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1.
Hypertension ; 75(2): 324-330, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865788

RESUMO

Whether extreme dipping is associated with cardiovascular events (CVE) is unclear. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the prognostic role of extreme dipping varies as a function of age. The analysis was performed in 10 868 participants (53% men) aged 53±15 (mean±SD) years enrolled in 8 prospective studies. Using the ambulatory systolic blood pressure nocturnal decline, we identified 4 groups: dippers (>10%-20%), nondippers (>0%-10%), reverse dippers (≤0%), and extreme dippers (>20%). The association between dipping category and CVE was estimated as a function of age using Cox models adjusted for sex, average 24-hour systolic blood pressure, and traditional risk factors. During a median follow-up of 5.7 years, there were a total of 829 CVE (168 fatal). For extreme dippers, no increase in risk of CVE was observed among the participants <70 years (hazard ratio, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.73-1.34]; P=0.93) compared with dippers. In contrast, among the participants ≥70 years, there was a significant increase in risk (hazard ratio, 1.88 [95% CI, 1.14-3.11]; P=0.013). Among the octogenarians, the hazard ratio (95% CI) for CVE were 2.34 (1.12-4.93) for nondippers (P=0.024), 3.91 (1.75-8.73) for reverse dippers (P=0.001), and 4.12 (1.64-10.37) for extreme dippers (P=0.003) compared with dippers. These data show that extreme dipping is not associated with poorer outcome in people younger than 70 years. A U-shaped relationship between nocturnal blood pressure dipping and adverse outcome is present in subjects older than 70 years. In the octogenarian extreme dippers, the risk of CVEs was 4× higher than in the dippers and similar to that in the reverse dippers.

2.
Hypertension ; 74(6): 1333-1342, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630575

RESUMO

Participant-level meta-analyses assessed the age-specific relevance of office blood pressure to cardiovascular complications, but this information is lacking for out-of-office blood pressure. At baseline, daytime ambulatory (n=12 624) or home (n=5297) blood pressure were measured in 17 921 participants (51.3% women; mean age, 54.2 years) from 17 population cohorts. Subsequently, mortality and cardiovascular events were recorded. Using multivariable Cox regression, floating absolute risk was computed across 4 age bands (≤60, 61-70, 71-80, and >80 years). Over 236 491 person-years, 3855 people died and 2942 cardiovascular events occurred. From levels as low as 110/65 mm Hg, risk log-linearly increased with higher out-of-office systolic/diastolic blood pressure. From the youngest to the oldest age group, rates expressed per 1000 person-years increased (P<0.001) from 4.4 (95% CI, 4.0-4.7) to 86.3 (76.1-96.5) for all-cause mortality and from 4.1 (3.9-4.6) to 59.8 (51.0-68.7) for cardiovascular events, whereas hazard ratios per 20-mm Hg increment in systolic out-of-office blood pressure decreased (P≤0.0033) from 1.42 (1.19-1.69) to 1.09 (1.05-1.12) and from 1.70 (1.51-1.92) to 1.12 (1.07-1.17), respectively. These age-related trends were similar for out-of-office diastolic pressure and were generally consistent in both sexes and across ethnicities. In conclusion, adverse outcomes were directly associated with out-of-office blood pressure in adults. At young age, the absolute risk associated with out-of-office blood pressure was low, but relative risk high, whereas with advancing age relative risk decreased and absolute risk increased. These observations highlight the need of a lifecourse approach for the management of hypertension.

