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1.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(3): 228-241, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100736

RESUMO

Aspirin and P2Y12 receptor antagonists are widely used across the spectrum of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Gastrointestinal complications, including ulcer and bleeding, are relatively common during antiplatelet treatment and, therefore, concomitant proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment is often prescribed. However, potential increased risk of cardiovascular events has been suggested for PPIs, and, in recent years, it has been discussed whether these drugs may reduce the cardiovascular protection by aspirin and, even more so, clopidogrel. Indeed, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies suggested an interaction through CYP2C19 between PPIs and clopidogrel, which could translate into clinical inefficacy, leading to higher rates of cardiovascular events. The Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency sent a warning in 2010 discouraging the concomitant use of clopidogrel with omeprazole or esomeprazole. In addition, whether the use of PPIs may affect the clinical efficacy of the new P2Y12 receptor antagonists, ticagrelor and prasugrel, remains less known. According to current guidelines, PPIs in combination with antiplatelet treatment are recommended in patients with risk factors for gastrointestinal bleeding, including advanced age, concurrent use of anticoagulants, steroids or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and Helicobacter pylori infection. Like traditional anticoagulants, novel oral anticoagulants may cause gastrointestinal bleeding. Results from both randomized clinical trials and observational studies suggest that high-dose dabigatran (150 mg bid), rivaroxaban and high-dose edoxaban (60 mg daily) are associated with a higher risk of gastrointestinal bleeding as compared with warfarin. However, the usefulness of PPIs in patients receiving these anticoagulants deserves to be further demonstrated. Given the large number of patients treated with antithrombotic drugs and PPIs, even a minor reduction of platelet inhibition or anticoagulant effect potentially carries a considerable clinical impact. The present joint statement by ANMCO and AIGO summarizes the current knowledge regarding the widespread use of platelet inhibitors, anticoagulants, and PPIs in combination. Moreover, it outlines evidence supporting or opposing drug interactions between these drugs and discusses consequent clinical implications.

2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(1): 76-92, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918837

RESUMO

Pericarditis refers to the inflammation of the pericardial layers, resulting from a variety of stimuli triggering a stereotyped immune response, and characterized by chest pain associated often with peculiar electrocardiographic changes and, at times, accompanied by pericardial effusion. Acute pericarditis is generally self-limited and not life-threatening; yet, it may cause significant short-term disability, be complicated by either a large pericardial effusion or tamponade, and carry a significant risk of recurrence. The mainstay of treatment of pericarditis is represented by anti-inflammatory drugs. Anti-inflammatory treatments vary, however, in both effectiveness and side-effect profile. The objective of this review is to summarize the up-to-date management of acute and recurrent pericarditis.

3.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 29, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based recommendations about anticoagulation in acute type B aortic dissection (TBAD) are completely missing, but there is a diffuse conviction that it could prevent the healing process of the dissected aorta's false lumen. However, several clinical conditions may lead to the necessity to start anticoagulant therapy among patients with acute type B aortic dissection, ranging from atrial fibrillation to more complicated clinical scenarios and the correct management in this kind of patients is still an open issue. CASE PRESENTATION: We are presenting a 51-years-old man with multi-infarct encephalopathy referred to us for an acute TBAD and a first diagnosis of ischemic cardiomyopathy complicated by left ventricular (LV) thrombus formation. Coronary angiography revealed a critical stenosis of left anterior descending artery (LAD) treated with drug-eluting stent deployment. The patient was addressed to triple antithrombotic therapy with acetylsalicylic acid, clopidogrel and warfarin with target INR 2.0-2.5. After 6 months, computed tomography angiography revealed the stability of the dissection flap. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, however, confirmed the persistence of a small thrombotic formation in LV apex, thus double antithrombotic therapy with warfarin and clopidogrel was instituted. The patient remained asymptomatic during the follow-up period but was advised to suspend his job and physical activities. CONCLUSION: Current guidelines do not discuss anticoagulant therapy in the setting of TBAD and large randomized trials are lacking. Despite it is generally considered unsafe to administer anticoagulants in patients with TBAD, we present a case in which triple antithrombotic therapy was well tolerated and did not lead to progression of the intimal flap after 6 months.

4.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(1): 34-88, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960833

RESUMO

The complexity of cardiovascular diseases has led to an extensive use of technological instruments and the development of multimodality imaging. This extensive use of different cardiovascular imaging tests in the same patient has increased costs and waiting times.The concept of appropriateness has changed over time. Appropriateness criteria address the need for specific cardiovascular imaging tests in well-defined clinical scenarios, and define the kind of cardiovascular imaging that is appropriated for each clinical scenario in different stages of the disease. The concept of appropriateness criteria has replaced the old idea of appropriate use criteria and reflects the increasing effort of the international Scientific Societies to create and review in a critical way the management of diagnostic tests used by clinicians.The aim of this Italian consensus document is to address the use of multimodality imaging in the diagnosis and management of the major cardiovascular clinical scenarios, taking into consideration not only the international guidelines and scientific documents already published, but also the reality of Italian laws as well as the various professional profiles involved in patient management and availability of technological diagnostic instruments.

