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1.
IEEE Rev Biomed Eng ; 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112683

RESUMO

Atrial Fibrillation (AF) the most commonly occurring type of cardiac arrhythmia is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The timely diagnosis of AF is an equally important and challenging task because of its asymptomatic and episodic nature. n this paper, state-of-the-art ECG data-based machine learning models and signal processing techniques applied for auto diagnosis of AF are reviewed. Moreover, key biomarkers of AF on ECG and the common methods and equipment used for the collection of ECG data are discussed. Besides that, the modern wearable and implantable ECG sensing technologies used for gathering AF data are presented briefly. In the end, key challenges associated with the development of auto diagnosis solutions of AF are also highlighted. It is the first review paper of its kind that comprehensively presents a discussion on all these aspects related to AF auto-diagnosis at one place. It is observed that there is dire need of low energy, low cost but accurate auto diagnosis solutions for the proactive management of AF.

2.
Daru ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193748

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Infectious diseases associated with intracellular bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are important public health concern. Emergence of multi and extensively drug-resistant bacterial strains have made it even more obstinate to offset such infections. Bacteria residing within intracellular compartments provide additional barriers to effective treatment. METHOD: Information provided in this review has been collected by accessing various electronic databases including Google scholar, Web of science, Scopus, and Nature index. Search was performed using keywords nanoparticles, intracellular targeting, multidrug resistance, Staphylococcus aureus; Salmonella typhimurium; Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Information gathered was categorized into three major sections as 'Intracellular targeting of Staphylococcus aureus, Intracellular targeting of Salmonella typhimurium and Intracellular targeting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis' using variety of nanocarrier systems. RESULTS: Conventional management for infectious diseases typically comprises of long-term treatment with a combination of antibiotics, which may lead to side effects and decreased patient compliance. A wide range of multi-functionalized nanocarrier systems have been studied for delivery of drugs within cellular compartments where bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Mycobacterium tuberculosis reside. Such carrier systems along with targeted delivery have been utilized for sustained and controlled delivery of drugs. These strategies have been found useful in overcoming the drawbacks of conventional treatments including multi-drug resistance. CONCLUSION: Development of multi-functional nanocargoes encapsulating antibiotics that are proficient in targeting and releasing drug into infected reservoirs seems to be a promising strategy to circumvent the challenge of multidrug resistance. Graphical abstract.

3.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(4)2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218185

RESUMO

Melatonin is a multifunctional signaling molecule that is ubiquitously distributed in different parts of a plant and responsible for stimulating several physio-chemical responses to adverse environmental conditions. In this review, we show that, although plants are able to biosynthesize melatonin, the exogenous application of melatonin to various crops can improve plant growth and development in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses (e.g., drought, unfavorable temperatures, high salinity, heavy metal contamination, acid rain, and combined stresses) by regulating antioxidant machinery of plants. Current knowledge suggests that exogenously applied melatonin can enhance the stress tolerance of plants by regulating both the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. Enzymic antioxidants upregulated by exogenous melatonin include superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and enzymes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle (ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase), whereas levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as ascorbate, reduced glutathione, carotenoids, tocopherols, and phenolics are also higher under stress conditions. The enhanced antioxidant system consequently exhibits lower lipid peroxidation and greater plasma membrane integrity when under stress. However, these responses vary greatly from crop to crop and depend on the intensity and type of stress, and most studies to date have been conducted under controlled conditions. This means that a wider range of crop field trials and detailed transcriptomic analysis are required to reveal the gene regulatory networks involved in the between melatonin, antioxidants, and abiotic stress.

