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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049631

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) present with diverse body weight status and degrees of glycemic control, which may warrant different treatment approaches. We sought to identify subgroups sharing phenotypes based on both weight and glycemia and compare characteristics across subgroups. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants with T1D in the SEARCH study cohort (n=1817, 6.0-30.4 years) were seen at a follow-up visit >5 years after diagnosis. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering was used to group participants based on five measures summarizing the joint distribution of body mass index z-score (BMIz) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) which were estimated by reinforcement learning tree predictions from 28 covariates. Interpretation of cluster weight status and glycemic control was based on mean BMIz and HbA1c, respectively. RESULTS: The sample was 49.5% female and 55.5% non-Hispanic white (NHW); mean±SD age=17.6±4.5 years, T1D duration=7.8±1.9 years, BMIz=0.61±0.94, and HbA1c=76±21 mmol/mol (9.1±1.9)%. Six weight-glycemia clusters were identified, including four normal weight, one overweight, and one subgroup with obesity. No cluster had a mean HbA1c <58 mmol/mol (7.5%). Cluster 1 (34.0%) was normal weight with the lowest HbA1c and comprised 85% NHW participants with the highest socioeconomic position, insulin pump use, dietary quality, and physical activity. Subgroups with very poor glycemic control (ie, ≥108 mmol/mol (≥12.0%); cluster 4, 4.4%, and cluster 5, 7.5%) and obesity (cluster 6, 15.4%) had a lower proportion of NHW youth, lower socioeconomic position, and reported decreased pump use and poorer health behaviors (overall p<0.01). The overweight subgroup with very poor glycemic control (cluster 5) showed the highest lipids and blood pressure (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: There are distinct subgroups of youth and young adults with T1D that share weight-glycemia phenotypes. Subgroups may benefit from tailored interventions addressing differences in clinical care, health behaviors, and underlying health inequity.

2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(6): 161-165, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053581

RESUMO

Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases among persons aged <20 years (1). Onset of diabetes in childhood and adolescence is associated with numerous complications, including diabetic kidney disease, retinopathy, and peripheral neuropathy, and has a substantial impact on public health resources (2,3). From 2002 to 2012, type 1 and type 2 diabetes incidence increased 1.4% and 7.1%, respectively, among U.S. youths (4). To assess recent trends in incidence of diabetes in youths (defined for this report as persons aged <20 years), researchers analyzed 2002-2015 data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study (SEARCH), a U.S. population-based registry study with clinical sites located in five states. The incidence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in U.S. youths continued to rise at constant rates throughout this period. Among all youths, the incidence of type 1 diabetes increased from 19.5 per 100,000 in 2002-2003 to 22.3 in 2014-2015 (annual percent change [APC] = 1.9%). Among persons aged 10-19 years, type 2 diabetes incidence increased from 9.0 per 100,000 in 2002-2003 to 13.8 in 2014-2015 (APC = 4.8%). For both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, the rates of increase were generally higher among racial/ethnic minority populations than those among whites. These findings highlight the need for continued surveillance for diabetes among youths to monitor overall and group-specific trends, identify factors driving these trends, and inform health care planning.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Environ Res ; 181: 108916, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among individuals with diabetes, but little is known about the role of exposures to environmental chemicals such as pesticides in the early development of CVD risk in this population. OBJECTIVES: To describe changes over time in concentrations of pesticide biomarkers among youth with diabetes in the United States and to estimate the longitudinal association between these concentrations and established risk factors for CVD. METHODS: Pesticide biomarkers were quantified in urine and serum samples from 87 youth with diabetes participating in the multi-center SEARCH cohort study. Samples were obtained around the time of diagnosis (baseline visit, between 2006 and 2010) and, on average, 5.4 years later (follow-up visit, between 2012 and 2015). We calculated geometric mean (95% CI) pesticide biomarker concentrations. Eight CVD risk factors were measured at these two time points: body mass index (BMI) z-score, HbA1c, insulin sensitivity, fasting C-peptide (FCP), LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Linear regression models were used to estimate the associations between each pesticide biomarker at baseline and each CVD risk factor at follow-up, adjusting for baseline health outcome, elapsed time between baseline and follow up, sex, age, race/ethnicity, and diabetes type. RESULTS: Participants were, on average, 14.2 years old at their baseline visit, and most were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (57.5%). 4-nitrophenol, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene, and hexachlorobenzene were detected in a majority of participants at both time points. Participants in the highest quartile of 2,4-D and 4-nitrophenol at baseline had HbA1c levels at follow-up that were 1.05 percentage points (95% CI: -0.40, 2.51) and 1.27 percentage points (0.22, 2.75) higher, respectively, than participants in the lowest quartile of these pesticide biomarkers at baseline. These participants also had lower log FCP levels (indicating reduced beta-cell function) compared to participants in the lowest quartile at baseline: beta (95% CI) for log FCP of -0.64 (-1.17, -0.11) for 2,4-D and -0.39 (-0.96, 0.18) for 4-nitrophenol. In other words, participants in the highest quartile of 2,4-D had a 47.3% lower FCP level compared to participants in the lowest quartile, and those in the highest quartile of 4-nitrophenol had a 32.3% lower FCP level than those in the lowest quartile. Participants with trans-nonachlor concentrations in the highest quartile at baseline had HbA1c levels that were 1.45 percentage points (-0.11, 3.01) higher and log FCP levels that were -0.28 (-0.84, 0.28) lower than participants in the lowest quartile at baseline, that is to say, participants in the highest quartile of trans-nonachlor had a 24.4% lower FCP level than those in the lowest quartile. While not all of these results were statistically significant, potentially due to the small same size, clinically, there appears to be quantitative differences. No associations were observed between any pesticide biomarker at baseline with BMI z-score or insulin sensitivity at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to select pesticides may be associated with impaired beta-cell function and poorer glycemic control among youth with diabetes.