3.
JAMA ; 322(5): 409-420, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386134

RESUMO

Importance: Blood pressure (BP) is a known risk factor for overall mortality and cardiovascular (CV)-specific fatal and nonfatal outcomes. It is uncertain which BP index is most strongly associated with these outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the association of BP indexes with death and a composite CV event. Design, Setting, and Participants: Longitudinal population-based cohort study of 11 135 adults from Europe, Asia, and South America with baseline observations collected from May 1988 to May 2010 (last follow-ups, August 2006-October 2016). Exposures: Blood pressure measured by an observer or an automated office machine; measured for 24 hours, during the day or the night; and the dipping ratio (nighttime divided by daytime readings). Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) expressed the risk of death or a CV event associated with BP increments of 20/10 mm Hg. Cardiovascular events included CV mortality combined with nonfatal coronary events, heart failure, and stroke. Improvement in model performance was assessed by the change in the area under the curve (AUC). Results: Among 11 135 participants (median age, 54.7 years, 49.3% women), 2836 participants died (18.5 per 1000 person-years) and 2049 (13.4 per 1000 person-years) experienced a CV event over a median of 13.8 years of follow-up. Both end points were significantly associated with all single systolic BP indexes (P < .001). For nighttime systolic BP level, the HR for total mortality was 1.23 (95% CI, 1.17-1.28) and for CV events, 1.36 (95% CI, 1.30-1.43). For the 24-hour systolic BP level, the HR for total mortality was 1.22 (95% CI, 1.16-1.28) and for CV events, 1.45 (95% CI, 1.37-1.54). With adjustment for any of the other systolic BP indexes, the associations of nighttime and 24-hour systolic BP with the primary outcomes remained statistically significant (HRs ranging from 1.17 [95% CI, 1.10-1.25] to 1.87 [95% CI, 1.62-2.16]). Base models that included single systolic BP indexes yielded an AUC of 0.83 for mortality and 0.84 for the CV outcomes. Adding 24-hour or nighttime systolic BP to base models that included other BP indexes resulted in incremental improvements in the AUC of 0.0013 to 0.0027 for mortality and 0.0031 to 0.0075 for the composite CV outcome. Adding any systolic BP index to models already including nighttime or 24-hour systolic BP did not significantly improve model performance. These findings were consistent for diastolic BP. Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study, higher 24-hour and nighttime blood pressure measurements were significantly associated with greater risks of death and a composite CV outcome, even after adjusting for other office-based or ambulatory blood pressure measurements. Thus, 24-hour and nighttime blood pressure may be considered optimal measurements for estimating CV risk, although statistically, model improvement compared with other blood pressure indexes was small.


Assuntos
Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
4.
Clin Exp Hypertens ; : 1-6, 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423854

RESUMO

Objective: To clarify changes in community pharmacists' knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding the management of hypertension before and after attending educational interventions based on their self-report on a questionnaire survey. Method: We conducted questionnaire surveys regarding the management of hypertension with a sample of community pharmacists before and after educational interventions. Results: The proportions of pharmacists who knew the 2014 Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines, guidelines for home blood pressure measurement, reference values for hypertension based on clinic-measured blood pressure, and reference values for hypertension based on home-measured blood pressure after the educational interventions (59.3%, 41.4%, 75.1%, and 70.8% respectively) were significantly higher relative to those recorded before interventions (31.6%, 13.7%, 47.7%, and 25.4% respectively). Conclusions: These findings suggest that in-house training might increase the knowledge of community pharmacists regarding hypertension management.

5.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 776-783, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378104

RESUMO

The new American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline reclassified office blood pressure and proposed thresholds for ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). We derived outcome-driven ABP thresholds corresponding with the new office blood pressure categories. We performed 24-hour ABP monitoring in 11 152 participants (48.9% women; mean age, 53.0 years) representative of 13 populations. We determined ABP thresholds resulting in multivariable-adjusted 10-year risks similar to those associated with elevated office blood pressure (120/80 mm Hg) and stages 1 and 2 of office hypertension (130/80 and 140/90 mm Hg). Over 13.9 years (median), 2728 (rate per 1000 person-years, 17.9) people died, 1033 (6.8) from cardiovascular disease; furthermore, 1988 (13.8), 893 (6.0), and 795 (5.4) cardiovascular and coronary events and strokes occurred. Using a composite cardiovascular end point, systolic/diastolic outcome-driven thresholds indicating elevated 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime ABP were 117.9/75.2, 121.4/79.6, and 105.3/66.2 mm Hg. For stages 1 and 2 ambulatory hypertension, thresholds were 123.3/75.2 and 128.7/80.7 mm Hg for 24-hour ABP, 128.5/79.6 and 135.6/87.1 mm Hg for daytime ABP, and 111.7/66.2 and 118.1/72.5 mm Hg for nighttime ABP. ABP thresholds derived from other end points were similar. After rounding, approximate thresholds for elevated 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime ABP were 120/75, 120/80, and 105/65 mm Hg, and for stages 1 and 2, ambulatory hypertension 125/75 and 130/80 mm Hg, 130/80 and 135/85 mm Hg, and 110/65 and 120/70 mm Hg. Outcome-driven ABP thresholds corresponding to elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 of hypertension are similar to those proposed by the current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , American Heart Association , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
6.
Ann Vasc Dis ; 12(2): 256-259, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275488