4.
Environ Pollut ; 261: 114231, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113112

RESUMO

Chromium (Cr) poses serious consequences on human and animal health due to its potential carcinogenicity. The present study aims at preparing a novel biochar derived from Chenopodium quinoa crop residues (QBC), its activation with magnetite nanoparticles (QBC/MNPs) and strong acid HNO3 (QBC/Acid) to evaluate their batch and column scale potential to remove Cr (VI) from polluted water. The QBC, QBC/MNPs and QBC/Acid were characterized with SEM, FTIR, EDX, XRD as well as point of zero charge (PZC) to get an insight into their adsorption mechanism. The impact of different process parameters including dose of the adsorbent (1-4 g/L), contact time (0-180 min), initial concentration of Cr (25-200 mg/L) as well as solution pH (2-8) was evaluated on the Cr (VI) removal from contaminated water. The results revealed that QBC/MNPs proved more effective (73.35-93.62-%) for the Cr (VI) removal with 77.35 mg/g adsorption capacity as compared with QBC/Acid (55.85-79.8%) and QBC (48.85-75.28-%) when Cr concentration was changed from 200 to 25 mg/L. The isothermal experimental results follow the Freundlich adsorption model rather than Langmuir, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherm models. While kinetic adsorption results were well demonstrated by pseudo second order kinetic model. Column scale experiments conducted at steady state exhibited excellent retention of Cr (VI) by QBC, QBC/MNPs and QBC/Acid at 50 and 100 mg Cr/L. The results showed that this novel biochar (QBC) and its modified forms (QBC/Acid and QBC/MNPs) are applicable with excellent reusability and stability under acidic conditions for the practical treatment of Cr (VI) contaminated water.

5.
Acta Trop ; 205: 105435, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142734

RESUMO

An extended range of host susceptibility including camel has been evidenced for some of the important veterinary and public health pathogens, such as brucellosis, peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and bluetongue (BT). However, in disease endemic settings across many parts of the globe, most of the disease control interventions accounts for small and large ruminants, whereas unusual hosts and/or natural reservoirs, such as camels, remain neglected for disease control measures including routine vaccination. Such a policy drawback not only plays an important role in disease epizootiology particularly in settings where disease is endemic, but also serves an obstacle in disease control and subsequent eradication in future. With this background, using pre-validated ELISA and molecular assays [multiplex PCR, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and real-time (rt)-PCR], we conducted a large-scale pathogen- and antibody-based surveillance for brucellosis, peste des petits ruminants and bluetongue in camel population (n = 992) originating from a wide geographical region in southern part of the Punjab province, Pakistan. Varying in each of the selected districts, the seroprevalence was found to be maximum for bluetongue [n = 697 (70.26%, 95% CI: 67.29-73.07)], followed by PPR [n = 193 (19.46%, 95% CI: 17.07-22.09)] and brucellosis [n = 66 (6.65%, 95% CI: 5.22-8.43)]. Odds of seroprevalence were more significantly associated with pregnancy status (non-pregnant, OR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.86-5.63, p<0.01), farming system (mixed-animal, OR = 2.59, 95% CI: 1.56-4.29, p<0.01), breed (Desi, OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.28-4.03, p<0.01) and farmer education (illiterate, OR = 3.17, 95% CI: 1.45-6.93, p<0.01) for BTV, body condition (normal, OR = 3.54, 95% CI: 1.92-6.54, p<0.01) and breed (Desi, OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.09-4.40, p<0.01) for brucellosis, and feeding system for PPR (grazing, OR = 2.75, 95% CI: 1.79-4.22, p<0.01). Among the total herds included (n = 74), genome corresponding to BT virus (BTV) and brucellosis was detected in 14 (18.92%, 95 CI: 11.09-30.04) and 19 herds (25.68%, 95% CI: 16.54-37.38), respectively. None of the herds was detected with genome of PPR virus (PPRV). Among the positive herds, serotype 1, 8 and 11 were detected for BTV while all the herds were exclusively positive to B. abortus. Taken together, the study highlights the role of potential disease reservoirs in the persistence and transmission of selected diseases in their susceptible hosts and, therefore, urges necessary interventions (e.g., inclusion of camels for vaccine etc.) for the control of diseases from their endemic setting worldwide.

6.
Nanotechnology ; 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182604

RESUMO

Bimetallic Ag and Cu (1:1 wt %) NPs were synthesized and annealed at various temperatures from 400, 600 and 800 ˚C using chemical reduction techniques. High temperature annealed (800˚C) Ag:Cu sample ratios (5 and 10 wt %) were used as dopant to MoS2. A variety of characterizations were employed to evaluate annealed and doped samples. XRD technique revealed that synthesized samples constitute FCC phase, and a gradual decrease in crystallite size corresponds to improved crystallinity upon heating and doping onto MoS2. FTIR was used for confirmation of functional groups in the products. The particle sizes of heated samples were less than 50 nm and presence of nanosheets in the doped MoS2 were confirmed using FESEM and TEM analysis. An increase in absorption was observed in bimetallic with increasing temperatures while band gap energy decreased. The vibrational property of bimetallic and doped MoS2 atomic layers was studied using Raman. Antimicrobial activity of prepared products was tested on MRSA-superbug with ciprofloxacin antibiotic as reference drug. Furthermore, molecular docking studies employed to unveil the binding interaction pattern of nanoparticle into the active pocket of ß-lactamase enzyme suggested it to be a potential inhibitor that can be further evaluated for its enzyme inhibition characteristics.