5.
Heart ; 106(8): 569-574, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980441

RESUMO

Neoplastic pericardial effusion is a common and serious manifestation of advanced malignancies. Lung and breast carcinoma, haematological malignancies, and gastrointestinal cancer are the most common types of cancer involving the pericardium. Pericardial involvement in neoplasia may arise from several different pathophysiological mechanisms and may be manifested by pericardial effusion with or without tamponade, effusive-constrictive pericarditis and constrictive pericarditis. Management of these patients is a complex multidisciplinary problem, affected by clinical status and prognosis of patients.

6.
Int J Clin Pract ; 74(1): e13434, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation ablation increased over the last two decades by its high success rate. However, the trend of inpatient adverse outcomes is limited. The aim of this study to examine the frequency and predictors of acute pericarditis resulting from catheter ablation. METHODS: Using the National Inpatient Sample, we identified all patients who underwent AF ablation. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed for the primary outcome of in-hospital acute pericarditis post-AF ablation. Variance-weighted regression has been used to test for linear and curvilinear trends in disease characteristics and outcomes over time. RESULTS: From 2002 to 2014, our study included 122,993 patients, acute pericarditis was found in 984 (0.8%) patients who underwent AF ablation. The trend of acute pericarditis showed inconsistent fluctuation leaning towards reduction over the years. Multivariate analysis showed that patients of female gender are at a 40% higher risk of acute pericarditis post-ablation compared with males. Additionally, obese patients have a 40% higher risk of developing acute pericarditis compared with patients who have BMI < 30. Furthermore, anaemia and rheumatoid arthritis have the odds ratio (OR: 2.63; 95% [CI] 2.04-3.39) and (OR: 1.64; 95% [CI] 1.08-2.48). CONCLUSION: Post-AF ablation, in-hospital acute pericarditis showed inconsistent fluctuation leaning towards reduction. Female gender and obesity are at higher risk for developing acute pericarditis post-AF ablations. Proper evaluation might alter those complications.

7.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(1): 146-151, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711636

RESUMO

Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) offers the capability to objectively detect pericarditis by identifying pericardial thickening, edema/inflammation by Short-TI Inversion Recovery-T2 weighted (STIR-T2w) imaging, edema/inflammation or fibrosis by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), and presence of pericardial effusion. This is especially helpful for the diagnosis of recurrent pericarditis. Aim of the present paper is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of CMR findings as well as their potential prognostic value for the diagnosis of recurrent pericarditis. Multicenter cohort study of consecutive patients with recurrent pericarditis evaluated by CMR. We included 128 consecutive cases (60 males, 47%; mean age 48 ± 14 years). CMR was performed at a mean time of 12 days (95% confidence interval 15 to 21) after the clinical diagnosis. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy and areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for CMR diagnostic criteria and complications (additional recurrences, cardiac tamponade, and constrictive pericarditis). Areas under the ROC curve were respectively 64% for pericardial thickening, 84% for pericardial edema, 82% for pericardial LGE, and 71% for pericardial effusion. After a mean follow-up of 34 months, recurrences occurred in 52% of patients, tamponade in 6%, and constrictive pericarditis in 11%. Using a multivariable Cox model, elevation of CRP and presence of CMR pericardial thickening were predictors of adverse events, whereas the presence of CMR LGE was associated with a lower risk. The prognostic model for adverse events using gender, age, CRP level, and all CMR variables showed a C-index of 0.84. In conclusion, CMR findings show high diagnostic accuracy and may help identifying patients at higher risk of complications.

8.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 17(11): 817-826, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709840

RESUMO

Introduction: Acute pericarditis is frequently complicated with recurrences, which represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the physician, a bothersome trouble for patients. An incorrect treatment of pericarditis may cause further recurrence of symptoms, while an incorrect diagnosis may cause either a prolonged symptoms course with a possible risk of chronic constriction, or useless and potentially harmful treatments.Areas covered: This review will focus on the most useful and recent diagnostic tools for recurrent pericarditis. Medline/Pubmed Library were screened with specific key search: 'recurrent AND pericarditis'. The research was restricted to papers published in the last 5 years (2015-2019) and papers in English language, in order to appraise the latest advances in diagnostic assessment.Expert opinion: An accurate diagnosis of recurrent pericarditis is critical to provide timely and appropriate treatment of symptoms and prevention of further episodes. Diagnosis is made in case of recurrent symptoms associated with a documented evidence of pericardial inflammation. Further studies are needed to develop newer diagnostic tools aimed at identification of a predominant auto-inflammatory of auto-immune mechanism, which is essential to tailor the treatment.


