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1.
Int J Speech Lang Pathol ; : 1-9, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295430

RESUMO

Purpose: In the absence of evidence-based guidelines, this study sought to understand current speech-language pathologists' (SLPs) practice when treating drooling in children with a neurodisability.Method: Descriptive research using cross-sectional survey methodology. Online survey methods were used to obtain specific information on Australian SLPs' self-reported assessment and treatment practices relative to working with children with neurodisability who drool. Questions focussed on level of expertise, treatment approaches and barriers to evidence-based practice (EBP) in this area. Participants were sourced through three targeted associations/organisations. Data were analysed using descriptive and non-parametric statistics.Result: Participants were Australian SLPs who had recent experience working with children with neurodisability who drool (n = 68). They favoured informal rather than formal methods for assessment. Preferred treatment techniques included behavioural intervention methods (46-53%) and modifying positioning (43.3%). Client suitability dominated reasoning regarding treatment selection (60%) with 57% of SLPs reporting EBP barriers.Conclusion: Drooling was perceived to be a complex practice area for which SLPs desire additional education. Despite availability, valid and reliable assessments of drooling were not commonly used. Clinicians have limited evidence to support their practice: further research is needed to establish evidence-based treatments for drooling.

2.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-14, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135069

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the effect of a knowledge translation intervention on knowledge and frequency of routine evidence-based assessment behaviours of healthcare professionals working with children with cerebral palsy.Methods: A before-and-after longitudinal study was conducted in five disability organisations. Four organisations (Commencing Knowledge Translation group) implemented a multifaceted intervention: knowledge brokers, targeted education, electronic-evidence library, and clinical outcomes database. These strategies were already in place at the fifth organisation (Comparison group). Outcomes evaluated at 0, 6, 12, and 24 months were health-professional knowledge and routine assessment behaviours (self-report and "completeness" of clinical assessment). Generalised estimating equations determined longitudinal changes.Results: Four hundred and forty-seven professionals involved 861 children in the study. The Comparison group had higher knowledge and routine assessment behaviours at baseline. Professional knowledge in both groups remained stable (differences in change from baseline to 24 months: 0.3 units, 95%CI: -0.76 to 1.36). Assessment completeness of the Comparison group was stable (baseline mean 68 units, 95%CI: 65-71); the Commencing Knowledge Translation group improved from baseline mean 35 units (95%CI: 33-36), peaking at 12 months (mean 68 (95%CI: 65-71).Conclusions: Multifaceted organisational support improved health-professional routine evidence-based assessment behaviours with children with cerebral palsy, despite no change in knowledge. Trial registration: This trial was not a controlled health care intervention and was registered retrospectively: ACTRN12616001616460. The protocol of the trial was published in 2015 as follows: Imms et al. [6].Implications for rehabilitationA multifaceted knowledge translation intervention increased allied health professionals' assessment behaviours.Knowledge translation strategies can be chosen to target change in knowledge and/or change in behaviour.Knowledge translation interventions should be designed to address organisational barriers and enhance organisational supports.Interventions that target healthcare professionals' behaviour directly can be effective even if their knowledge does not change.

3.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 2020 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064606

RESUMO

AIM: To: (1) investigate the relationship between upper-limb impairment and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for children with cerebral palsy and (2) develop a mapping algorithm from the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life Questionnaire for Children (CPQoL-Child) onto the Child Health Utility 9D (CHU9D) measure. METHOD: The associations between physical and upper-limb classifications and HRQoL of 76 children (40 females, 36 males) aged 6 to 15 years (mean age 9 years 7 months [SD 3y]) were assessed. Five statistical techniques were developed and tested, which predicted the CHU9D scores from the CPQoL-Child total/domain scores, age, and sex. RESULTS: Most participants had mild impairments. The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) level was significantly negatively correlated with CHU9D and CPQoL-Child (r=-0.388 and r=-0.464 respectively). There was a negative correlation between the Neurological Hand Deformity Classification (NHDC) and CPQoL-Child (r=-0.476, p<0.05). The generalized linear model with participation, pain domain, and age had the highest predictive accuracy. INTERPRETATION: The weak negative correlations between classification levels and HRQoL measures may be explained by the restricted range of impairment levels of the participants. The MACS and NHDC explained the impact of upper-limb impairment on HRQoL better than the other classifications. The generalized linear model with participation, pain, and age is the suggested mapping algorithm. The suggested mapping algorithm will facilitate the use of CPQoL-Child for economic evaluation and can be used to conduct cost-utility analyses.