RESUMO

The diagnosis of pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) is challenging, and its definitive diagnosis is mainly confirmed using specimens obtained during surgery or autopsy. Endovascular catheter biopsy was performed in five patients with suspected PAS to establish a definitive diagnosis. Aspiration biopsy was performed in all patients, and forceps biopsy was performed in one patient. Three patients were diagnosed with PAS, and no definitive diagnosis was obtained in two patients with squamous cell lung carcinoma with pulmonary artery infiltration. Endovascular catheter biopsy is helpful in the diagnosis of PAS and should be performed when a tumor is suspected.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(15): e012121, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333055

RESUMO

Background Home blood pressure is a more accurate prognosticator than office blood pressure and allows the observation of day-to-day blood pressure variability. Information on blood pressure change during the life course links the prediction of blood pressure elevation with age. We prospectively assessed age-related trends in home blood pressure, home pulse rate, and their day-to-day variability evaluated as a coefficient of variation. Methods and Results We examined 1665 participants (men, 36.0%; mean age, 56.2 years) from the general population of Ohasama, Japan. A repeated-measures mixed linear model was used to estimate the age-related trends. In a mean of 15.9 years, we observed 5438 points of measurements including those at baseline. The home systolic blood pressure linearly increased with age and was higher in men than in women aged <70 years. There was an inverse-U-shaped age-related trend in home diastolic blood pressure. The day-to-day home systolic blood pressure linearly increased with age in individuals aged >40 years. However, an U-shaped age-related trend in day-to-day diastolic blood pressure variability with the nadir point at 65 to 69 years of age was observed. No significant sex differences in the day-to-day blood pressure variability were observed (P≥0.22). The average and day-to-day variability of home pulse rate decreased with age but were lower and higher, respectively, in men than in women. Conclusions The current descriptive data are needed to predict future home blood pressure and pulse rate. The data also provide information on the mechanism of day-to-day blood pressure and pulse rate variability.

9.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 21(7): 966-974, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169986

RESUMO

The prognostic value of uric acid (UA) for cardiovascular events (CVE) is still debated. Our purpose was to investigate the association between UA and CVE in 5243 participants of the ABP-International study with the main aim of identifying optimal sex-specific cut-points. In multivariable Cox analyses, the relationship between CVE and UA as a continuous variable was modeled by including both linear and nonlinear terms. Survival models were also estimated with UA as a categorical variable. Optimal UA cut-points were determined using an outcome-oriented approach. During a median follow-up of 5.9 years, there were 423 CVE (93 fatal). In age- and sex-adjusted Cox models, UA as a continuous variable was a significant predictor of CVE in all individuals and in men and women considered separately. The relationship between UA and CVE was linear (P-value for nonlinearity 0.54 and 0.80 for men and women, respectively). For each 1 mg/dL increase in UA, the relative hazard increase was 16% in men and 19% in women. In fully adjusted models, UA remained a significant predictor of CVE in the whole study cohort. The optimal cut-point best separating patients at low and high risk of CVE was 6.3 mg/dL for men and 4.4 mg/dL for women. Subjects with high UA had a 38% greater risk of CVE. In a sex-specific analysis, the association remained significant only in men (hazard ratio, 1.47; P < 0.01). In conclusion, high UA is an independent predictor for subsequent CVE and significantly improves risk discrimination and reclassification over the baseline multivariable model.

