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1.
Environ Res ; : 110579, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285152

RESUMO

Studies reporting on associations between short-term exposure to outdoor fine (PM2.5), and ultrafine particles (UFP) and blood pressure and lung function have been inconsistent. Few studies have characterized exposure by personal monitoring, which especially for UFP may have resulted in substantial exposure measurement error. We investigated the association between 24-hour average personal UFP, PM2.5, and soot exposure and dose and the health parameters blood pressure and lung function. We further assessed the short-term associations between outdoor concentrations measured at a central monitoring site and near the residences and these health outcomes. We performed three 24-hour personal exposure measurements for UFP, PM2.5, and soot in 132 healthy adults from Basel (Switzerland), Amsterdam and Utrecht (the Netherlands), and Turin (Italy). Monitoring of each subject was conducted in different seasons in a one-year study period. Subject's activity levels and associated ventilation rates were measured using actigraphy to calculate the inhaled dose. After each 24-hour monitoring session, blood pressure and lung function were measured. Contemporaneously with personal measurements, UFP, PM2.5 and soot were measured outdoor at the subject's residential address and at a central site in the research area. Associations between short-term personal and outdoor exposure and dose to UFP, PM2.5, and soot and health outcomes were tested using linear mixed effect models. The 24-hour mean personal, residential and central site outdoor UFP exposures were not associated with blood pressure or lung function. UFP mean exposures in the 2-hour prior to the health test was also not associated with blood pressure and lung function. Personal, central site and residential PM2.5 exposure were positively associated with systolic blood pressure (about 1.4 mmHg increase per Interquartile range). Personal soot exposure and dose were positively associated with diastolic blood pressure (1.2 and 0.9 mmHg increase per Interquartile range). No consistent associations between PM2.5 or soot exposure and lung function were observed. Short-term personal, residential outdoor or central site exposure to UFP was not associated with blood pressure or lung function. Short-term personal PM2.5 and soot exposures were associated with blood pressure, but not lung function.

2.
Int J Public Health ; 65(9): 1529-1548, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098441

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Seroprevalence studies to assess the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the general population and subgroups are key for evaluating mitigation and vaccination policies and for understanding the spread of the disease both on the national level and for comparison with the international community. METHODS: Corona Immunitas is a research program of coordinated, population-based, seroprevalence studies implemented by Swiss School of Public Health (SSPH+). Over 28,340 participants, randomly selected and age-stratified, with some regional specificities will be included. Additional studies in vulnerable and highly exposed subpopulations are also planned. The studies will assess population immunological status during the pandemic. RESULTS: Phase one (first wave of pandemic) estimates from Geneva showed a steady increase in seroprevalence up to 10.8% (95% CI 8.2-13.9, n = 775) by May 9, 2020. Since June, Zurich, Lausanne, Basel City/Land, Ticino, and Fribourg recruited a total of 5973 participants for phase two thus far. CONCLUSIONS: Corona Immunitas will generate reliable, comparable, and high-quality serological and epidemiological data with extensive coverage of Switzerland and of several subpopulations, informing health policies and decision making in both economic and societal sectors. ISRCTN Registry: https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN18181860 .

3.
Eur J Oral Sci ; 128(6): 508-517, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073429

RESUMO

In this cross-sectional study, the prevalences of tooth loss, prosthetic dental restorations, and probing pocket depths (PPD) ≥4 mm, and their relationship to sociodemographic factors, were investigated in older Swiss adults. There were up to 1,673 participants aged ≥55 yr in the fourth survey of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution And Lung And Heart Disease In Adults (SAPALDIA4). Missing teeth, prosthetic dental restorations, and PPD ≥4 mm were recorded in clinical examinations conducted by field workers and compared with self-reported information from questionnaires. Examination data showed that participants were missing five teeth on average, 74.8% had a prosthetic dental restoration, and 21.1% had PPD of ≥4 mm. The mean number of missing teeth and the prevalences of tooth loss, fixed dental prostheses, and removable dental prostheses were associated with age, education level, smoking status, and time since last visit to a dentist. Comparison of data obtained by field workers and that from self-reports show a high level of agreement for the number of missing teeth and the prevalence of removable dental prostheses, but a lower level of agreement for self-reports of fixed dental prostheses and periodontitis.

