivated for 25 days and the growth is highly dependent on the CO2 concentration and the NP ratio. An NP ratio of 2 : 1 produces a biomass yield of 733 mg/L when the microalga culture was supplied with air enriched with 2% CO2 . The maximum CO2 biofixation rate of 49.6 mg L-1 d-1 is at an NP ratio of 8 : 1 with 4% CO2 . A colorimetric technique depending on sulpho-phospho-vanillin (SPV) was utilized for the determination of the intracellular lipid content. The highest lipid content of 31.6% as the dry weight of the biomass is at an NP ratio of 1 : 1 and 6% CO2 . These results indicate that supplementation of suitable CO2 with favorable NP ratio has a considerable effect on lipid accumulation in the microalgae Scenedesmus dimorphus biomass.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237264, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002034

RESUMO

The precise evaluation of the potential damage caused by large commercial aircraft crash into civil structures, especially nuclear power plants (NPPs), has become essential design consideration. In this study, impact of Boeing 767 against rigid wall and outer containment building (reinforced concrete) of an NPP are simulated in ANSYS/LS-DYNA by using both force time history and missile target interaction methods with impact velocities ranging from 100 m/s to 150 m/s. The results show that impact loads, displacements, stresses for concrete and steel reinforcement, and damaged elements are higher in case of force time history method than missile target interaction method, making the former relatively conservative. It is observed that no perforation or scabbing takes place in case of 100 m/s impact speed, thus preventing any potential leakage. With full mass of Boeing 767 and impact velocity slightly above 100 m/s, the outer containment building can prevent local failure modes. At impact velocity higher than 120 m/s, scabbing and perforations are dominant. This concludes that in design and assessment of NPP structures against aircraft loadings, sufficient thickness or consideration of steel plates are essential to account for local failure modes and overall structural integrity. Furthermore, validation and application of detail 3D finite element and material models to full-scale impact analysis have been carried out to expand the existing database. In rigid wall impact analysis, the impact forces and impulses from FE analysis and Riera's method correspond well, which satisfies the recommendations of relevant standards and further ensure the accuracy of results in full-scale impact analysis. The methodology presented in this paper is extremely effective in simulating structural evaluation of full-scale aircraft impact on important facilities such as NPPs.


Assuntos
Acidentes Aeronáuticos , Aeronaves , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos , Acidentes Aeronáuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Códigos de Obras , Simulação por Computador , Materiais de Construção/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Modelos Teóricos , Centrais Nucleares , Fenômenos Físicos , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos/prevenção & controle , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Aço , Colapso Estrutural/prevenção & controle , Colapso Estrutural/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Front Psychol ; 11: 1924, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013504

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has imperatively shaken the behavior of the global financial markets. This study estimated the impact of COVID-19 on the behavior of the financial markets of Europe and the US. The results revealed that the returns of the S&P 500 index have been greatly affected by a lockdown in the US owing to COVID-19. However, the health crisis generated due to the novel coronavirus significantly decreased the stock returns of the Nasdaq Composite index. The results also showed that the economic crisis generated from the pandemic in Spain has had more impact on the IBEX 35 as compared to the health crisis itself. On the other hand, in the long-run, Italy's stock markets are more affected by the health crisis as contrasted with the economic crisis, while, in the short-run, both lockdown conditions and economic instability lower the stock returns of FTSE MIB. The UK stock markets witnessed that in the short-run, deficiency of health management systems imperatively damaged the stock returns of the London Stock Exchange. The investigation revealed that deficiency of health systems and lockdown conditions have imperatively damaged the structure of financial markets, inferring that sustainable development of these nations is at risk due to COVID-19. The study suggested that governments should allocate more of their budget to the health sector to overcome a health crisis in the future.