5.
Diabetologia ; 63(1): 75-84, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511931

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Cancer-related death is higher among people with vs without diabetes. However, it is not known if this excess risk has changed over time or what types of cancer may be driving these changes. METHODS: To estimate rates of site-specific cancer mortality in adults with vs without self-reported diagnosed diabetes, we used data from adults aged ≥18 years at the time of the interview who participated in the 1985-2012 National Health Interview Survey. Participants' data were linked to the National Death Index by the National Center for Health Statistics to determine vital status and cause of death through to the end of 2015. Cancer deaths were classified according to underlying cause of death. Death rates for five time periods (1988-1994, 1995-1999, 2000-2004, 2005-2009, 2010-2015) were estimated using discrete Poisson regression models adjusted for age, sex and race/ethnicity with p for linear trend reported (ptrend). Site-specific cancer mortality rates were stratified by diabetes status and period, and total cancer mortality rates were additionally stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, education and BMI status. RESULTS: Among adults with diabetes, age-adjusted cancer mortality rates (per 10,000 person-years) declined 25.5% from 39.1 (95% CI 30.1, 50.8) in 1988-1994 to 29.7 (26.6, 33.1) in 2010-2015, ptrend < 0.001. Among adults without diabetes, rates declined 25.2% from 30.9 (28.6, 33.4) in 1988-1994 to 23.2 (22.1, 24.2) in 2010-2015, ptrend < 0.01. Adults with diabetes remained approximately 30% more likely to die from cancer than people without diabetes, and this excess risk did not improve over time. In adults with diabetes, cancer mortality rates did not decline in some population subgroups (including black people, people with lower levels of education and obese people), and the excess risk increased for obese adults with vs without diabetes. Declines in total cancer mortality rates in adults with diabetes appear to be driven by large relative declines in cancers of the pancreas (55%) and breast (65%), while for lung cancer, declines are modest (7%). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Declines in cancer mortality rates were observed in adults with and without diabetes. However, adults with diabetes continue to be more likely to die from cancer than people without diabetes. This study highlights the continued need for greater cancer risk-factor mitigation, especially in adults with diabetes.