11.
Hypertension ; 73(1): 52-59, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763510

RESUMO

Lifetime risk (LTR) provides an absolute risk assessment during the remainder of one's life. Few studies have focused on the LTRs of stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD), categorized by fine blood pressure in Asian populations. We aimed to assess it using a large database of a meta-analysis with the individual participant data. The present metaanalysis included 107 737 Japanese (42.4% men; mean age, 55.1 years) from 13 cohorts. During the mean follow-up of 15.2±5.3 years (1 559 136 person-years), 1922 died from stroke and 913 from CHD. We estimated risks after adjusting for competing risk of death other than the outcome of interest. The 10-year risk of stroke and CHD deaths at index age of 35 years was ≤1.9% and ≤0.3%, respectively. The LTRs of stroke death at the index age of 35 years (men/women) were 6.1%/4.8% for optimal, 5.7%/6.3% for normal, and 6.6%/6.0% for high-normal blood pressure groups, and 9.1%/7.9% for grade 1, 14.5%/10.3% for grade 2, and 14.6%/14.3% for grade 3 hypertension groups. The LTRs of CHD death similarly elevated with an increase in blood pressure but were lower (≤7.2%) than those of stroke death. In conclusion, blood pressure was clearly associated with an elevated LTR of stroke or CHD death, although the LTR of CHD death was one-half of that of stroke death in an Asian population. These results would help young people with hypertension to adopt a healthy lifestyle or start antihypertensive therapy early.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Hipertensão , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Brain Dev ; 41(4): 327-333, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514608

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Signals of some brain regions change along with development in T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) in infants. This study aimed to assess the association of the signal intensity of the pituitary stalk on thin-slice T1WI with infant age. METHODS: This retrospective study was performed in 89 infants (gestational age [GA], 25-41 weeks; postmenstrual age [PMA], 36-46 weeks; chronological age [CA], 4-141 days) without intracranial abnormalities. The signal ratio of the pituitary stalk/pons on thin-slice T1WI was calculated, and its correlations with GA, PMA, and CA were assessed. Additionally, the signal ratio of the anterior pituitary gland/pons was calculated, and its correlation with that of the pituitary stalk was assessed. The signal intensity and distribution of the pituitary stalk were visually rated, and their correlations with GA, PMA, and CA were assessed. RESULTS: The signal ratio of the pituitary stalk was significantly positively correlated with GA (P < 0.001) and negatively correlated with CA (P < 0.001), but was not correlated with PMA. Stepwise multiple regression revealed that CA was independently associated with the signal ratio of the pituitary stalk (P < 0.001). GA was significantly higher (P < 0.05) and CA was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in infants with a high signal intensity and wide distribution of high signal intensity of the pituitary stalk. CONCLUSIONS: The signal intensity of the pituitary stalk on T1WI was negatively correlated with CA in infants, which might be related to postnatal changes in the pars tuberalis of the pituitary stalk after birth in infants.


Assuntos
Hipófise/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hipófise/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Hipófise/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Acad Radiol ; 26(4): 550-554, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29748046

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Magnetic resonance thoracic ductography (MRTD) with balanced turbo field echo (bTFE) can visualize both the thoracic duct and its surrounding vessels. This study aimed to investigate the visibility of the terminal thoracic duct into the venous system in the subclavian region using MRTD with bTFE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRTD was performed with bTFE as a preoperative workup comprising respiratory gating on a 1.5-T magnetic resonance system for patients with esophageal cancer. The portion and the number of terminal thoracic ducts into the venous system and preterminal branching in the left subclavian region were assessed using MRTD in 132 patients. The confidence level of the visibility using MRTD was also evaluated. RESULTS: The most frequent terminal portion of the thoracic duct was the jugulovenous angle (92 patients, 69.7%), followed by the subclavian vein (27 patients, 20.5%) and the internal jugular vein (8 patients, 6.1%). Four patients also exhibited double entry of the thoracic duct into the venous system. The preterminal branching was single in 96 patients (72.7%) and multiple in 36 patients (27.3%). The confidence level of the visibility of the thoracic duct using MRTD was absolutely certain in 112 patients (84.8%) and was somewhat certain in 20 patients (15.2%). CONCLUSIONS: MRTD with bTFE is a robust imaging modality to visualize the terminal portion of the thoracic duct into the venous system in the subclavian region.