12.
Work ; 66(4): 767-775, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevention is the best way to manage a pandemic like COVID-19. The World Health Organization has issued public advice to create awareness by providing people knowledge to prevent/protect them from COVID-19. Hence, the present study was planned to assess knowledge of prevention and its practical use amongst samples from the Saudi Arabian population. It can be used to bring awareness among the masses not only in expanding their knowledge about COVID-19 but also on how to enforce a practicing behavior in relation to the prevention of COVID-19. The study is among the pioneer studies on the issue related to knowledge and practice of the prevention of COVID-19 among Saudis and foreign nationals residing in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVE: The prime objective of this study is to examine the existence of knowledge among the Saudi and non-Saudi nationals about COVID-19 and its impact on their behavior to practice the protocols to prevent the disastrous infection of COVID-19. This study has also examined how the residents in Saudi Arabia react to the methods and protection measures adopted by the government for their dominions to eradicate the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: The study used a survey-based methodology and data was collected from Saudi nationals as well as expatriates living and working in five different regions of Saudi Arabia. Non-probability snowball sampling was used to reach and select the population of the current study. A self-designed, structured, and validated questionnaire was electronically distributed among the respondents. SPSS version 21 was used to analyze the data of the current study. RESULTS: Out of the 443 respondents, 356 respondents (84%) knew they had to wash their hands for 20 seconds and did this as well, 303 respondents (75%) knew that sneezing or coughing into the arm/elbow can prevent the spread of COVID-19 and were doing this as well, 357 respondents (82%) knew that COVID-19 can be transferred by shaking hands and avoided this, 333 respondents (79%) knew that they had to maintain a safe distance of at least one meter and kept this distance, 315 respondents (76%) knew that touching one's face can transfer the virus and avoid this, and 414 respondents (95%) knew that staying at home can decrease the chances of getting infected. The relationship between different regions and most of the knowledge-based and practice-based questions was significant (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Results reveal that there is a significant relationship between knowledge and practice, but the strength of association is weak. It was found that knowledge and practice of COVID-19 was followed differently in the five regions of Saudi Arabia and the level of education of the respondents influenced their choice of practice to protect themselves from the effects of COVID-19. The study has contributed in the body of literature by examining the inter-relationship between knowledge and practice and their use in prevention of COVID-19 among the Saudi population.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study is an original contribution to the gender-based perspective of measuring knowledge and practice towards COVID-19 among Saudi population. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the existing knowledge of COVID-19 among both genders and its likely use in practice to combat COVID-19. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross sectional study with an online survey and data collected from all the five regions of Saudi Arabia. PARTICIPANTS AND METHOD: A structured, self-reported validated questionnaire was developed based on the World Health Organization (WHO) general public advice towards COVID-19 prevention. This study has employed snow-ball sampling technique. SAMPLE SIZE: 627 participants (Male n=343, 54.7%) and (Females n=284, 45.3%). RESULTS: This study has found that women not only carry better knowledge, but their practicing behavior is far better than the male respondents. Females practiced their knowledge of hands hygiene more in comparison to males (86% vs 80 %, p >0.05). Female respondents were also practicing more about sneezing/coughing into their elbows as compared to males(79 % vs 71%, p < 0.05). Likewise, the practice of knowledge of staying at home to prevent infection (females 98.2 % vs males 95.5%, p > 0.05), and (females 83.2 % vs males 81.5%, p > 0.05) respectively. CONCLUSION: This study shows that women were more compliant to the WHO public health covid-19 prevention advice than men which can decrease the chances of covid-19 infection.

14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0230464, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645102

RESUMO

The current study focuses on the usage of bio synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles to increase the tissue culture efficiency of important forage grass Panicum virgatum. Zinc being a micronutrient enhanced the callogenesis and regeneration efficiency of Panicum virgatum at different concentrations. Here, we synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles through Cymbopogon citratus leaves extract to evaluate the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on plant regeneration ability in switchgrass. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) validate phase purity of green synthesize Zinc oxide nanoparticles whereas, electron microscopy (SEM) has illustrated the average size of particle 50±4 nm with hexagonal rod like shape. Energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray (EDS) depicted major peaks of Zn (92.68%) while minor peaks refer to Oxygen (7.32%). ZnO-NPs demonstrated the incredibly promising results against callogenesis. Biosynthesized ZnO-NPs at optimum concentration showed very promising effect on plant regeneration ability. Both the explants, seeds and nodes showed dose dependent response and upon high doses exceeding 40 mg/L the results were recorded negative, whereas at 30 mg/L both explants demonstrated 70% and 76% regeneration frequency. The results conclude that ZnO-NPs enhance the plant growth and development and tailored the nutritive properties at nano-scale. Furthermore, eco-friendly approach of ZnO-NPs synthesis is strongly believed to improve in vitro regeneration frequencies in several other monocot plants.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Panicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Panicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Cymbopogon , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Regeneração , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X , Óxido de Zinco/síntese química
15.
Genetica ; 148(3-4): 195-206, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607672