4.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 62(4): 434-444, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975385

RESUMO

AIM: To examine which instruments used to assess participation of children with acquired brain injury (ABI) or cerebral palsy (CP) align with attendance and/or involvement constructs of participation; and to systematically review measurement properties of these instruments in children with ABI or CP, to guide instrument selection. METHOD: Five databases were searched. Instruments that quantified 'attendance' and/or 'involvement' aspects of participation according to the family of participation-related constructs were selected. Data on measurement properties were extracted and methodological quality of the studies assessed. RESULTS: Thirty-seven instruments were used to assess participation in children with ABI or CP. Of those, 12 measured attendance and/or involvement. The reliability, validity, and responsiveness of eight of these instruments were examined in 14 studies with children with ABI or CP. Sufficient measurement properties were reported for most of the measures, but no instrument had been assessed on all relevant properties. Moreover, most psychometric studies have marked methodological limitations. INTERPRETATION: Instruments to assess participation of children with ABI or CP should be selected carefully, as many available measures do not align with attendance and/or involvement. Evidence for measurement properties is limited, mainly caused by low methodological study quality. Future studies should follow recommended methodological guidelines. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Twelve instruments used to assess participation of children with acquired brain injury (ABI) or cerebral palsy (CP) aligned with attendance/involvement. Seven instruments have some psychometric evidence supporting their use with children with CP. For children with ABI, only the Child and Adolescent Scale of Participation has shown preliminary evidence of measurement properties.

5.
Scand J Occup Ther ; : 1-6, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923368

RESUMO

Background: Occupational therapy research has not fully utilized available research methods when exploring occupational therapists' views on specific interventions and service provision nor when exploring consumer priorities and the impact of occupational therapy services. Q methodology, a quantitative method for the systematic assessment of qualitative data, is an approach that can be used to examine viewpoints related to occupational therapy practice.Purpose: This paper adds experiential knowledge to guide researchers new to navigating Q methodology and encourages occupational therapy researchers to consider the application of Q methodology when exploring viewpoints pertinent to practice and research.Key issues: This paper provides a more detailed reflection on each stage of Q methodology than is currently available in the literature, with a focus on the factor analysis stage, to support the successful implementation of this method.Implications: Sharing experience in implementing Q methodology may inform and encourage researchers in its use as one approach to combine qualitative methods and quantitative data analysis techniques. The rigour of the method's processes may add credibility to identified viewpoints and how they could inform occupational therapy practice.Key messagesQ methodology can be used in occupational therapy research to explore consumer and therapist viewpoints regarding interventions, service provision, priorities and the profession itself.Q methodology employs a specific, repeatable process within each stage of the research process to ensure rigour.Q methodology provides an approach to combining qualitative research methods with quantitative analysis techniques to understand the viewpoints of interest.

6.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 50(3): 1088-1094, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823216

RESUMO

Use of empirically unsupported practices is a challenge in the field of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We explored whether attitudes and perceived evidence were linked to intended practice use in early intervention staff. Seventy-one participants completed ratings of the evidence base, current and future use of six ASD intervention practices, and reported attitudes to research and evidence-based practice. Participants reported greater use and rated the evidence base higher for the empirically supported practices. However, variability in accuracy of evidence base ratings was observed across individuals. Higher perceived evidence was linked to greater future use intentions for empirically supported and unsupported practices. The need for accurate information across practice types is highlighted. Self-report methodology limitations and future research directions are discussed.