7.
Biomolecules ; 10(3)2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183056

RESUMO

Oxidative stress-mediated neuroinflammatory events are the hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases. The current study aimed to synthesize a series of novel succinamide derivatives and to further investigate the neuroprotective potential of these compounds against scopolamine-induced neuronal injury by in silico, morphological, and biochemical approaches. The characterization of all the succinamide derivatives was carried out spectroscopically via proton NMR (1H-NMR), FTIR and elemental analysis. Further in vivo experiments showed that scopolamine induced neuronal injury, characterized by downregulated glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase, and upregulated lipid peroxidation (LPO). Moreover, scopolamine increased the expression of inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase2 (COX2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), further associated with cognitive impairment. On the other hand, treatment with succinamide derivatives ameliorated the biochemical and immunohistochemical alterations induced by scopolamine, further supported by the results obtained from molecular docking and binding affinities.

8.
Chem Phys Lipids ; 228: 104894, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126217

RESUMO

Numerous nanotechnological approaches have been widely practiced to improve the bioavailability of less aqueous soluble drugs; phospholipid based vesicles (liposomes) being the most widely applied drug delivery system. However; due to stability issues, large scale production limitations, sterilization and long term storage problems; non-ionic surfactant based vesicles (niosomes) are considered their excellent counterparts. Niosomes are vesicles of non-ionic surfactants having the ability to carrying both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs in their inner aqueous or lipid bilayer compartments. In this research work, triazole based non-ionic surfactant (TBNIS) was synthesized and characterized by different spectroscopic techniques and then screened for biocompatibility using NIH 3T3 cell line, blood hemolysis assay and acute toxicity in mice. The synthesized surfactant was then checked for niosomes' formation, Amphotericin B loading and entrapment efficiency, drug release, stability and bioavailability of the drug was assessed and compared with free drug solution. The synthesized surfactant was found biocompatible and caused less blood hemolysis, greater cell vial ability and negligible toxicity in animals. The size of drug loaded niosomal vesicles of TBNIS based surfactant was 179.9 ± 3.23 nm with smaller size distribution i.e. 0.29 ± 0.02. The triazole based surfactant vesicles showed 88.76 ± 3.45 % drug entrapment efficiency, sustained drug release profile and stability. The drug in TBNIS based vesicles has greater oral bioavailability 0.099 ± 0.03 as compared to plan drug solution 0.012 ± 0.023 µg/mL. Results of this study suggests that the newly synthesized triazole based surfactant can be used in drug delivery for improving bioavailability of less water soluble drugs like Amphotericin B.

9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(5)2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121470

RESUMO

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are composed of software and hardware components. Many such systems (e.g., IoT based systems) are created by composing existing systems together. Some of these systems are of critical nature, e.g., emergency or disaster management systems. In general, component-based development (CBD) is a useful approach for constructing systems by composing pre-built and tested components. However, for critical systems, a development method must provide ways to verify the partial system at different stages of the construction process. In this paper, for system architectures, we propose two styles: rigid architecture and flexible architecture. A system architecture composed of independent components by coordinating exogenous connectors is in flexible architecture style category. For CBD of critical systems, we select EX-MAN from flexible architecture style category. Moreover, we define incremental composition mechanism for this model to construct critical systems from a set of system requirements. Incremental composition is defined to offer preservation of system behaviour and correctness of partial architecture at each incremental step. To evaluate our proposed approach, a case study of weather monitoring system (part of a disaster management) system was built using our EX-MAN tool.

10.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 33(1): 191-197, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122848

RESUMO

Whey plays an important role in the sports nutrition because of high quality proteins and essential amino acid profile. Nine formulations of sportsman drinks were made using Cheddar, Mozzarella and Paneer whey with normal as well as additional fermentation. The developed sportsman drinks were evaluated for physico-chemical analyses, amino acid profile, viscosity and total plate count along with sensory response during two month storage. Drink having Cheddar whey (T4) with additional fermentation was better in terms of quality and nutrition. Furthermore, amino acid profile considered it a complete and balanced source of essential and non-essential amino acids. Amongst essential amino acids, highest values was recorded for branched chain amino acids like leucine (73.16±3.09) followed by lysine (61.56±0.61) and valine (44.13±1.86)mg/g protein. The dietary significance of sportsman drink can be enhanced through additional fermentation using Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus.