RESUMO

The strategic location of Pakistan and its presence at the crossroads of Asia has resulted in it playing a central role in both prehistoric and historic human migratory events, thereby linking and facilitating contacts between the inhabitants of the Middle East, Central Asia, China and South Asia. Despite the importance of this region and its inhabitants for our understanding of modern human origins and population dispersals, the nature of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation among members of the myriad populations of this area has largely been unexplored. Here, we report mtDNA control region sequences in 58 individuals from the Khattak and the Kheshgi, two major Pakhtun tribes residing within the Peshawar Valley of northwestern Pakistan. The results reveal that these ethnic groups are genetically heterogeneous, having 55.7% West Eurasian, 33.9% South Asian and 10.2% East Asian haplogroups. The genetic diversity observed for the Kheshgi was somewhat higher than that of the Khattak. A multidimensional scaling plot based on haplogroup frequencies for the Khattak, Kheshgi and neighboring populations indicates that the Khattak have close affinities with Baluch, Uzbek and Kazak populations but are only distantly related to the Kheshgi and other Pakistani populations. By contrast, the Kheshgi cluster closely with other Pakhtun or Pathan populations of Pakistan, suggesting a possible common maternal gene pool shared amongst them. These mtDNA data allow us to begin reconstructing the origins of the Khattak and Kheshgi and describe their complex interactions with populations from the surrounding regions.

16.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2020: 4650520, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549906

RESUMO

During the past couple of years, statistical distributions have been widely used in applied areas such as reliability engineering, medical, and financial sciences. In this context, we come across a diverse range of statistical distributions for modeling heavy tailed data sets. Well-known distributions are log-normal, log-t, various versions of Pareto, log-logistic, Weibull, gamma, exponential, Rayleigh and its variants, and generalized beta of the second kind distributions, among others. In this paper, we try to supplement the distribution theory literature by incorporating a new model, called a new extended Weibull distribution. The proposed distribution is very flexible and exhibits desirable properties. Maximum likelihood estimators of the model parameters are obtained, and a Monte Carlo simulation study is conducted to assess the behavior of these estimators. Finally, we provide a comparative study of the newly proposed and some other existing methods via analyzing three real data sets from different disciplines such as reliability engineering, medical, and financial sciences. It has been observed that the proposed method outclasses well-known distributions on the basis of model selection criteria.

17.
Pol J Microbiol ; 69: 1-8, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412188

RESUMO

Measles infection is of substantial interest to immunologists due to its paradoxical interaction with the immune system. After the acquisition of the measles infection, secondary infection plays a pivotal role in measles-related deaths. A cross-sectional study conducted between December 2018 and July 2019 is presented here. A total of one hundred children of both genders presented with measles complications were included following WHO criteria. Measles confirmation was done by quantitative determination of anti-measles antibodies (IgM) in patients' sera while patient-related demographic data, vaccination status, and other clinical information were obtained on a separate form. The number of female patients (52%) slightly exceeded the number of males (48%). 43% of patients' parents were illiterate, and half of the patients (50%) were from a poor background. The majority of children (76%) who presented with the complications did not receive a measles vaccine. 56% of children were breastfed while 58% received vitamin A supplements but developed complications. The elevated levels of anti-measles IgM were observed in 77% of cases. In both genders, the major complications were pneumonia, lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), acute diarrhea, diarrhea and LRTI, pneumonia and diarrhea, otitis media and pneumonia, myocarditis and LRTI, and pneumothorax. The majority of the infected children (n = 48) under 12 months of age had associated complications. It has been observed that the measles virus strikes early age children in the northwestern region of Pakistan, which is an alarming situation and is associated with the aforementioned complications, especially in unvaccinated children. Anti-measles IgM is an important serological parameter for early diagnosis of measles infection.Measles infection is of substantial interest to immunologists due to its paradoxical interaction with the immune system. After the acquisition of the measles infection, secondary infection plays a pivotal role in measles-related deaths. A cross-sectional study conducted between December 2018 and July 2019 is presented here. A total of one hundred children of both genders presented with measles complications were included following WHO criteria. Measles confirmation was done by quantitative determination of anti-measles antibodies (IgM) in patients' sera while patient-related demographic data, vaccination status, and other clinical information were obtained on a separate form. The number of female patients (52%) slightly exceeded the number of males (48%). 43% of patients' parents were illiterate, and half of the patients (50%) were from a poor background. The majority of children (76%) who presented with the complications did not receive a measles vaccine. 56% of children were breastfed while 58% received vitamin A supplements but developed complications. The elevated levels of anti-measles IgM were observed in 77% of cases. In both genders, the major complications were pneumonia, lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), acute diarrhea, diarrhea and LRTI, pneumonia and diarrhea, otitis media and pneumonia, myocarditis and LRTI, and pneumothorax. The majority of the infected children (n = 48) under 12 months of age had associated complications. It has been observed that the measles virus strikes early age children in the northwestern region of Pakistan, which is an alarming situation and is associated with the aforementioned complications, especially in unvaccinated children. Anti-measles IgM is an important serological parameter for early diagnosis of measles infection.