14.
J Hypertens ; 37(5): 905-916, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30394982

RESUMO

: Studies using ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring have shown that BP during night-time sleep is a stronger predictor of cardiovascular outcomes than daytime ambulatory or conventional office BP. However, night-time ambulatory BP recordings may interfere with sleep quality because of the device cuff inflation and frequency of measurements. Hence, there is an unmet need for obtaining high quality BP values during sleep. In the last two decades, technological development of home BP devices enabled automated BP measurements during night-time. Preliminary data suggest that nocturnal home BP measurements yield similar BP values and show good agreement in detecting nondippers when compared with ambulatory BP monitoring. Thus, nocturnal home BP measurements might be a reliable and practical alternative to ambulatory BP monitoring to evaluate BP during sleep. As the use of home BP devices is widespread, well accepted by users and has relatively low cost, it may prove to be more feasible and widely available for routine clinical assessment of nocturnal BP. At present, however, data on the prognostic relevance of nocturnal BP measured by home devices, the optimal measurement schedule, and other methodological issues are lacking and await further investigation. This article offers a systematic review of the current evidence on nocturnal home BP, highlights the remaining research questions, and provides preliminary recommendations for application of this novel approach in BP management.

16.
Blood Press Monit ; 23(6): 318-326, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418253

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The conventional nocturnal blood pressure monitoring (NBPM) systems can disturb sleep and lead to false measurements. The present study compared the validity and acceptability of a newly developed wrist-cuff system with that of the conventional upper arm-cuff system for NBPM. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Home blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate (PR) were measured in hypertensive patients (n=57) every 30 min at night using a wrist-cuff system and at 2 am (fixed time) and 4 h after going to bed (flexible time) using an upper arm-cuff system. The nocturnal BPs with the wrist-cuff system at 2 am and at 4 h after going to bed were selected from the measurements taken every 30 min at night. The same systems were used to measure the morning and evening home BP and PR, after rising and before going to bed. Measurements were taken for two nights separately for each system. BP, PR, sleep quality, and the perception of several stimuli during NBPM were compared between the two systems. Systolic BP/diastolic BP (DBP) in the supine position at 2 am and at 4 h after going to bed were corrected by the mean difference between the wrist-cuff and the arm-cuff systems. RESULTS: Compared with the arm-cuff system, the wrist-cuff system had significantly lower systolic BP (mean±SD: 106.3±13.4 vs. 109.8±10.8 mmHg, P<0.05), DBP (59.4±11.0 vs. 64.5±7.8 mmHg, P<0.005), and PR (53.8±7.1 vs. 60.5±8.1 bpm, P<0.0005) at 2 am and significantly lower DBP (60.2±10.3 vs. 66.0±9.8 mmHg, P<0.005) and PR (53.6±7.4 vs. 60.9±8.5 bpm, P<0.0005) at 4 h after going to bed. Among the participants, sleep disturbance during NBPM was reported in less than 20% with the wrist-cuff system and in 70% with the arm-cuff system. A significantly higher rate of participants who wore the wrist-cuff system reported that they were not bothered by various stimuli, such as noise, during NBPM. DISCUSSION: The newly developed wrist-cuff home NBPM system provided information on BP as a function of time, especially at night, with minimal sleep disturbance and with more frequent BP measurements.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/instrumentação , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Monitores de Pressão Arterial , Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Sono , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0204406, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30261059