8.
Scand J Occup Ther ; : 1-13, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402722

RESUMO

Background: Participation comprises attendance and involvement in everyday situations. Picture My Participation (PmP) is an instrument intended to measure participation in children with disabilities, particularly in low and middle income countries. Aim: To investigate content validity and usefulness of PmP for measuring participation in children with intellectual disability (ID) in South Africa and Sweden. Methods: A picture supported interview with 149 children, 6-18 years, with and without ID. Twenty everyday activities were provided. The three most important activities were selected by the child. Attendance was rated on all activities. Involvement was rated on the most important. Results: All activities were selected as important by at least one child with ID in both countries. There were similarities in perceived importance between the children with and without ID from South Africa. The children from South Africa with ID were the only subgroup that used all scale points for rating attendance and involvement. Conclusion: The 20 selected activities of PmP were especially relevant for children with ID in South Africa. The usefulness of the scales was higher for the children with ID in both countries. PmP is promising for assessing participation across different settings but psychometrical properties and clinical utility need further exploration.

9.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-10, 2019 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230482

RESUMO

Purpose: To understand parents' experiences of evidence-based assessment by health professionals for their child with cerebral palsy. Methods: A qualitative interpretive description study was undertaken. Primary carers of children with cerebral palsy (aged 3-18 years) from south-eastern Australia were invited to participate. Face-to-face interviews were held using a semi-structured topic guide and data analyzed inductively. Credibility was ensured through: journal reflections; co-author review; audit trail; and, participant member-checking. Results: Fourteen parents of children with cerebral palsy, representing Gross Motor Functional Classification System levels I-V, participated. Six themes emerged: (1) Protection; (2) Positively Framed; (3) Bridging the Gap; (4) Involvement; (5) Finding Worth; and (6) Trust. Central to parents' experience was protection of their child's identity and personal self. Assessment can be emotionally confronting, at any stage. Representing the child positively and highlighting possibilities was deemed essential. Parents' involvement ranged from being overlooked spectators to being instigators of assessment. Evidence-based assessment was worthwhile when relevant to parents' direction and family context. The researchers' interpretive description generated a schema and metaphor-the Steering Wheel for Collaborative Assessment. Conclusions: A strengths-based approach to diagnosis and assessment is essential. The resulting interpretive description may assist health professionals align evidence-based assessment practices with family-centred care. Implications for rehabilitation Parents of children who have cerebral palsy describe having to protect their child's identity and representation, and their own personal well-being, through evidence-based assessment and diagnostic processes. Involving parents in the process of evidence-based assessment and adopting a strengths-based approach is essential. The interpretive description developed-the Steering Wheel for Collaborative Assessment-may assist health professionals to implement evidence-based assessment tools in ways consistent with family-centred care principles.

10.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-11, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973762

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study identified occupational therapists' viewpoints that guide their practice of upper limb orthosis prescription for children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: A qualitative study utilising Q methodology explored participants' viewpoints. Thirty-nine occupational therapists (38 females) were purposively recruited to rank statements generated from interviews of experienced clinicians and peer reviewed and published literature. Statements about reasons for orthoses prescription, were ranked according to what guides decision making the most to least. Data from ranked statements were analysed using by-person factor analysis to reveal the different ways statements were grouped. The resultant factors, based on the average arrangement of statements associated with each factor, were interpreted and named as viewpoints. RESULTS: Viewpoints identified: 1. Potential effect of the orthosis (n = 12 sorts); 2. Biomechanical presentation (n = 12 sorts); and 3. Client/therapist relationship (n = 10 sorts). The "Client's goals" statement was ranked highest across all viewpoints. CONCLUSIONS: Viewpoints identified may inform development of clinical guidelines. Further research is required to (i) identify valid and reliable classification and assessment tools to guide decision making; and (ii) establish the mechanism of the effect of orthotic intervention by considering the link between the biomechanical purpose of the orthosis (e.g., mobilise tissue) and aim of intervention (prevent contracture). Implications for rehabilitation Q methodology provided an opportunity to identify viewpoints of occupational therapists that guide their upper extremity orthosis prescription decision making. Consistent with best-practice, clients' goals were the primary focus of decision making in each viewpoint. It is recommended that clinicians consider the identified viewpoints; 1) the potential effects of the orthosis, 2) the biomechanical presentation of the child, within 3) an established client/therapist relationship when prescribing upper extremity orthoses. Practice guidelines to inform upper limb orthotic intervention may be developed using the identified viewpoints.