6.
JAMA Pediatr ; : e194498, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790544

RESUMO

Importance: Individuals with prediabetes are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease. The incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the US adolescent population have increased in the last decade. Therefore, it is important to monitor the prevalence of prediabetes and varying levels of glucose tolerance to assess the future risk of type 2 diabetes in the youngest segment of the population. Objective: To examine the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and increased glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in US adolescents (aged 12-18 years) and young adults (aged 19-34 years) without diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional analyses of the 2005-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey assessed a population-based sample of adolescents and young adults who were not pregnant, did not have diabetes, and had measured fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, and HbA1c levels. Analysis began in April 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Impaired fasting glucose was defined as fasting plasma glucose of 100 mg/dL to less than 126 mg/dL, IGT as 2-hour plasma glucose of 140 mg/dL to less than 200 mg/dL, and increased HbA1c level as HbA1c level between 5.7% and 6.4%. The prevalence of IFG, isolated IFG, IGT, isolated IGT, increased HbA1c level, isolated increased HbA1c level, and prediabetes (defined as having IFG, IGT, or increased HbA1c level) were estimated. Fasting insulin levels and cardiometabolic risk factors across glycemic abnormality phenotypes were also compared. Obesity was defined as having age- and sex-specific body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) in the 95th percentile or higher in adolescents or 30 or higher in young adults. Results: Of 5786 individuals, 2606 (45%) were adolescents and 3180 (55%) were young adults. Of adolescents, 50.6% (95% CI, 47.6%-53.6%) were boys, and 50.6% (95% CI, 48.8%-52.4%) of young adults were men. Among adolescents, the prevalence of prediabetes was 18.0% (95% CI, 16.0%-20.1%) and among young adults was 24.0% (95% CI, 22.0%-26.1%). Impaired fasting glucose constituted the largest proportion of prediabetes, with prevalence of 11.1% (95% CI, 9.5%-13.0%) in adolescents and 15.8% (95% CI, 14.0%-17.9%) in young adults. In multivariable logistic models including age, sex, race/ethnicity, and body mass index, the predictive marginal prevalence of prediabetes was significantly higher in male than in female individuals (22.5% [95% CI, 19.5%-25.4%] vs 13.4% [95% CI, 10.8%-16.5%] in adolescents and 29.1% [95% CI, 26.4%-32.1%] vs 18.8% [95% CI, 16.5%-21.3%] in young adults). Prediabetes prevalence was significantly higher in individuals with obesity than in those with normal weight (25.7% [95% CI, 20.0%-32.4%] vs 16.4% [95% CI, 14.3%-18.7%] in adolescents and 36.9% [95% CI, 32.9%-41.1%] vs 16.6% [95% CI, 14.2%-19.4%] in young adults). Compared with persons with normal glucose tolerance, adolescents and young adults with prediabetes had significantly higher non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, systolic blood pressure, central adiposity, and lower insulin sensitivity (P < .05 for all). Conclusions and Relevance: In the United States, about 1 of 5 adolescents and 1 of 4 young adults have prediabetes. The adjusted prevalence of prediabetes is higher in male individuals and in people with obesity. Adolescents and young adults with prediabetes also present an unfavorable cardiometabolic risk profile, putting them both at increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