4.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 345, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single cardio-metabolic risk factors are each known modifiable risk factors for adverse health and quality of life outcomes. Yet, evidence on the clustered effect of these parameters and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is still limited and mostly cross-sectional. The objectives of this study were to identify clusters of cardio-metabolic physiological functioning, to assess their associations with HRQoL in comparison with the MetS, to elucidate the modifying role of physical activity, and to assess differences in health service utilization. METHODS: This study is based on longitudinal data from two time points (2010/11 & 2017/18) of the Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases (SAPALDIA). Latent class analysis (LCA) grouped participants based on a priori selected cardio-metabolic and MetS related physiological functioning variables (Body mass index, body fat, glycated hemoglobin, blood triglycerides, blood pressure). The 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess HRQoL. Quantile regressions were performed with and without adjustment for physical activity, to detect independent associations of the latent classes, MetS and physical activity with HRQoL. To assess the modifying role of physical activity, we additionally grouped participants based on the combination of physical activity and latent classes or MetS, respectively. Logistic regressions were used to investigate health service utilization as outcome. RESULTS: The LCA resulted in three classes labeled "Healthy" (30% of participants in 2017/18), "At risk" and "Unhealthy" (29%). The Unhealthy class scored lowest in all physical component scores of HRQoL. Compared to healthy and active participants, inactive participants in the "Unhealthy" class showed lower scores in the physical functioning domain both cross-sectionally (- 9.10 (- 12.02; - 6.18)) and longitudinally. This group had an odds ratio of 2.69 (1.52; 4.74) for being hospitalized in the previous 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: These results point to subjects with adverse cardio-metabolic physiological functioning and low activity levels as an important target group for health promotion and maintenance of well-being. The promotion of physical activity at the early stages of aging seems pivotal to mitigate the impact of the MetS on HRQoL at higher age.

5.
Environ Int ; 144: 106014, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763645

RESUMO

Prospective evidence on the risk of depression in relation to transportation noise exposure and noise annoyance is limited and mixed. We aimed to investigate the associations of long-term exposure to source-specific transportation noise and noise annoyance with incidence of depression in the SAPALDIA (Swiss cohort study on air pollution and lung and heart diseases in adults) cohort. We investigated 4,581 SAPALDIA participants without depression in the year 2001/2002. Corresponding one-year mean road, railway and aircraft day-evening-night noise (Lden) was calculated at the most exposed façade of the participants' residential floors, and transportation noise annoyance was assessed on an 11-point scale. Incident cases of depression were identified in 2010/2011, and comprised participants reporting physician diagnosis, intake of antidepressant medication or having a short form-36 mental health score < 50. We used robust Poisson regressions to estimate the mutually adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of depression, independent of traffic-related air pollution and other potential confounders. Incidence of depression was 11 cases per 1,000 person-years. In single exposure models, we observed positive but in part, statistically non-significant associations (per 10 dB) of road traffic Lden [RR: 1.06 (0.93, 1.22)] and aircraft Lden [RR: 1.19 (0.93, 1.53)], and (per 1-point difference) of noise annoyance [RR: 1.05 (1.02, 1.08)] with depression risk. In multi-exposure model, noise annoyance effect remained unchanged, with weaker effects of road traffic Lden [(RR: 1.02 (0.89, 1.17)] and aircraft Lden [(RR: 1.17 (0.90, 1.50)]. However, there were statistically significant indirect effects of road traffic Lden [(ß: 0.02 (0.01, 0.03)] and aircraft Lden [ß: 0.01 (0.002, 0.02)] via noise annoyance. There were no associations with railway Lden in the single and multi-exposure models [(RRboth models: 0.88 (0.75, 1.03)]. We made similar findings among 2,885 non-movers, where the effect modification and cumulative risks were more distinct. Noise annoyance effect in non-movers was stronger among the insufficiently active (RR: 1.09; 95%CI: 1.02, 1.17; pinteraction = 0.07) and those with daytime sleepiness [RR: 1.07 (1.02, 1.12); pinteraction = 0.008]. Cumulative risks of Lden in non-movers showed additive tendencies for the linear cumulative risk [(RRper 10dB of combined sources: 1.31 (0.90, 1.91)] and the categorical cumulative risk [(RRtriple- vs. zero-source ≥45 dB: 2.29 (1.02, 5.14)], and remained stable to noise annoyance. Transportation noise level and noise annoyance may jointly and independently influence the risk of depression. Combined long-term exposures to noise level seems to be most detrimental, largely acting via annoyance. The moderation of noise annoyance effect by daytime sleepiness and physical activity further contribute to clarifying the involved mechanisms. More evidence is needed to confirm these findings for effective public health control of depression and noise exposure burden.