11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD004149, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) is a condition that affects muscle control and function on one side of the body. Children with unilateral CP experience difficulties using their hands together secondary to disturbances that occur in the developing fetal or infant brain. Often, the more affected limb is disregarded. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) aims to increase use of the more affected upper limb and improve bimanual performance. CIMT is based on two principles: restraining the use of the less affected limb (for example, using a splint, mitt or sling) and intensive therapeutic practice of the more affected limb. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in the treatment of the more affected upper limb in children with unilateral CP. SEARCH METHODS: In March 2018 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PEDro, OTseeker, five other databases and three trials registers. We also ran citation searches, checked reference lists, contacted experts, handsearched key journals and searched using Google Scholar. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs or clinically controlled trials implemented with children with unilateral CP, aged between 0 and 19 years, where CIMT was compared with a different form of CIMT, or a low dose, high-dose or dose-matched alternative form of upper-limb intervention such as bimanual intervention. Primarily, outcomes were bimanual performance, unimanual capacity and manual ability. Secondary outcomes included measures of self-care, body function, participation and quality of life. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts to eliminate ineligible studies. Five review authors were paired to extract data and assess risk of bias in each included study. GRADE assessments were undertaken by two review authors. MAIN RESULTS: We included 36 trials (1264 participants), published between 2004 and 2018. Sample sizes ranged from 11 to 105 (mean 35). Mean age was 5.96 years (standard deviation (SD) 1.82), range three months to 19.8 years; 53% male and 47% participants had left hemiplegia. Fifty-seven outcome measures were used across studies. Average length of CIMT programs was four weeks (range one to 10 weeks). Frequency of sessions ranged from twice weekly to seven days per week. Duration of intervention sessions ranged from 0.5 to eight hours per day. The mean total number of hours of CIMT provided was 137 hours (range 20 to 504 hours). The most common constraint devices were a mitt/glove or a sling (11 studies each).We judged the risk of bias as moderate to high across the studies. KEY RESULTS: Primary outcomes at primary endpoint (immediately after intervention)CIMT versus low-dose comparison (e.g. occupational therapy)We found low-quality evidence that CIMT was more effective than a low-dose comparison for improving bimanual performance (mean difference (MD) 5.44 Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) units, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.37 to 8.51).CIMT was more effective than a low-dose comparison for improving unimanual capacity (Quality of upper extremity skills test (QUEST) - Dissociated movement MD 5.95, 95% CI 2.02 to 9.87; Grasps; MD 7.57, 95% CI 2.10 to 13.05; Weight bearing MD 5.92, 95% CI 2.21 to 9.6; Protective extension MD 12.54, 95% CI 8.60 to 16.47). Three studies reported adverse events, including frustration, constraint refusal and reversible skin irritations from casting.CIMT versus high-dose comparison (e.g. individualised occupational therapy, bimanual therapy)When compared with a high-dose comparison, CIMT was not more effective for improving bimanual performance (MD -0.39 AHA Units, 95% CI -3.14 to 2.36). There was no evidence that CIMT was more effective than a high-dose comparison for improving unimanual capacity in a single study using QUEST (Dissociated movement MD 0.49, 95% CI -10.71 to 11.69; Grasp MD -0.20, 95% CI -11.84 to 11.44). Two studies reported that some children experienced frustration participating in CIMT.CIMT versus dose-matched comparison (e.g. Hand Arm Bimanual Intensive Therapy, bimanual therapy, occupational therapy)There was no evidence of differences in bimanual performance between groups receiving CIMT or a dose-matched comparison (MD 0.80 AHA units, 95% CI -0.78 to 2.38).There was no evidence that CIMT was more effective than a dose-matched comparison for improving unimanual capacity (Box and Blocks Test MD 1.11, 95% CI -0.06 to 2.28; Melbourne Assessment MD 1.48, 95% CI -0.49 to 3.44; QUEST Dissociated movement MD 6.51, 95% CI -0.74 to 13.76; Grasp, MD 6.63, 95% CI -2.38 to 15.65; Weightbearing MD -2.31, 95% CI -8.02 to 3.40) except for the Protective extension domain (MD 6.86, 95% CI 0.14 to 13.58).There was no evidence of differences in manual ability between groups receiving CIMT or a dose-matched comparison (ABILHAND-Kids MD 0.74, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.18). From 15 studies, two children did not tolerate CIMT and three experienced difficulty. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The quality of evidence for all conclusions was low to very low. For children with unilateral CP, there was some evidence that CIMT resulted in improved bimanual performance and unimanual capacity when compared to a low-dose comparison, but not when compared to a high-dose or dose-matched comparison. Based on the evidence available, CIMT appears to be safe for children with CP.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/terapia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Imobilização/métodos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Movimento , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210746, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699155