7.
JAMA ; 322(24): 2389-2398, 2019 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860047

RESUMO

Importance: The prevalence of diabetes among Hispanic and Asian American subpopulations in the United States is unknown. Objective: To estimate racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of diabetes among US adults 20 years or older by major race/ethnicity groups and selected Hispanic and non-Hispanic Asian subpopulations. Design, Setting, and Participants: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011-2016, cross-sectional samples representing the noninstitutionalized, civilian, US population. The sample included adults 20 years or older who had self-reported diagnosed diabetes during the interview or measurements of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG). Exposures: Race/ethnicity groups: non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic and Hispanic subgroups (Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban/Dominican, Central American, and South American), non-Hispanic Asian and non-Hispanic Asian subgroups (East, South, and Southeast Asian), and non-Hispanic other. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnosed diabetes was based on self-reported prior diagnosis. Undiagnosed diabetes was defined as HbA1c 6.5% or greater, FPG 126 mg/dL or greater, or 2hPG 200 mg/dL or greater in participants without diagnosed diabetes. Total diabetes was defined as diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes. Results: The study sample included 7575 US adults (mean age, 47.5 years; 52% women; 2866 [65%] non-Hispanic white, 1636 [11%] non-Hispanic black, 1952 [15%] Hispanic, 909 [6%] non-Hispanic Asian, and 212 [3%] non-Hispanic other). A total of 2266 individuals had diagnosed diabetes; 377 had undiagnosed diabetes. Weighted age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of total diabetes was 12.1% (95% CI, 11.0%-13.4%) for non-Hispanic white, 20.4% (95% CI, 18.8%-22.1%) for non-Hispanic black, 22.1% (95% CI, 19.6%-24.7%) for Hispanic, and 19.1% (95% CI, 16.0%-22.1%) for non-Hispanic Asian adults (overall P < .001). Among Hispanic adults, the prevalence of total diabetes was 24.6% (95% CI, 21.6%-27.6%) for Mexican, 21.7% (95% CI, 14.6%-28.8%) for Puerto Rican, 20.5% (95% CI, 13.7%-27.3%) for Cuban/Dominican, 19.3% (95% CI, 12.4%-26.1%) for Central American, and 12.3% (95% CI, 8.5%-16.2%) for South American subgroups (overall P < .001). Among non-Hispanic Asian adults, the prevalence of total diabetes was 14.0% (95% CI, 9.5%-18.4%) for East Asian, 23.3% (95% CI, 15.6%-30.9%) for South Asian, and 22.4% (95% CI, 15.9%-28.9%) for Southeast Asian subgroups (overall P = .02). The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 3.9% (95% CI, 3.0%-4.8%) for non-Hispanic white, 5.2% (95% CI, 3.9%-6.4%) for non-Hispanic black, 7.5% (95% CI, 5.9%-9.1%) for Hispanic, and 7.5% (95% CI, 4.9%-10.0%) for non-Hispanic Asian adults (overall P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this nationally representative survey of US adults from 2011 to 2016, the prevalence of diabetes and undiagnosed diabetes varied by race/ethnicity and among subgroups identified within the Hispanic and non-Hispanic Asian populations.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Americanos Asiáticos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Diabetes Care ; 42(12): 2256-2261, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is common in youth at the onset of the diabetes, the excess costs associated with DKA are unknown. We aimed to quantify the health care services use and medical care costs related to the presence of DKA at diagnosis of diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed data from the U.S. MarketScan claims database for 4,988 enrollees aged 3-19 years insured in private fee-for-service plans and newly diagnosed with diabetes during 2010-2016. Youth with and without DKA at diabetes diagnosis were compared for mean health care service use (outpatient, office, emergency room, and inpatient visits) and medical costs (outpatient, inpatient, prescription drugs, and total) for 60 days prior to and 60 days after diabetes diagnosis. A two-part model using generalized linear regression and logistic regression was used to estimate medical costs, controlling for age, sex, rurality, health plan, year, presence of hypoglycemia, and chronic pulmonary condition. All costs were adjusted to 2016 dollars. RESULTS: At diabetes diagnosis, 42% of youth had DKA. In the 60 days prior to diabetes diagnosis, youth with DKA at diagnosis had less health services usage (e.g., number of outpatient visits: -1.17; P < 0.001) and lower total medical costs (-$635; P < 0.001) compared with youth without DKA at diagnosis. In the 60 days after diagnosis, youth with DKA had significantly greater health care services use and health care costs ($6,522) compared with those without DKA. CONCLUSIONS: Among youth with newly diagnosed diabetes, DKA at diagnosis is associated with significantly higher use of health care services and medical costs.