6.
Environ Int ; 143: 105960, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682053

RESUMO

Noise exposure is affecting health-related quality of life (HRQoL). There are many modelling approaches linking specific noise sources with single health-related outcomes. However, an integrated approach is missing taking into account measured levels as well as noise annoyance and sensitivity and assessing their independent association with HRQoL domains. Therefore, we investigated the predictive association of most common transportation noise sources (aircraft, railway and road traffic) as well as transportation noise annoyance and noise sensitivity with HRQoL using data from SAPALDIA (Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults). We assessed 2035 subjects, who participated in the second and third wave of SAPALDIA (3&4) and had complete information on exposure, outcome and covariates. At SAPALDIA3, we calculated annual means (Lden) of source-specific transportation noise exposure at the most exposed facade of participant's dwelling floor height. Participants reported noise annoyance on the widely used 11-point ICBEN scale and answered to 10 questions assessing individual noise sensitivity. To assess the potentially predictive effect of these noise exposures, HRQoL was assessed about 8 years later (SAPALDIA4) using the SF-36. We performed predictive multiple quantile regression models to elucidate associations of noise parameters measured at SAPALDIA3 with median SF-36 scores at SAPALDIA4. Source-specific transportation noise exposures showed few yet not consistent associations with HRQoL scores. We observed statistically significant negative associations of transportation noise annoyance with HRQoL scores covering mental health components (adjusted difference in SF-36 mental health score between highest vs. lowest annoyance tertile: -2.54 (95%CI: -3.89; -1.20). Noise sensitivity showed strongest and most consistent associations with HRQoL scores covering both general and mental health components (adjusted difference in SF-36 scores between highest vs. lowest sensitivity tertile: Mental health -5.96 (-7.57; -4.36); general health -5.16 (-7.08; -3.24)). Within all noise parameters, we predominantly observed negative associations of noise sensitivity with HRQoL attaining a magnitude of potential clinical relevance. This implies that factors other than transportation noise exposure may be relevant for this exposure-outcome relation. Nonetheless, transportation noise annoyance showed relevant associations with mental health components, indicating a negative association of transportation noise with HRQoL.

7.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(12): 1521-1528, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510134

RESUMO

We estimated the association between regular physical activity and the incidence of restrictive spirometry pattern. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and physical activity were assessed in 2 population-based European cohorts (European Community Respiratory Health Survey: n = 2,757, aged 39-67 years; and Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults: n = 2,610, aged 36-82 years) first in 2000-2002 and again approximately 10 years later (2010-2013). Subjects with restrictive or obstructive spirometry pattern at baseline were excluded. We assessed the association of being active at baseline (defined as being physically active at least 2-3 times/week for ≥1 hour) with restrictive spirometry pattern at follow-up (defined as a postbronchodilation FEV1/FVC ratio of at least the lower limit of normal and FVC of <80% predicted) using modified Poisson regression, adjusting for relevant confounders. After 10 years of follow-up, 3.3% of participants had developed restrictive spirometry pattern. Being physically active was associated with a lower risk of developing this phenotype (relative risk = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.59, 0.98). This association was stronger among those who were overweight and obese than among those of normal weight (P for interaction = 0.06). In 2 large European studies, adults practicing regular physical activity were at lower risk of developing restrictive spirometry pattern over 10 years.