RESUMO

Misinformation poses significant challenges to evidence-based practice. In the public health domain specifically, treatment misinformation can lead to opportunity costs or direct harm. Alas, attempts to debunk misinformation have proven sub-optimal, and have even been shown to "backfire", including increasing misperceptions. Thus, optimized debunking strategies have been developed to more effectively combat misinformation. The aim of this study was to test these strategies in a real-world setting, targeting misinformation about autism interventions. In the context of professional development training, we randomly assigned participants to an "optimized-debunking" or a "treatment-as-usual" training condition and compared support for non-empirically-supported treatments before, after, and six weeks following completion of online training. Results demonstrated greater benefits of optimized debunking immediately after training; thus, the implemented strategies can serve as a general and flexible debunking template. However, the effect was not sustained at follow-up, highlighting the need for further research into strategies for sustained change.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Comunicação , Humanos , Saúde Pública/métodos
13.
Aust Occup Ther J ; 66(3): 369-379, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680738

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This economic evaluation complements results of the randomised controlled trial that established non-inferiority of the learning outcomes of a one-week simulated clinical placement (SCP) in occupational therapy qualifying degrees in comparison to an equivalent traditional clinical placement (TCP). This companion study presents detailed cost analyses of two placement alternatives and a cost-benefit study to assess the value for money of SCP. An economic evaluation of simulated versus traditional placements has not previously been conducted in Australia. METHODS: Nine SCP/TCP rounds were conducted by six Australian universities. Costs were collected using study-specific instruments. Public health sector costs were sourced from available literature. Willingness-to-pay for SCP/TCP was estimated using both a Discrete Choice Experiment and a Contingent Valuation method. These methods were employed to assess a comparative 'value' of SCP/TCP from the perspective of heads of occupational therapy departments (N = 28), who were asked to put a monetary value on the broader range of benefits associated with SCP/TCP. RESULTS: From the universities' perspective the average cost per student ranged from AUD$460 to AUD$1511 for simulated and AUD$144 to AUD$1112 for traditional placement. From the health care sector perspective, the difference in costs favoured simulated placements for four implementations and traditional placements for five. In the Discrete Choice Experiment respondents preferred traditional rather than simulated placement and would pay additional AUD$533. The estimated monetary value of simulated placements from a contingent valuation ranged from AUD$200 to AUD$1600. CONCLUSIONS: For universities that procure TCPs predominately at public health care facilities and sustain high administrative overheads, the SCP program could be a cost-saving alternative. From a broader value-for-money perspective, respondents favoured TCP over SCP, yet placed importance on placement availability and opportunity to demonstrate competence for students during the placement. Results should be interpreted with caution and further research with larger sample sizes is required.