9.
Ann Epidemiol ; 37: 37-42, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383511

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Most surveillance efforts in childhood diabetes have focused on incidence, whereas prevalence is rarely reported. This study aimed to assess whether a mathematical illness-death model accurately estimated future prevalence from baseline prevalence and incidence rates in children. METHODS: SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth is an ongoing population-based surveillance study of prevalence and incidence of diabetes and its complications among youth in the United States. We used age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-specific SEARCH estimates of the prevalence of type I and type II diabetes in 2001 and incidence from 2002 to 2008. These data were used in a partial differential equation to estimate prevalence in 2009 with 95% bootstrap confidence intervals. Model-based prevalence was compared with the observed prevalence in 2009. RESULTS: Most confidence intervals for the difference between estimated and observed prevalence included zero, indicating no evidence for a difference between the two methods. The width of confidence intervals indicated high precision for the estimated prevalence when considering all races/ethnicities. In strata with few cases, precision was reduced. CONCLUSIONS: Future prevalence of type I and type II diabetes in youth may be accurately estimated from baseline prevalence and incidence. Diabetes surveillance could benefit from potential cost savings of this method.

10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(13): e010150, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213111

RESUMO

Background The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in children is increasing, resulting in higher burden of cardiovascular diseases due to diabetes mellitus-related vascular dysfunction. Methods and Results We examined cardiovascular risk factors ( CVRF s) and arterial parameters in 1809 youth with T1DM. Demographics, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and laboratory data were collected at T1DM onset and 5 years later. Pulse wave velocity and augmentation index were collected with tonometry. ANOVA or chi-square tests were used to test for differences in measures of arterial parameters by CVRF . Area under the curve of CVRF s was entered in general linear models to explore determinants of accelerate vascular aging. Participants at the time of arterial measurement were 17.6±4.5 years old, 50% female, 76% non-Hispanic white, and duration of T1DM was 7.8±1.9 years. Glycemic control was poor (glycated hemoglobin, 9.1±1.8%). All arterial parameters were higher in participants with glycated hemoglobin ≥9% and pulse wave velocity was higher with lower insulin sensitivity or longer duration of diabetes mellitus. Differences in arterial parameters were found by sex, age, and presence of obesity, hypertension, or dyslipidemia. In multivariable models, higher glycated hemoglobin, lower insulin sensitivity, body mass index, blood pressure, and lipid areas under the curve were associated with accelerated vascular aging. Conclusions In young people with T1DM, persistent poor glycemic control and higher levels of traditional CVRF s are independently associated with arterial aging. Improving glycemic control and interventions to lower CVRF s may prevent future cardiovascular events in young individuals with T1DM.

11.
Diabetes Care ; 42(10): 1895-1902, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221678

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined young adults with and young adults without diabetes by using demographic data and cardiometabolic risk profiles and compared the risk profiles of younger versus older (aged ≥45 years) adults with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2016. Diabetes was defined by self-report of health care provider diagnosis or by A1C levels of 6.5% or higher among those without a self-reported diagnosis. The cardiometabolic risk profile included adiposity, blood pressure, serum lipids, healthy eating, physical activity (PA), and exposure to tobacco smoke. Adjusted difference in difference was calculated as the difference among younger adults with and younger adults without diabetes minus the difference among older adults with and older adults without diabetes. RESULTS: Adults with diabetes in both age-groups had higher levels of adiposity, hypertension, and cholesterol and lower levels of healthy eating and leisure-time PA. However, the differences in high cholesterol and adiposity by diabetes status were greater among young adults compared with older adults after adjustment for demographics and health insurance status. Elevated lipids were 9.6 percentage points higher (95% CI 4.6, 14.5) and obesity was 37.3 percentage points higher (95% CI 31.8, 42.7) among young adults with diabetes compared with those without diabetes than among older adults with diabetes compared with those without diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Young adults with diabetes have high rates of cardiometabolic risk factors, which can lead to an increased disease prevalence and mortality rate among these individuals as they age.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Adiposidade , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(5): e193160, 2019 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074808