8.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(6): 67003, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) on air pollutants exist, and none have been done on transportation noise exposures, which also contribute to environmental burden of disease. OBJECTIVE: We performed mutually independent EWAS on transportation noise and air pollution exposures. METHODS: We used data from two time points of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) from 1,389 participants contributing 2,542 observations. We applied multiexposure linear mixed-effects regressions with participant-level random intercept to identify significant Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine (CpG) sites and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in relation to 1-y average aircraft, railway, and road traffic day-evening-night noise (Lden); nitrogen dioxide (NO2); and particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter <2.5µm (PM2.5). We performed candidate (CpG-based; cross-systemic phenotypes, combined into "allostatic load") and agnostic (DMR-based) pathway enrichment tests, and replicated previously reported air pollution EWAS signals. RESULTS: We found no statistically significant CpGs at false discovery rate <0.05. However, 14, 48, 183, 8, and 71 DMRs independently associated with aircraft, railway, and road traffic Lden; NO2; and PM2.5, respectively, with minimally overlapping signals. Transportation Lden and air pollutants tendentially associated with decreased and increased methylation, respectively. We observed significant enrichment of candidate DNA methylation related to C-reactive protein and body mass index (aircraft, road traffic Lden, and PM2.5), renal function and "allostatic load" (all exposures). Agnostic functional networks related to cellular immunity, gene expression, cell growth/proliferation, cardiovascular, auditory, embryonic, and neurological systems development were enriched. We replicated increased methylation in cg08500171 (NO2) and decreased methylation in cg17629796 (PM2.5). CONCLUSIONS: Mutually independent DNA methylation was associated with source-specific transportation noise and air pollution exposures, with distinct and shared enrichments for pathways related to inflammation, cellular development, and immune responses. These findings contribute in clarifying the pathways linking these exposures and age-related diseases but need further confirmation in the context of mediation analyses. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6174.

9.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 171, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low lung function has been associated with increased body mass index (BMI). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the effect of BMI on lung function is mediated by DNA methylation. METHODS: We used individual data from 285,495 participants in four population-based cohorts: the European Community Respiratory Health Survey, the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, the Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung Disease in Adults, and the UK Biobank. We carried out Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses in two steps using a two-sample approach with SNPs as instrumental variables (IVs) in each step. In step 1 MR, we estimated the causal effect of BMI on peripheral blood DNA methylation (measured at genome-wide level) using 95 BMI-associated SNPs as IVs. In step 2 MR, we estimated the causal effect of DNA methylation on FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC using two SNPs acting as methQTLs occurring close (in cis) to CpGs identified in the first step. These analyses were conducted after exclusion of weak IVs (F statistic < 10) and MR estimates were derived using the Wald ratio, with standard error from the delta method. Individuals whose data were used in step 1 were not included in step 2. RESULTS: In step 1, we found that BMI might have a small causal effect on DNA methylation levels (less than 1% change in methylation per 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI) at two CpGs (cg09046979 and cg12580248). In step 2, we found no evidence of a causal effect of DNA methylation at cg09046979 on lung function. We could not estimate the causal effect of DNA methylation at cg12580248 on lung function as we could not find publicly available data on the association of this CpG with SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first paper to report the use of a two-step MR approach to assess the role of DNA methylation in mediating the effect of a non-genetic factor on lung function. Our findings do not support a mediating effect of DNA methylation in the association of lung function with BMI.