14.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 61(1): 39-48, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30276810

RESUMO

AIM: To review the evidence for behavioural interventions to reduce drooling in children with neurodisability. METHOD: A detailed search in eight databases sought studies that: (1) included participants aged 0 to 18 years with neurodisability and drooling; (2) provided behavioural interventions targeting drooling or a drooling-related behaviour; and (3) used experimental designs. Two reviewers extracted data from full-text papers independently. Results were tabulated for comparison. The Risk of Bias assessment in N-of-1 Trials scale for single case experimental designs (SCEDs) and the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were applied. RESULTS: Of an initial yield of 763, seven SCEDs and one RCT were included. Behavioural interventions included the use of reinforcement, prompting, self-management, instruction, extinction, overcorrection, and fading. Each assessed body functions or structures' outcomes (drooling frequency and severity); three included activity outcomes (mouth drying, head control, eye contact, and vocalizations) and none assessed participation or quality of life. While each study reported positive effects of intervention, risk of bias was high. INTERPRETATION: Low-level evidence suggests behavioural interventions may be useful for treatment of drooling in children with neurodisability. Well-designed intervention studies are urgently needed to determine effectiveness. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Behavioural interventions used to treat drooling included reinforcement, prompting, self-management, extinction, overcorrection, instruction, and fading. Interventions targeted body structures and function-level outcomes and activity-level outcomes. Low-level evidence supports the use of behavioural intervention to treat drooling.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/complicações , Sialorreia/complicações , Sialorreia/terapia , Adolescente , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/terapia
15.
Nurs Health Sci ; 21(1): 4-13, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178916

RESUMO

Simulation is increasingly used to supplement clinical placement in preregistration health professional programs. However, there are no conceptual frameworks to guide the design of these learning experiences when replacing a clinical placement. In the present study, the conceptual framework for simulated clinical placements (CF-SCP) is presented. Evolving from an iterative process of synthesizing learning and simulation theory, findings from the empirical literature, and the perspectives and ideas from experts in occupational therapy practice, education and simulation-based learning, the CF-SCP aligns principles and processes of workplace and simulation learning. The application of the CF-SCP is described in the context of a 1 week full-time SCP. The CF-SCP provides a structure for organizing, understanding, and applying the principles and processes to design a simulated placement to be a "placement replacement" experience. Articulating a conceptual framework for the design of simulated placement experiences to replace actual clinical placement hours in the allied health sector is important if these experiences are to be tested for validity, efficacy, and transferability to a range of occupational therapy practice areas and other health disciplines.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador/tendências , Terapia Ocupacional/educação , Preceptoria/métodos , Humanos , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Seleção de Pessoal/métodos , Seleção de Pessoal/normas , Preceptoria/normas
16.
Disabil Rehabil ; 41(1): 53-65, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28877650