11.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 33(1(Supplementary)): 385-392, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122872

RESUMO

Aim of this study was to synthesize new inhibitors on the basis of active site of aspartic protease enzyme and to evaluate their intended biological activity. A3D model of an enzyme was generated via homology modeling and series of novel amide ligands were synthesized by using a short high yield process, subsequently, analyzed in-silico and in-vitro anti-leishmanial activities. Characterization and identification was accomplished via NMR (H1& C13), infrared and mass spectroscopic techniques. Among all compound (4) was found to show significant activity (IC50 58±0.01) against Leishmania major (L. major) species. Furthermore, docking studies confirmed the inhibition of a targeted enzyme that supported the interaction of potent compound (4) with key residues (aspartic protease) via hydrogen bonds. Present study conferred about novel compound (4) as a promising compound to antagonize L. major activities in future.

12.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 2079-2085, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090576

RESUMO

The photoluminescence (PL), color purity, and stability of lead halide perovskite nanocrystals depend critically on surface passivation. We present a study on the temperature-dependent PL and PL decay dynamics of lead bromide perovskite nanocrystals characterized by different types of A cations, surface ligands, and nanocrystal sizes. Throughout, we observe a single emission peak from cryogenic to ambient temperature. The PL decay dynamics are dominated by surface passivation, and a postsynthesis ligand exchange with a quaternary ammonium bromide (QAB) results in more stable passivation over a larger temperature range. The PL intensity is highest from 50 to 250 K, which indicates that ligand binding competes with the thermal energy at ambient temperature. Despite the favorable PL dynamics of nanocrystals passivated with QAB ligands (monoexponential PL decay over a large temperature range, increased PL intensity and stability), surface passivation still needs to be improved to achieve maximum emission intensity in nanocrystal films.

13.
Phytother Res ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059077

RESUMO

Apigenin is an edible plant-derived flavonoid that has been reported as an anticancer agent in several experimental and biological studies. It exhibits cell growth arrest and apoptosis in different types of tumors such as breast, lung, liver, skin, blood, colon, prostate, pancreatic, cervical, oral, and stomach, by modulating several signaling pathways. Apigenin induces apoptosis by the activation of extrinsic caspase-dependent pathway by upregulating the mRNA expressions of caspase-3, caspase-8, and TNF-α. It induces intrinsic apoptosis pathway as evidenced by the induction of cytochrome c, Bax, and caspase-3, while caspase-8, TNF-α, and B-cell lymphoma 2 levels remained unchanged in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Apigenin treatment leads to significant downregulation of matrix metallopeptidases-2, -9, Snail, and Slug, suppressing invasion. The expressions of NF-κB p105/p50, PI3K, Akt, and the phosphorylation of p-Akt decreases after treatment with apigenin. However, apigenin-mediated treatment significantly reduces pluripotency marker Oct3/4 protein expression which might be associated with the downregulation of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2315, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047199

RESUMO

A novel carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and reduced holey graphene oxide film (RHGOF) sandwich structure has been fabricated to enhance its electrochemical properties. CNTs are grown by a catalyst assisted chemical vapor deposition technique, interpenetrated between the RHGOF layers. A RHGOF/CNTs hybrid film is used as a binder-free supercapacitor electrode. The grown CNTs in the graphene layers structure act as spacers and bridges to increase the counductivity of RHGOF, while the grown CNTs on the surfaces of the graphene contribute to increase the specific surface area of RHGOF. The results demonstrate that the synthesized porous, flexible and binder free hybrid electrode has advantages of higher ion diffusion rate, longer diffusion length and larger ion accessible surface area as compared to the pristine graphene which results in an extra ordinary galvanostatic charge-discharge specific capacitance of 557 F/g at a current density of 0.5 A/g, with excellent rate capabilities and superior cyclic stabilities.