10.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20266, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) account for the vast majority of deaths in Switzerland. Insufficient physical activity (PA) is an established NCD risk factor and PA is known to be beneficial for physical and mental wellbeing. Sedentary behaviour (SB) is an additional, independent risk factor and associated with frailty in older adults. This study aimed at describing cross-sectional PA patterns in a general population sample of subjects aged 52 years and older (52+) from eight areas across different language regions of Switzerland. Additionally, the predictive association of self-reported PA for objectively measured PA was tested. METHODS: Participants 52+ of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution And Lung and Heart Disease In Adults (SAPALDIA) who completed accelerometer data collection at the most recent follow-up (SAPALDIA4 in 2017/18) and provided information on determinants of interest (sex, age, body mass index [BMI], language region, education, employment status, civil status, smoking) were included in the analysis (n = 1314). The accelerometer-derived average time spent in different PA intensities (SB, light PA [LPA], moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA]) was estimated according to participant characteristics with control for season and wear time using multiple linear regressions. In further analyses, the predictive effect of changes in self-reported PA over roughly ten years between SAPALDIA2 (2001/02) and SAPALDIA3 (2010/11) (remaining inactive [RI]; becoming inactive [BI]; becoming active [BA]; remaining active [RA]) on the objectively measured SB, LPA and MVPA obtained seven years later by accelerometry (SAPALDIA4), was assessed using multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: Overall, 21.7% of 52+ participants met the Swiss recommendations for subjectively assessed PA. Obese participants, 75+ year-olds, smokers and subjects living alone spent more time in SB and less time in LPA and MVPA compared with participants with a BMI below 25 kg/m2, between 52 and 64 years old, not smoking and being married, respectively. Residents living in the French-speaking part of Switzerland were less likely to engage in MVPA compared with residents from the German-speaking part and thus were less likely to meet the PA recommendations. A trend for increasing PA and decreasing SB was observed consistently across the four groups (RI, BI, BA, RA) of predictive self-reported PA patterns with participants remaining active over the course of roughly ten years showing highest levels of PA and lowest levels of SB measured objectively at SAPALDIA4. CONCLUSION: The high proportion of SB points to the need of physical activity promotion for the older part of the population in Switzerland. According to our data, behavioural changes in PA are possible and sustainable as we can see in the group of participants becoming active and this is essential for health promotion recommendations.

11.
Eur Respir J ; 56(3)2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381493

RESUMO

Epigenome-wide studies of methylation in children support a role for epigenetic mechanisms in asthma; however, studies in adults are rare and few have examined non-atopic asthma. We conducted the largest epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of blood DNA methylation in adults in relation to non-atopic and atopic asthma.We measured DNA methylation in blood using the Illumina MethylationEPIC array among 2286 participants in a case-control study of current adult asthma nested within a United States agricultural cohort. Atopy was defined by serum specific immunoglobulin E (IgE). Participants were categorised as atopy without asthma (n=185), non-atopic asthma (n=673), atopic asthma (n=271), or a reference group of neither atopy nor asthma (n=1157). Analyses were conducted using logistic regression.No associations were observed with atopy without asthma. Numerous cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites were differentially methylated in non-atopic asthma (eight at family-wise error rate (FWER) p<9×10-8, 524 at false discovery rate (FDR) less than 0.05) and implicated 382 novel genes. More CpG sites were identified in atopic asthma (181 at FWER, 1086 at FDR) and implicated 569 novel genes. 104 FDR CpG sites overlapped. 35% of CpG sites in non-atopic asthma and 91% in atopic asthma replicated in studies of whole blood, eosinophils, airway epithelium, or nasal epithelium. Implicated genes were enriched in pathways related to the nervous system or inflammation.We identified numerous, distinct differentially methylated CpG sites in non-atopic and atopic asthma. Many CpG sites from blood replicated in asthma-relevant tissues. These circulating biomarkers reflect risk and sequelae of disease, as well as implicate novel genes associated with non-atopic and atopic asthma.