Assuntos
Pericardite/terapia , Pericárdio/patologia , Humanos , Pericardite/diagnóstico , Recidiva
9.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319879534, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610707

RESUMO

AIMS: Novel therapies are needed for recurrent pericarditis, particularly when corticosteroid dependent and colchicine resistant. Based on limited data, interleukin-1 blockade with anakinra may be beneficial. The aim of this multicentre registry was to evaluate the broader effectiveness and safety of anakinra in a 'real world' population. METHODS AND RESULTS: This registry enrolled consecutive patients with recurrent pericarditis who were corticosteroid dependent and colchicine resistant and treated with anakinra. The primary outcome was the pericarditis recurrence rate after treatment. Secondary outcomes included emergency department visits, hospitalisations, corticosteroid use and adverse events. Among 224 patients (46 ± 14 years old, 63% women, 75% idiopathic), the median duration of disease was 17 months (interquartile range 9-33). Most patients had elevated C-reactive protein (91%) and pericardial effusion (88%). After a median treatment of 6 months (3-12), pericarditis recurrences were reduced six-fold (2.33-0.39 per patient per year), emergency department admissions were reduced 11-fold (1.08-0.10 per patient per year), hospitalisations were reduced seven-fold (0.99-0.13 per patient per year). Corticosteroid use was decreased by anakinra (respectively from 80% to 27%; P < 0.001). No serious adverse events occurred; adverse events consisted mostly of transient skin reactions (38%) at the injection site. Adverse events led to discontinuation in 3%. A full-dose treatment duration of over 3 months followed by a tapering period of over 3 months were the therapeutic schemes associated with a lower risk of recurrence. CONCLUSION: In patients with recurrent pericarditis, anakinra appears efficacious and safe in reducing recurrences, emergency department admissions and hospitalisations.

10.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 20(10): 593-608, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593165

RESUMO

Managing a patient suffering from a chronic disease requires a multidisciplinary team that can take care of them beyond the simple coordination of various specialties. In this context, a central role in the treatment of chronic heart disease is the continuity of care that should promote organic integration among different hospital departments, hospital and community. This position paper of the Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists (ANMCO) aims at defining the general principles to inspire care for complex cardiac patients at different phases of the disease. A multidisciplinary integrated holistic approach uses analytical tools able to understand the elements that characterize complexity and therefore suggest appropriate management strategies: (i) care pathways aimed at optimizing treatments; (ii) care pathways in intensive care and ward in a multidisciplinary perspective; (iii) integration of social and health needs; (iv) nursing role in the context of continuity of outpatient, community and home care; (v) promotion of educational interventions.

13.
Heart ; 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422364

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Biochemical analysis of pericardial fluid (PF) is commonly performed for the initial assessment of PF, and the results are usually interpreted according to Light's traditional criteria for the differential diagnosis of transudates versus exudates. However, Light's criteria have been formulated for the biochemical analysis of pleural fluid. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the normal composition of PF in candidates for cardiac surgery. METHODS: Cohort study with analysis of PF from candidates for cardiac surgery. Exclusion criteria were previous pericardial disease or cardiac surgery, prior myocardial infarction within 3 months, systemic disease (eg, systemic inflammatory diseases, uremia) or drug with potentiality to affect the pericardium. RESULTS: Fifty patients (mean age was 67 years; 95% CI 64 to 71, 29 males, 58.0%) were included in the present analysis. Levels of small molecules were similar in blood and PF. Total proteins in PF was, on average, 0.5 times lower than corresponding plasma levels (p=0.041), while the level of pericardial lactate dehydrogenase was, on average, 1.06 times higher than plasma (p=0.55). Moreover, mononuclear cells were more concentrated in PF than plasma (p=0.17). Traditional Light's criteria misclassified all PFs as exudates. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional Light's criteria misclassified normal PFs in candidates for cardiac surgery as exudates. This study suggests their futility for the biochemical analysis of PF in clinical practice.

16.
Intern Emerg Med ; 14(8): 1299-1306, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240580

RESUMO

A high incidence of isolated left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) has been reported in previous studies on smaller cohorts of patients with thalassemia by cardiac MRI but the clinical impact of the finding is unknown. This prospective cohort study evaluates the prevalence and clinical implication of the finding. Prospective cohort study with enrollment of all consecutive cases with thalassemia referred for cardiac MRI from September 2007 to November 2014. The presence of LVNC was assessed according to the Petersen method and the Jacquier method, with the proposed changes by Fazio, Grothoff, and Chiodi. A clinical follow-up was performed in all patients. We included 560 patients with thalassemia (473 with thalassemia major and 87 with thalassemia intermedia: mean age 31.9 ± 10.6 years, male/female = 250/310). A total number of 1683 MRI tests were performed. A diagnosis of LVNC was determined according to adopted MR criteria in 44 patients (7.9%). Patients with LVNC had a significantly lower ejection fraction (52.68 ± 5.17% vs. 56.90 ± 6.34%; p = 0.0005) and greater indexed LV ESV (48.16 ± 10.03 ml/m2 vs. 40.02 ± 10.06 ml/m2; p = 0.0022). After a mean follow-up time was 5.1 years, no significant change of MR parameters was detected as well as no clinical adverse events. LVNC is relatively frequent in patients with thalassemia. However, it is not associated with a worsening of LV function and adverse events after a long-term follow-up.

17.
Heart ; 105(14): 1129-1130, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243114
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