15.
J Chem Inf Model ; 60(3): 1892-1909, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031799

RESUMO

Myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2; MEF2A-MEF2D) transcription factors regulate gene expression in a variety of developmental processes by binding to AT-rich DNA motifs via highly conserved N-terminal extensions known as MADS-box and MEF2 domains. Despite the fact that MEF2 proteins exhibit high similarity at their N-terminal regions and share a common consensus DNA binding motif, their functional preferences may vary significantly in the adjacent regions to the DNA binding core segment. The current study delineates the conformational paradigm, clustered recognition, and comparative DNA binding preferences for MEF2A and MEF2B-specific MADS-box/MEF2 domains at the YTA(A/T)4TAR consensus motif. In both MEF2A and MEF2B proteins, α1-helix plays a crucial role through acquiring more flexibility by attaining loop conformation. In comparison to apo-MEF2, an outward disposition of the distal portion of α1-helix and movement of its proximal part to ß1 allows synergistic repositioning of the α1-α2 linker, C-terminal region, and MEF2 domain, resulting in the formation of a hydrophobic groove for DNA binding. In both instances, conformational switching of the helical content is the main contributing factor while preserving the overall ß-topology to maintain the inside-out conformation of subdivided α1-helix flip. Multivariate statistical analysis reveals that MEF2B obscures less accessible conformational space for DNA binding as compared to the MEF2A-DNA complex. The presence of similar structural requirements and conserved residues including Arg10, Phe21, and Arg24 in accentuating the MEF2-specific DNA recognition mechanism led us to perform structure-based virtual screening for isolating novel inhibitors that are able to target MEF2-DNA binding regions. The top hits (acetamide, benzamide, carboxamide, and enamide) obtained through preliminary assay were scrutinized to binding potential analysis at the MEF2-DNA binding groove, energy values, absorption, distribution, toxicity, and Lipinski's rule of five assessments. Based on these findings, we propose valuable active drug-like molecules for selective applications against MEF2A and MEF2B. The current study may help in uncovering the atomistic-level mechanistic DNA binding patterns of MEF2 proteins, and data may be valuable in devising effective therapeutic strategies for MEF2-associated disorders.

16.
Anim Health Res Rev ; : 1-14, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051050

RESUMO

Mastitis is among the most common and challenging diseases of dairy animals. It is an inflammation of udder tissues due to physical damage, chemical irritation, or infection caused by certain pathogens. Bovine mastitis has been known for ages, but its complex etiology and multi-factorial nature make it difficult to control. Mastitis may have a negative impact on human health by inducing antibiotic-resistant pathogens that may spread, which is threatening. Researchers are continuously struggling to devise suitable methods for mastitis control. Management strategies are mainly focused on disease prevention by farm management which includes proper hygiene, trained staff to monitor minor changes in the udder or milk, and better diagnostic and treatment methods. New technologies which have the potential to unravel this complicated disease include improved diagnostic tools, based on advanced genomics or proteomics, prevention, based on vaccines and immune modulators, and metabolic products of probiotics such as bacteriocins and gene therapy.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106585

RESUMO

An emerging body of literature has implied that perceived social support is known as an upstream element of cognitive health. Various dimensions of perceived social support may have divergent influence on physical and cognitive health in later life. The present study aimed to investigate the mediating role of perceived social support on the relationship between physical disability and symptoms of depression in senior citizens of Pakistan. The data were collected from three metropolitan cities (Lahore, Faisalabad, Multan) in the Punjab province of Pakistan and 100 participants were approached from each city with a total sample size of 300. The results demonstrated that family support, friends' support, and significant others' support mediated the association between physical disability and symptoms of depression, with an indirect effect of 0.024, 0.058, and 0.034, respectively. The total direct and indirect effect was 0.493. Physical disability was directly associated with symptoms of depression and greater physical disability predicted a higher level of symptoms of depression. Perceived social support, including family support, friends' support, and significant others' support, showed an indirect association with symptoms of depression. Furthermore, family support and friends' support were more significantly associated with symptoms of depression as compared to significant others' support. The research discoveries have better implications for health care professionals, hospice care workers, and policy makers. A holistic approach is required to prevent senior citizens from late-life mental disorders.

