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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35529769


Feature sizes in integrated circuits have decreased substantially over time, and it has become increasingly difficult to three-dimensionally image these complex circuits after fabrication. This can be important for process development, defect analysis, and detection of unexpected structures in externally sourced chips, among other applications. Here, we report on a non-destructive, tabletop approach that addresses this imaging problem through x-ray tomography, which we uniquely realize with an instrument that combines a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with a transition-edge sensor (TES) x-ray spectrometer. Our approach uses the highly focused SEM electron beam to generate a small x-ray generation region in a carefully designed target layer that is placed over the sample being tested. With the high collection efficiency and resolving power of a TES spectrometer, we can isolate x-rays generated in the target from background and trace their paths through regions of interest in the sample layers, providing information about the various materials along the x-ray paths through their attenuation functions. We have recently demonstrated our approach using a 240 Mo/Cu bilayer TES prototype instrument on a simplified test sample containing features with sizes of ∼ 1 µm. Currently, we are designing and building a 3000 Mo/Au bilayer TES spectrometer upgrade, which is expected to improve the imaging speed by factor of up to 60 through a combination of increased detector number and detector speed.

J Nucl Med ; 56(12): 1948-53, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26449836


UNLABELLED: We recently completed construction of a small-animal PET system-the MiniPET-3-that uses state-of-the-art silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) photosensors, making possible dual-modality imaging with MRI. In this article, we compare the MiniPET-3 with the MiniPET-2, a system with the same crystal geometry but conventional photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). METHODS: The standard measurements proposed by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU 4 protocols were performed on both systems. These measurements included spatial resolution, system sensitivity, energy resolution, counting rate performance, scatter fraction, spillover ratio for air and water, recovery coefficient, and image uniformity. The energy windows were set to 350-650 keV on the MiniPET-2 and 360-662 keV on the MiniPET-3. RESULTS: Spatial resolution was approximately 17% better on average for the MiniPET-3 than the MiniPET-2. The systems performed similarly in terms of peak absolute sensitivity (∼1.37%), spillover ratio for air (∼0.15), spillover ratio for water (∼0.25), and recovery coefficient (∼0.33, 0.59, 0.81, 0.89, and 0.94). Uniformity was 5.59% for the MiniPET-2 and 6.49% for the MiniPET-3. Minor differences were found in scatter fraction. With the ratlike phantom, the peak noise-equivalent counting rate was 14 kcps on the MiniPET-2 but 24 kcps on the MiniPET-3. However, with the mouselike phantom, these values were 55 and 91 kcps, respectively. The optimal coincidence time window was 6 ns for the MiniPET-2 and 8 ns for the MiniPET-3. CONCLUSION: Images obtained with the SiPM-based MiniPET-3 small-animal PET system are similar in quality to those obtained with the conventional PMT-based MiniPET-2.

Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/tendências , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Imagem Multimodal/tendências , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/instrumentação , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/tendências , Algoritmos , Animais , Radioisótopos de Flúor , Camundongos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Ratos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/diagnóstico por imagem , Radioisótopos de Sódio