12.
Eur Heart J ; 41(40): 3949-3959, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227235

RESUMO

AIMS: Imbalances of iron metabolism have been linked to the development of atherosclerosis. However, subjects with hereditary haemochromatosis have a lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease. The aim of our study was to understand the underlying mechanisms by combining data from genome-wide association study analyses in humans, CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, and loss-of-function studies in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Our analysis of the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium (GLGC) dataset revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the haemochromatosis gene HFE associate with reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in human plasma. The LDL-C lowering effect could be phenocopied in dyslipidaemic ApoE-/- mice lacking Hfe, which translated into reduced atherosclerosis burden. Mechanistically, we identified HFE as a negative regulator of LDL receptor expression in hepatocytes. Moreover, we uncovered liver-resident Kupffer cells (KCs) as central players in cholesterol homeostasis as they were found to acquire and transfer LDL-derived cholesterol to hepatocytes in an Abca1-dependent fashion, which is controlled by iron availability. CONCLUSION: Our results disentangle novel regulatory interactions between iron metabolism, KC biology and cholesterol homeostasis which are promising targets for treating dyslipidaemia but also provide a mechanistic explanation for reduced cardiovascular morbidity in subjects with haemochromatosis.

13.
Environ Pollut ; 263(Pt B): 114392, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276129

RESUMO

An increasing number of findings from epidemiological studies support associations between exposure to air pollution and the onset of several diseases, including pulmonary, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and malignancies. However, intermediate, and potentially mediating, biological mechanisms associated with exposure to air pollutants are largely unknown. Previous studies on the human exposome have shown that the expression of certain circulating microRNAs (miRNAs), regulators of gene expression, are altered upon exposure to traffic-related air pollutants. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between particulate matter (PM) smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), PM2.5 absorbance (as a proxy of black carbon and soot), and ultrafine-particles (UFP, smaller than 0.1 µm), measured in healthy volunteers by 24 h personal monitoring (PEM) sessions and global expression levels of peripheral blood miRNAs. The PEM sessions were conducted in four European countries, namely Switzerland (Basel), United Kingdom (Norwich), Italy (Turin), and The Netherlands (Utrecht). miRNAs expression levels were analysed using microarray technology on blood samples from 143 participants. Seven miRNAs, hsa-miR-24-3p, hsa-miR-4454, hsa-miR-4763-3p, hsa-miR-425-5p, hsa-let-7d-5p, hsa-miR-502-5p, and hsa-miR-505-3p were significantly (FDR corrected) expressed in association with PM2.5 personal exposure, while no significant association was found between miRNA expression and the other pollutants. The results obtained from this investigation suggest that personal exposure to PM2.5 is associated with miRNA expression levels, showing the potential for these circulating miRNAs as novel biomarkers for air pollution health risk assessment.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Material Particulado , Europa (Continente) , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Itália , Países Baixos , Suíça , Reino Unido
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3452, 2020 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103063

RESUMO

Investigating COPD trends may help healthcare providers to forecast future disease burden. We estimated sex- and smoking-specific incidence trends of pre-bronchodilator airflow obstruction (AO) among adults without asthma from 11 European countries within a 20-year follow-up (ECRHS and SAPALDIA cohorts). We also quantified the extent of misclassification in the definition based on pre-bronchodilator spirometry (using post-bronchodilator measurements from a subsample of subjects) and we used this information to estimate the incidence of post-bronchodilator AO (AOpost-BD), which is the primary characteristic of COPD. AO incidence was 4.4 (95% CI: 3.5-5.3) male and 3.8 (3.1-4.6) female cases/1,000/year. Among ever smokers (median pack-years: 20, males; 12, females), AO incidence significantly increased with ageing in men only [incidence rate ratio (IRR), 1-year increase: 1.05 (1.03-1.07)]. A strong exposure-response relationship with smoking was found both in males [IRR, 1-pack-year increase: 1.03 (1.02-1.04)] and females [1.03 (1.02-1.05)]. The positive predictive value of AO for AOpost-BD was 59.1% (52.0-66.2%) in men and 42.6% (35.1-50.1%) in women. AOpost-BD incidence was 2.6 (1.7-3.4) male and 1.6 (1.0-2.2) female cases/1,000/year. AO incidence was considerable in Europe and the sex-specific ageing-related increase among ever smokers was strongly related to cumulative tobacco exposure. AOpost-BD incidence is expected to be half of AO incidence.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Adulto , Asma/patologia , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar , Espirometria
15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(1): 518-542, 2020 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926111