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evidence-based assessments for children with cerebral palsy are not widely used by healthcare professionals in day-to-day practice. This study aimed to examine allied health practitioner experiences, perceptions, and use of assessments for children with cerebral palsy. METHOD: A mixed methods study was conducted in two rehabilitation organisations. Three focus group interviews explored therapists' assessment experiences with data analysed using interpretive description. Assessment practices of therapists (n = 55) were assessed through self-report questionnaire and case-file audit of children with cerebral palsy (n = 44). RESULTS: Emergent themes described therapists' motivation to use evidence-based assessments on a behavioural continuum - I don't; I can't; I try; I do; We do; influenced by assessment satisfaction, child and family collaboration, organisational expectation, research fit, and time dedication. Only two of fifteen audited assessments were documented in more than 50% of files. Use was higher where assessments positively connected therapists, children and parents, and use was organisationally endorsed. The Cultural Cone for evidence-based assessment behaviour was conceptualised. CONCLUSIONS: "Engagement in" assessment appears to require a conceptual shift by therapists and organisations to understanding assessment as part of, not an adjunct to, therapy. The Cultural Cone framework may assist therapists and services in designing strategies to promote evidence-based assessment behaviours. Implications for rehabilitation Therapists' can reflect on where they are positioned on the "use continuum" in the Cultural Cone framework, and consider the contextual influences contained in this framework to understand their motivation to use evidence-based assessments. Routine use of evidenced-based assessments for children with cerebral palsy by allied health practitioners remains generally low and therapists and service organisations need to consider ways to increase use. Where possible, therapists' should choose assessment tools that fully engage children and families and themselves in the assessment process. The Cultural Cone framework may be used to assist therapists and organisations identify and design site specific strategies to increase evidence-based assessment use in day-to-day practice.


Assuntos
Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Paralisia Cerebral , Avaliação da Deficiência , Competência Profissional/normas , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/normas , Paralisia Cerebral/diagnóstico , Paralisia Cerebral/reabilitação , Criança , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
17.
Sports Med Open ; 4(1): 53, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wearable sensors are portable measurement tools that are becoming increasingly popular for the measurement of joint angle in the upper limb. With many brands emerging on the market, each with variations in hardware and protocols, evidence to inform selection and application is needed. Therefore, the objectives of this review were related to the use of wearable sensors to calculate upper limb joint angle. We aimed to describe (i) the characteristics of commercial and custom wearable sensors, (ii) the populations for whom researchers have adopted wearable sensors, and (iii) their established psychometric properties. METHODS: A systematic review of literature was undertaken using the following data bases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, IEEE, and Scopus. Studies were eligible if they met the following criteria: (i) involved humans and/or robotic devices, (ii) involved the application or simulation of wearable sensors on the upper limb, and (iii) calculated a joint angle. RESULTS: Of 2191 records identified, 66 met the inclusion criteria. Eight studies compared wearable sensors to a robotic device and 22 studies compared to a motion analysis system. Commercial (n = 13) and custom (n = 7) wearable sensors were identified, each with variations in placement, calibration methods, and fusion algorithms, which were demonstrated to influence accuracy. CONCLUSION: Wearable sensors have potential as viable instruments for measurement of joint angle in the upper limb during active movement. Currently, customised application (i.e. calibration and angle calculation methods) is required to achieve sufficient accuracy (error <  5°). Additional research and standardisation is required to guide clinical application. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This systematic review was registered with PROSPERO ( CRD42017059935 ).

18.
Aust Occup Ther J ; 65(6): 556-564, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Professional practise placements in occupational therapy education are critical to ensuring graduate competence. Australian occupational therapy accreditation standards allow up to 200 of a mandated 1000 placement hours to include simulation-based learning. There is, however, minimal evidence about the effectiveness of simulation-based placements compared to traditional placements in occupational therapy. We evaluated whether occupational therapy students completing a 40 hour (one week block) Simulated Clinical Placement (SCP) attained non-inferior learning outcomes to students attending a 40 hour Traditional Clinical Placement (TCP). METHODS: A pragmatic, non-inferiority, assessor-blinded, multicentre, randomised controlled trial involving students from six Australian universities was conducted. Statistical power analysis estimated a required sample of 425. Concealed random allocation was undertaken with a 1:1 ratio within each university. Students were assigned to SCP or TCP in one of three settings: vocational rehabilitation, mental health or physical rehabilitation. SCP materials were developed, manualised and staff training provided. TCPs were in equivalent practice areas. Outcomes were assessed using a standardised examination, unit grades, the Student Practice Evaluation Form-Revised and student confidence survey. A generalised estimating equation approach was used to assess non-inferiority of the SCP to the TCP. RESULTS: Of 570 randomised students (84% female), 275 attended the SCP and 265 the TCP (n = 540, 94.7% retention). There were no significant differences between the TCP and SCP on (i) examination results (marginal mean difference 1.85, 95% CI: 0.46-3.24; P = 0.087); (ii) unit score (mean (SD) SCP: 71.9 (8.8), TCP: 70.34 (9.1); P = 0.066); or (iii) placement fail rate, assessed using the Student Practice Evaluation Form-Revised (100% passed both groups). CONCLUSION: Students can achieve equivalent learning outcomes in a 40 hour simulated placement to those achieved in a 40 hour traditional placement. These findings provide assurance to students, educators and professional accreditation bodies that simulation can be embedded in occupational therapy education with good effect.