RESUMO

Recently, the ratio of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) among hemodialysis (HD) patients has increased to become the largest sub-population. Their prognoses are significantly worse than those of patients without diabetes (non-DM). In the present study, 10 DM patients who did not take meals and 10 non-DM patients who took meals during HD sessions were investigated. The time courses of the change in plasma levels of metabolites during HD were determined. DM patients exhibited decreased plasma levels of lactate, pyruvate and alanine and dramatically increased levels of ketone bodies. At the end of HD, the plasma levels of lactate, pyruvate, alanine and ketone body were 0.46 ± 0.07, 0.026 ± 0.01, 0.12 ± 0.04 and 0.26 ± 0.04 mM (mean ± standard error), respectively. The profile was 'hypolactatemia and hyperketonemia', indicating non-homeostasis. Glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle were suppressed, and the oxidation of fatty acid was accelerated, indicating starvation, even though high amounts of glucose (150 mg/dl) in dialysate were supplied continuously to the bloodstream. In contrast, the plasma levels of lactate, pyruvate, and alanine in the non-DM patients were increased, with the levels of ketone body remaining low during HD to maintain homeostasis, indicating accelerated glycolysis. Furthermore, their plasma levels of insulin increased from 8.1 ± 1.4 to 19.8 ± 3.4 µU/ml, which indicated endogenous secretion stimulated by glucose in dialysate and meal intake. In contrast, in the DM patients, the levels decreased from 19.2 ± 3.4 to 5.5 ± 1.1 µU/ml. This value was the lower limit of the normal range. The depletion of the insulin through extracorporeal circulation may inhibit the transportation of glucose from the blood into the muscles, with the consequence of cell starvation. Such cell starvation along with lipolysis every two days may accelerate proteolysis and affect the prognosis of DM patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Celulares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Fatores de Tempo , Análise Serial de Tecidos
19.
Hypertens Res ; 41(11): 947-956, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072732

RESUMO

It is not established whether central blood pressure (BP) evaluated by a radial pulse wave analysis is useful to predict cardiovascular prognoses. We tested the hypothesis that central BP predicts future cardiovascular events in treated hypertensive subjects. We conducted a multicenter, observational cohort study of 3566 hypertensives being treated with antihypertensive medications at 27 institutions in Japan. We performed the radial pulse wave analyses using applanation tonometry in all subjects. The primary outcome was the incidence of any of the following: stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), sudden cardiac death, and acute aortic dissection. The mean age of the subjects was 66.0 ± 10.9 years, and 50.6% were male. The mean brachial SBP and central SBP were 138 ± 18 mm Hg and 128 ± 19 mm Hg, respectively. When the central SBP was divided into quintiles, the number of events was least in the 2nd quintile, and we set it as the reference. In the Cox regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, creatinine, diabetes, use of ß-blocker, and history of MI/stroke, the patients in the 3rd (hazard ratio (HR) 3.55, 95% confidence interval 1.29-9.78, p = 0.014), 4th (HR 4.12, 95% CI 1.53-11.10, p = 0.005), and 5th quintiles (HR 2.87, 95% CI 1.01-8.18, p = 0.048) had a significantly higher incidence of cardiovascular events compared to the 2nd quintile. The results were essentially unchanged when brachial DBP was additionally adjusted. In conclusion, in treated hypertensives, high central SBP was associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/epidemiologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Aneurisma Dissecante/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
20.
BMC Oral Health ; 18(1): 142, 2018 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30126407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous prospective studies have investigated the association between the number of remaining teeth and dementia or cognitive decline. However, no agreement has emerged on the association between tooth loss and cognitive impairment, possibly due to past studies differing in target groups and methodologies. We aimed to investigate the association between tooth loss, as evaluated through clinical oral examinations, and the development of cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults while considering baseline cognitive function. METHODS: This 4-year prospective cohort study followed 140 older adults (69.3% female) without cognitive impairment aged ≥65 years (mean age: 70.9 ± 4.3 years) living in the town of Ohasama, Iwate Prefecture, Japan. Cognitive function was evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in baseline and follow-up surveys. Based on a baseline oral examination, the participants were divided into those with 0-9 teeth and those with ≥10 teeth. To investigate the association between tooth loss and cognitive impairment, we applied a multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, cerebrovascular/cardiovascular disease, hypercholesterolemia, depressive symptoms, body mass index, smoking status, drinking status, duration of education, and baseline MMSE score. RESULTS: In the 4 years after the baseline survey, 27 participants (19.3%) developed cognitive impairment (i.e., MMSE scores of ≤24). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that participants with 0-9 teeth were more likely to develop cognitive impairment than those with ≥10 teeth were (odds ratio: 3.31; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-10.2). Age, male gender, and baseline MMSE scores were also significantly associated with cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Tooth loss was independently associated with the development of cognitive impairment within 4 years among community-dwelling older adults. This finding corroborates the hypothesis that tooth loss may be a predictor or risk factor for cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Vida Independente , Perda de Dente/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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