18.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2020: 5056897, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076387

RESUMO

In this study, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, brine shrimp lethality, and FTIR studies were evaluated. The oxidative burst assay using the chemiluminescence technique, MTT assay, brine shrimp lethality assay, and FTIR analysis were the methods used for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory, anticancer, brine shrimp lethality, and FTIR studies, respectively. The whole-plant butanol fraction of Heliotropium europaeum (WBFHE) showed anti-inflammatory activity on ROS having IC5014.7 ± 2.5 while the extract and other fractions of the whole plant of Heliotropium europaeum exhibited no anti-inflammatory activity. None of the extract and fractions of the whole plant of Heliotropium europaeum exhibited anticancer (MCF-7, 3T3, and HeLa cell lines) activities. The whole-plant aqueous fraction of Heliotropium europaeum (WAFHE) and whole-plant butanol fraction of Heliotropium europaeum (WBFHE) showed lethality at high concentration while at low concentration, no toxicity was shown. The whole-plant methanolic extract of Heliotropium europaeum (WMEHE) and whole-plant n-hexane fraction of Heliotropium europaeum (WHFHE) exhibited no toxicity. FTIR interpretation showed the functional groups for the aromatic compounds, phenols, carboxylic acids, esters, alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, alkyl halides, sulfate esters, phosphines, silanes, nitriles, thiols, amines, phosphoric acids, and nitro compounds.

19.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126032, 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018110

RESUMO

Soil in mining areas is typically highly contaminated with heavy metals and lack essential nutrients for plants. Phosphorus reduces oxidative stress, improves plant growth, composition, and cellular structure, as well as facilitates the phytoremediation potential of fibrous crop plant species. In this study, we investigated two jute (Corchorus capsularis) varieties HongTieGuXuan and GuBaChangJia cultivated in copper (Cu)-contaminated soil (2221 mg kg-1), under different applications of phosphorus (0, 30, 60, and 120 kg ha-1) at both anatomical and physiological levels. At the same Cu concentration, the tolerance index of HongTieGuXuan was higher than that of GuBaChangJia, indicating that HongTieGuXuan may be more tolerant to Cu stress. Although the normal concentration of P (60 kg ha-1) in the soil improved plant growth, biomass, chlorophyll content, fibre yield and quality, and gaseous exchange attributes. However, high concentration of P (120 kg ha-1) was toxic to both jute varieties affected morphological and physiological attributes of the plants under same level of Cu. Moreover, Cu toxicity increased the oxidative stress in the leaves of both jute varieties was overcome by the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, the high concentration of Cu altered the ultrastructure of chloroplasts, plastoglobuli, mitochondria, and many other cellular organelles in both jute varieties. Thus, phytoextraction of Cu by both jute varieties increased with the increase in P application in the Cu-contaminated soil. This suggests that P application enhanced the phytoremediation potential jute plants and can be cultivated as fibrous crop in Cu-contaminated sites.

20.
Biomolecules ; 10(1)2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936383

RESUMO

Oxidative stress-induced neuroinflammation is the prominent feature of neurodegenerative disorders, and is characterized by a gradual decline of structure and function of neurons. Many biochemical events emerge thanks to the result of this neurodegeneration, and ultimately provoke neuroinflammation, activation of microglia, and oxidative stress, leading to neuronal death. This cascade not only explains the complexity of events taking place across different stages, but also depicts the need for more effective therapeutic agents. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of newly synthesized benzimidazole containing acetamide derivatives, 3a (2-(4-methoxyanilino)-N-[1-(4-methylbenzene-1-sulfonyl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl] acetamide) and 3b (2-(Dodecylamino)-N-[1-(4-methylbenzene-1-sulfonyl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl] acetamide) against ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in the rat model. Both derivatives were characterized spectroscopically by proton NMR (1H-NMR) and carbon-13 NMR (13C-NMR) and evaluated for neuroprotective potential using different pharmacological approaches. In vivo experiments demonstrated that ethanol triggered neurodegeneration characterized by impaired antioxidant enzymes and elevated oxidative stress. Furthermore, ethanol administration induced neuroinflammation, as demonstrated by elevated expression of tumor necrotic factor (TNF-α), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 (Iba-1), which was further validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Treatment with 3a and 3b ameliorated the ethanol-induced oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and memory impairment. The affinity of synthesized derivatives towards various receptors involved in neurodegeneration was assessed through docking analysis. The versatile nature of benzimidazole nucleus and its affinity toward several receptors suggested that it could be a multistep targeting neuroprotectant. As repetitive clinical trials of neuroprotectants targeting a single step of the pathological process have failed previously, our results suggested that a neuroprotective strategy of acting at different stages may be more advantageous to intervene in the vicious cycles of neuroinflammation.

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