RESUMO

Importance: Coordinated efforts by national organizations in the United States to implement evidence-based lifestyle modification programs are under way to reduce type 2 diabetes (hereinafter referred to as diabetes) and cardiovascular risks. Objective: To provide a status report on the reach and use of diabetes prevention services nationally. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationally representative, population-based cross-sectional analysis of 2016 and 2017 National Health Interview Survey data was conducted from August 3, 2017, through November 15, 2018. Nonpregnant, noninstitutionalized, civilian respondents 18 years or older at high risk for diabetes, defined as those with no self-reported diabetes diagnosis but with diagnosed prediabetes or an elevated American Diabetes Association (ADA) risk score (>5), were included in the analysis. Analyses were conducted for adults with (and in sensitivity analyses, for those without) elevated body mass index. Main Outcomes and Measures: Absolute numbers and proportions of adults at high risk with elevated body mass index receiving advice about diet, physical activity guidance, referral to weight loss programs, referral to diabetes prevention programs, or any of these, and those affirming engagement in each (or any) activity in the past year were estimated. To identify where gaps exist, a prevention continuum diagram plotted existing vs desired goal achievement. Variation in risk-reducing activities by age, sex, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, insurance status, history of gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or body mass index was also examined. Results: This analysis included 50 912 respondents (representing 223.0 million adults nationally) 18 years or older (mean [SE] age, 46.1 [0.2] years; 48.1% [0.3%] male) with complete data and no self-reported diabetes diagnosis by their health care professional. Of the represented population, 36.0% (80.0 million) had either a physician diagnosis of prediabetes (17.9 million), an elevated ADA risk score (73.3 million), or both (11.3 million). Among those with diagnosed prediabetes, 73.5% (95% CI, 71.6%-75.3%) reported receiving advice and/or referrals for diabetes risk reduction from their health care professional, and, of those, 35.0% (95% CI, 30.5%-39.8%) to 75.8% (95% CI, 73.2%-78.3%) reported engaging in the respective activity or program in the past year. Half of adults with elevated ADA risk scores but no diagnosed prediabetes (50.6%; 95% CI, 49.5%-51.8%) reported receiving risk-reduction advice and/or referral, of whom 33.5% (95% CI, 30.1%-37.0%) to 75.2% (95% CI, 73.4%-76.9%) reported engaging in activities and/or programs. Participation in diabetes prevention programs was exceedingly low. Advice from a health care professional, age range from 45 to 64 years, higher educational attainment, health insurance status, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and obesity were associated with higher engagement in risk-reducing activities and/or programs. Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults at high risk for diabetes, major gaps in receiving advice and/or referrals and engaging in diabetes risk-reduction activities and/or programs were noted. These results suggest that risk perception, health care professional referral and communication, and insurance coverage may be key levers to increase risk-reducing behaviors in US adults. These findings provide a benchmark from which to monitor future program availability and coverage, identification of prediabetes, and referral to and retention in programs.

14.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 2(2): e00057, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008365

RESUMO

Objective: Although severe hypoglycaemia (SH) can lead to adverse health outcomes, little is known about its occurrence and re-occurrence among youth with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Methods: This study included 2740 participants aged <20 years at diabetes diagnosis and 5-14 years diabetes duration from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Cohort Study. Participants reported SH events in the past 6 months. Differences in SH events by demographic and clinical factors were tested using logistic regression models. Results: Severe hypoglycaemia in the past 6 months was more common among youth with type 1 (7.0%, 168 of 2399) than with type 2 diabetes (2.6%, nine of 341) (P < 0.002). The median number of SH events per youth who had at least one SH event in the past 6 months was 1 for both type 1 type 2 diabetes. For youth with type 1 diabetes, those who reported SH events were older, were more likely to have obesity or to be physically active, and had lower HbA1c. After adjustments, one unit increase in HbA1c was associated with 16% lower likelihood (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.75, 0.94) and being physically active was associated with an 87% higher likelihood (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.23, 2.86) of reporting a SH event. There were too few SH events among youth with type 2 diabetes to analyse further. Conclusions: In youth with diabetes, SH was common even within a short 6-month window. Better understanding the causes of SH may help prevent them from occurring.