18.
mBio ; 11(2)2020 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156817

RESUMO

The nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway presents a challenge for RNA viruses with termination codons that precede extended 3' untranslated regions (UTRs). The umbravirus Pea enation mosaic virus 2 (PEMV2) is a nonsegmented, positive-sense RNA virus with an unusually long 3' UTR that is susceptible to NMD. To establish a systemic infection, the PEMV2 long-distance movement protein p26 was previously shown to both stabilize viral RNAs and bind them for transport through the plant's vascular system. The current study demonstrated that p26 protects both viral and nonviral messenger RNAs from NMD. Although p26 localizes to both the cytoplasm and nucleolus, p26 exerts its anti-NMD effects exclusively in the cytoplasm independently of long-distance movement. Using a transcriptome-wide approach in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana, p26 protected a subset of cellular NMD target transcripts, particularly those containing long, structured, GC-rich 3' UTRs. Furthermore, transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed that the NMD pathway is highly dysfunctional during PEMV2 infection, with 1,820 (48%) of NMD targets increasing in abundance. Widespread changes in the host transcriptome are common during plant RNA virus infections, and these results suggest that, in at least some instances, virus-mediated NMD inhibition may be a major contributing factor.IMPORTANCE Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) represents an RNA regulatory pathway that degrades both natural and faulty messenger RNAs with long 3' untranslated regions. NMD targets diverse families of RNA viruses, requiring that viruses counteract the NMD pathway for successful amplification in host cells. A protein required for long-distance movement of Pea enation mosaic virus 2 (PEMV2) is shown to also protect both viral and host mRNAs from NMD. RNA-seq analyses of the Nicotiana benthamiana transcriptome revealed that PEMV2 infection significantly impairs the host NMD pathway. RNA viruses routinely induce large-scale changes in host gene expression, and, like PEMV2, may use NMD inhibition to alter the host transcriptome in an effort to increase virus amplification.

19.
IET Syst Biol ; 14(2): 59-67, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196464

RESUMO

Regulation of hypnosis level on bi-spectral index monitor (BIS) during a surgical procedure in propofol anaesthesia administration is a challenging task for an anaesthesiologist in multi-tasking environment of the operation theater. Automation in anaesthesia has the potential to solve issues arising from manual administration. Automation in anaesthesia is based on developing the three-compartmental model including pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic of the silico patients. This study focuses on regulation of the hypnosis level in the presence of surgical stimulus including skin incision, surgical diathermy and laryngoscopy as well as inter-patient variability by designing super-twisting sliding mode control (STSMC). The depth of the hypnosis level is maintained to 50 on the BIS level in the maintenance phase after improving the induction phase to 60 s using the conventional sliding mode control and 30 s with STSMC. The proposed scheme also compensates the inter-patient variability dynamics including height, age and weight of the different silico patients. Moreover, the surgical stimuli direct the hypnosis level towards the state of consciousness and stimulate the controller to provide continuous drug infusion during the interval 80-90 s. Simulation results witness that the oscillatory behaviour is observed in drug infusion to ensure the moderate level of hypnosis (40-60) for general surgery.

20.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2020: 4373595, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148556

RESUMO

Statistical distributions play a prominent role in applied sciences, particularly in biomedical sciences. The medical data sets are generally skewed to the right, and skewed distributions can be used quite effectively to model such data sets. In the present study, therefore, we propose a new family of distributions to model right skewed medical data sets. The proposed family may be named as a flexible reduced logarithmic-X family. The proposed family can be obtained via reparameterizing the exponentiated Kumaraswamy G-logarithmic family and the alpha logarithmic family of distributions. A special submodel of the proposed family called, a flexible reduced logarithmic-Weibull distribution, is discussed in detail. Some mathematical properties of the proposed family and certain related characterization results are presented. The maximum likelihood estimators of the model parameters are obtained. A brief Monte Carlo simulation study is done to evaluate the performance of these estimators. Finally, for the illustrative purposes, three applications from biomedical sciences are analyzed and the goodness of fit of the proposed distribution is compared to some well-known competitors.

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