Assuntos
Internato não Médico/normas , Terapia Ocupacional/educação , Treinamento por Simulação/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Terapia Ocupacional/normas , Método Simples-Cego , Adulto Jovem
19.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-9, 2018 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987965

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Short-term physical activity programs may encourage adolescents with cerebral palsy to participate in physical activity but how to sustain their involvement is not well known. This qualitative study aimed to identify facilitators that successfully sustain physical activity participation by adolescents with cerebral palsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adolescents (12-18 years) with cerebral palsy [Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V, without moderate-severe intellectual disability] who participated in regular physical activity were eligible, as well as one parent and an individual who facilitated their physical activity. Data were gathered using semi-structured interviews; verbatim transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis within individuals (n = 15), triads (n = 5), and across participant groups (adolescents, parents and facilitators). RESULTS: Five triads participated (male adolescents, 13-16 years, GMFCS levels I-III). Seven themes emerged: getting started, wanting to succeed, a sense of belonging, the coach is important, endorsement to continue, endorsement to support and being passionate. The themes were synthesized into the Framework for Sustained Participation, which describes the interaction among themes. CONCLUSIONS: The Framework for Sustained Participation highlights strategies that may be useful for adolescents, parents, sports facilitators, clinicians and researchers to help ambulatory male adolescents with cerebral palsy continue to participate in physical activity. Implications for rehabilitation Sustaining participation in physical activity has the potential to enhance long-term health benefits of young people with cerebral palsy. Key facilitators of sustained physical activity in adolescents with cerebral palsy included tailoring the activity, getting the right coach and the adolescents' desire for health and fitness. The Framework of Sustained Participation may assist clinicians and facilitators who work with young people with cerebral palsy to structure their support in ways that will successfully sustain the adolescents' participation in physical activity.

20.
Res Dev Disabil ; 80: 93-101, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) and its associated conditions can pose a significant economic burden on families, the health care system and the general economy. The boundary for inclusion of costs in research can vary substantially across studies. AIMS: To summarize the evidence for burden of disease for CP including the impacts on the health system, the community and carers. METHODS: Literature was identified from Ovid Medline, Embase, CINHAL, PsyInfo, Econlit, Health Economic Evaluation Database (HEED) and NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) in the Cochrane Library. The search was restricted to articles published in English between 1970 and April 2016. All costs were converted to $USD 2016 price. RESULTS: Twenty-two articles were included. Studies varied from snapshot cost descriptions to more complex lifetime estimates, from prevalence-based to incidence-based studies, and from inclusion to exclusion of non-medical costs. There was a strong positive relationship between CP severity and expenditure. Significant costs were incurred by families and the welfare system to facilitate school and community engagement. CONCLUSION: Facilitating participation for people with CP involves substantial expense. The size, nature and distribution of the economic burden emphasises the importance of finding effective strategies to reduce the risk and severity of CP, together with how it is financed.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Cuidadores , Análise Custo-Benefício , Assistência à Saúde , Família , Humanos , Características de Residência , Instituições Acadêmicas
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