16.
Ethn Dis ; 29(1): 39-46, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713415

RESUMO

Objective: We examined whether life course socioeconomic position (SEP) was associated with incidence of type 2 diabetes (t2DM) among African Americans. Design: Secondary analysis of data from the Jackson Heart Study, 2000-04 to 2012, using Cox proportional hazard regression to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% CI for t2DM incidence by measures of life course SEP. Participants: Sample of 4,012 nondiabetic adults aged 25-84 years at baseline. Outcome Measure: Incident t2DM identified by self-report, hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5%, fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL, or use of diabetes medication. Results: During 7.9 years of follow-up, 486 participants developed t2DM (incidence rate 15.2/1000 person-years, 95% CI: 13.9-16.6). Among women, but not men, childhood SEP was inversely associated with t2DM incidence (HR=.97, 95% CI: .94-.99) but was no longer associated with adjustment for adult SEP or t2DM risk factors. Upward SEP mobility increased the hazard for t2DM incidence (adjusted HR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.05-2.21) among women only. Life course allostatic load (AL) did not explain the SEP-t2DM association in either sex. Conclusions: Childhood SEP and upward social mobility may influence t2DM incidence in African American women but not in men.

17.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 20(2): 172-179, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in youth is often associated with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We aimed to evaluate if the presence of DKA at diagnosis of T1D is associated with less favorable hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) trajectories over time. METHODS: The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study of 1396 youth aged <20 years with newly diagnosed T1D were followed for up to 13 (median 8 [interquartile range or IQR 6-9]) years after diagnosis. Of these, 397 (28%) had DKA (bicarbonate level < 15 mmol/L and/or pH < 7.25 (venous) or < 7.30 (arterial or capillary) or mention of DKA in medical records) at diabetes onset. Longitudinal HbA1c levels were measured at each follow-up visit (average number of HbA1c measures 3.4). A linear piecewise mixed effects model was used to analyze the effect of DKA status at diagnosis of T1D on long-term glycemic control, adjusting for age at diagnosis, diabetes duration at baseline, sex, race/ethnicity, household income, health insurance status, time-varying insulin regimen and glucose self-monitoring, study site, and baseline fasting C-peptide level. RESULTS: At baseline, HbA1c levels were significantly higher in youth with T1D diagnosed in DKA vs those who were not (9.9% ± 1.5% vs 8.5% ± 1.4%, respectively). After the first year with diabetes, there was a significant difference in the rate of change in HbA1c levels by DKA status: HbA1c was 0.16% higher each year in youth with DKA compared to those without (interaction P-value<0.0001), after adjusting for aforementioned covariates. CONCLUSIONS: DKA at T1D diagnosis is associated with worsening glycemic control over time, independent of demographic, socioeconomic, and treatment-related factors and baseline fasting C-peptide.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Cetoacidose Diabética/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Cetoacidose Diabética/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Autoeficácia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(44): 1238-1241, 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408017

RESUMO

An estimated 54.4 million U.S. adults have doctor-diagnosed arthritis (arthritis), and this number is projected to rise to 78.4 million by 2040 (1,2). Physical inactivity and obesity are two factors associated with an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes,* and arthritis has been determined to be a barrier to physical activity among adults with obesity (3). The prevalence of arthritis among the 33.9% (estimated 84 million)† of U.S. adults with prediabetes and how these conditions are related to physical inactivity and obesity are unknown. To examine the relationships among arthritis, prediabetes, physical inactivity, and obesity, CDC analyzed combined data from the 2009-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Overall, the unadjusted prevalence of arthritis among adults with prediabetes was 32.0% (26 million). Among adults with both arthritis and prediabetes, the unadjusted prevalences of leisure-time physical inactivity and obesity were 56.5% (95% confidence intervals [CIs] = 51.3-61.5) and 50.1% (CI = 46.5-53.6), respectively. Approximately half of adults with both prediabetes and arthritis are either physically inactive or have obesity, further increasing their risk for type 2 diabetes. Health care and public health professionals can address arthritis-specific barriers§ to physical activity by promoting evidence-based physical activity interventions.¶ Furthermore, weight loss and physical activity promoted though the National Diabetes Prevention Program can reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes and reduce pain from arthritis.