RESUMO

Lung function, strongly associated with morbidity and mortality, decreases with age. This study examines whether poor adult lung function is associated with age accelerations (AAs). DNA methylation (DNAm) based AAs, lifespan predictors (GrimAge and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1-PAI1) and their related age-adjusted measures were estimated from peripheral blood at two time points (8-to-11 years apart) in adults from two cohorts: SAPALDIA (n=987) and ECRHS (n=509). Within each cohort and stratified by gender (except for estimators from GrimAge and PAI1), AAs were used as predictors in multivariate linear regression with cross-sectional lung function parameters, and in covariate-adjusted mixed linear regression with longitudinal change in lung function and meta-analysed.AAs were found cross-sectionally associated with lower mean FEV1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in one second) (AA-residuals:P-value=4x10-4; Intrinsic Epigenetic AA:P-value=2x10-4) in females at the follow-up time point only, and the same trend was observed for FVC (Forced Vital Capacity). Both lifespan and plasma level predictors were observed strongly associated with lung function decline and the decline was stronger in the follow-up time points (strongest association between FEV1 and DNAmAge GrimAge:P-value=1.25x10-17).This study suggests that DNAm based lifespan and plasma level predictors can be utilised as important factors to assess lung health in adults.

16.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 156: 107845, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520711

RESUMO

AIMS: We investigated the cross-sectional associations of Plasmodium infection (PI) with fasting glucose (FG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in malaria-endemic south-central Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS: We studied 979 participants (non-pregnant; no treated diabetes; 51% males; 18-87 years) of the Côte d'Ivoire Dual Burden of Disease study. Fasting venous blood was obtained for PI, FG, and HbA1c assessment. We defined PI as a positive malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) or microscopic identification of Plasmodium species. We applied multivariable linear regressions to assess beta coefficients (ß) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of PI positivity for FG and HbA1c independent of diabetes risk factors. RESULTS: Prevalence of PI was 10.1% (5.5% microscopy; 9.7% RDT) without clinical fever. Prevalence of FG-based prediabetes (45.8%) and diabetes (3.6%) were considerably higher than HbA1c-based values (2.7% and 0.7%, respectively). PI was independently associated with FG among participants with higher body temperature (ß 0.34, 95% CI 0.06-0.63, pheterogeneity = 0.028), or family history of diabetes (ß 0.88, 95% CI 0.28-1.47, pheterogeneity = 0.009). Similar patterns observed with HbA1c were obliterated on accounting for FG. We also observed consistent associations with parasite density. CONCLUSIONS: FG-based diabetes diagnosis in the presence of asymptomatic PI may misclassify or overestimate diabetes burden in malaria-endemic settings. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine the risk for diabetes.


Assuntos
Glucose/metabolismo , Malária/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Costa do Marfim , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8818, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217483