Assuntos
Artrite/epidemiologia , Artrite/fisiopatologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Artrite/etnologia , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Dor/etiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/etnologia , Prevalência , Comportamento Sedentário , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 1(5)2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30370425

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Health disparities in the clinical presentation and outcomes among youth with type 1 diabetes exist. Long-term glycemic control patterns in racially/ethnically diverse youth are not well described. OBJECTIVES: To model common trajectories of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) among youth with type 1 diabetes and test how trajectory group membership varies by race/ethnicity. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Longitudinal cohort study conducted in 5 US locations. The analysis included data from 1313 youths (aged <20 years) newly diagnosed in 2002 through 2005 with type 1 diabetes in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study (mean [SD] age at diabetes onset, 8.9 [4.2] years) who had 3 or more HbA1c study measures during 6.1 to 13.3 years of follow-up. Data were analyzed in 2017. EXPOSURES: Self-reported race/ethnicity. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Hemoglobin A1c trajectories identified through group-based trajectory modeling over a mean (SD) of 9.0 (1.4) years of diabetes duration. Multinomial models studied the association of race/ethnicity with HbA1c trajectory group membership, adjusting for demographic characteristics, clinical factors, and socioeconomic position. RESULTS: The final study sample of 1313 patients was 49.3% female (647 patients) with mean (SD) age 9.7 (4.3) years and mean (SD) disease duration of 9.2 (6.3) months at baseline. The racial/ethnic composition was 77.0% non-Hispanic white (1011 patients), 10.7% Hispanic (140 patients), 9.8% non-Hispanic black (128 patients), and 2.6% other race/ethnicity (34 patients). Three HbA1c trajectories were identified: group 1, low baseline and mild increases (50.7% [666 patients]); group 2, moderate baseline and moderate increases (41.7% [548 patients]); and group 3, moderate baseline and major increases (7.5% [99 patients]). Group 3 was composed of 47.5% nonwhite youths (47 patients). Non-Hispanic black youth had 7.98 higher unadjusted odds (95% CI, 4.42-14.38) than non-Hispanic white youth of being in the highest HbA1c trajectory group relative to the lowest HbA1c trajectory group; the association remained significant after full adjustment (adjusted odds ratio of non-Hispanic black race in group 3 vs group 1, 4.54; 95% CI, 2.08-9.89). Hispanic youth had 3.29 higher unadjusted odds (95% CI, 1.78-6.08) than non-Hispanic white youth of being in the highest HbA1c trajectory group relative to the lowest HbA1c trajectory group; the association remained significant after adjustment (adjusted odds ratio of Hispanic ethnicity in group 3 vs group 1, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.02-4.92). In stratified analyses, the adjusted odds of nonwhite membership in the highest HbA1c trajectory remained significant among male patients and youth diagnosed at age 9 years or younger, but not female patients and youth who were older than 9 years when they were diagnosed (P for interaction = .04 [sex] and .02 [age at diagnosis]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: There are racial/ethnic differences in long-term glycemic control among youth with type 1 diabetes, particularly among nonwhite male patients and nonwhite youth diagnosed earlier in life.

20.
Diabetes Care ; 41(11): 2306-2315, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131397

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality has declined substantially in the U.S. The aims of this study were to examine trends and demographic disparities in mortality due to CVD and CVD subtypes among adults with and without self-reported diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (1985-2014) with mortality follow-up data through the end of 2015 to estimate nationally representative trends and disparities in major CVD, ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, heart failure, and arrhythmia mortality among adults ≥20 years of age by diabetes status. RESULTS: Over a mean follow-up period of 11.8 years from 1988 to 2015 of 677,051 adults, there were significant decreases in major CVD death (all P values <0.05) in adults with and without diabetes except adults 20-54 years of age. Among adults with diabetes, 10-year relative changes in mortality were significant for major CVD (-32.7% [95% CI -37.2, -27.9]), IHD (-40.3% [-44.7, -35.6]), and stroke (-29.2% [-40.0, -16.5]), but not heart failure (-0.5% [-20.7, 24.7]), and arrhythmia (-12.0% [-29.4, 77.5]); the absolute decrease of major CVD among adults with diabetes was higher than among adults without diabetes (P < 0.001). Men with diabetes had larger decreases in CVD death than women with diabetes (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Major CVD mortality in adults with diabetes has declined, especially in men. Large reductions were observed for IHD and stroke mortality, although heart failure and arrhythmia deaths did not change. All race and education groups benefitted to a similar degree, but significant gaps remained across groups.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Angiopatias Diabéticas/mortalidade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Mortalidade/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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