RESUMO

We aim to investigate to what extent a set of immune markers mediate the association between air pollution and adult-onset asthma. We considered long-term exposure to multiple air pollution markers and a panel of 13 immune markers in peripheral blood samples collected from 140 adult cases and 199 controls using a nested-case control design. We tested associations between air pollutants and immune markers and adult-onset asthma using mixed-effects (logistic) regression models, adjusted for confounding variables. In order to evaluate a possible mediating effect of the full set of immune markers, we modelled the relationship between asthma and air pollution with a partial least square path model. We observed a strong positive association of IL-1RA [OR 1.37; 95% CI (1.09, 1.73)] with adult-onset asthma. Univariate models did not yield any association between air pollution and immune markers. However, mediation analyses indicated that 15% of the effect of air pollution on risk of adult-onset asthma was mediated through the immune system when considering all immune markers as a latent variable (path coefficient (ß) = 0.09; 95% CI: (-0.02, 0.20)). This effect appeared to be stronger for allergic asthma (22%; ß = 0.12; 95% CI: (-0.03, 0.27)) and overweight subjects (27%; ß = 0.19; 95% CI: (-0.004, 0.38)). Our results provides supportive evidence for a mediating effect of the immune system in the association between air pollution and adult-onset asthma.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/imunologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Razão de Chances
18.
Eur Respir J ; 54(1)2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073081

RESUMO

Previous reports link differential DNA methylation (DNAme) to environmental exposures that are associated with lung function. Direct evidence on lung function DNAme is, however, limited. We undertook an agnostic epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) on pre-bronchodilation lung function and its change in adults.In a discovery-replication EWAS design, DNAme in blood and spirometry were measured twice, 6-15 years apart, in the same participants of three adult population-based discovery cohorts (n=2043). Associated DNAme markers (p<5×10-7) were tested in seven replication cohorts (adult: n=3327; childhood: n=420). Technical bias-adjusted residuals of a regression of the normalised absolute ß-values on control probe-derived principle components were regressed on level and change of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and their ratio (FEV1/FVC) in the covariate-adjusted discovery EWAS. Inverse-variance-weighted meta-analyses were performed on results from discovery and replication samples in all participants and never-smokers.EWAS signals were enriched for smoking-related DNAme. We replicated 57 lung function DNAme markers in adult, but not childhood samples, all previously associated with smoking. Markers not previously associated with smoking failed replication. cg05575921 (AHRR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor)) showed the statistically most significant association with cross-sectional lung function (FEV1/FVC: pdiscovery=3.96×10-21 and pcombined=7.22×10-50). A score combining 10 DNAme markers previously reported to mediate the effect of smoking on lung function was associated with lung function (FEV1/FVC: p=2.65×10-20).Our results reveal that lung function-associated methylation signals in adults are predominantly smoking related, and possibly of clinical utility in identifying poor lung function and accelerated decline. Larger studies with more repeat time-points are needed to identify lung function DNAme in never-smokers and in children.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fumar/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Ilhas de CpG , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Espirometria
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791383

RESUMO

A high body mass (BMI) index has repeatedly been associated with non-atopic asthma, but the biological mechanism linking obesity to asthma is still poorly understood. We aimed to test the hypothesis that inflammation and/or innate immunity plays a role in the obesity-asthma link. DNA methylome was measured in blood samples of 61 non-atopic participants with asthma and 146 non-atopic participants without asthma (non-smokers for at least 10 years) taking part in the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) study. Modification by DNA methylation of the association of BMI or BMI change over 10 years with adult-onset asthma was examined at each CpG site and differentially methylated region. Pathway enrichment tests were conducted for genes in a priori curated inflammatory pathways and the NLRP3-IL1B-IL17 axis. The latter was chosen on the basis of previous work in mice. Inflammatory pathways including glucocorticoid/PPAR signaling (p = 0.0023), MAPK signaling (p = 0.013), NF-κB signaling (p = 0.031), and PI3K/AKT signaling (p = 0.031) were enriched for the effect modification of BMI, while NLRP3-IL1B-IL17 axis was enriched for the effect modification of BMI change over 10 years (p = 0.046). DNA methylation measured in peripheral blood is consistent with inflammation as a link between BMI and adult-onset asthma and with the NLRP3-IL1B-IL17 axis as a link between BMI change over 10 years and adult-onset asthma in non-atopic participants.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Metilação de DNA , Inflamação/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Masculino , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , PPAR gama/metabolismo
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