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1.
Planta ; 225(5): 1255-64, 2007 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17043889

RESUMO

Ascorbate (AsA) is a major antioxidant and free-radical scavenger in plants. Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR; EC 1.6.5.4) is crucial for AsA regeneration and essential for maintaining a reduced pool of AsA. To examine whether an overexpressed level of MDAR could minimize the deleterious effects of environmental stresses, we developed transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana MDAR gene (AtMDAR1) in the cytosol. Incorporation of the transgene in the genome of tobacco plants was confirmed by PCR and Southern-blot analysis and its expression was confirmed by Northern- and Western-blot analyses. These transgenic plants exhibited up to 2.1-fold higher MDAR activity and 2.2-fold higher level of reduced AsA compared to non-transformed control plants. The transgenic plants showed enhanced stress tolerance in term of significantly higher net photosynthesis rates under ozone, salt and polyethylene glycol (PEG) stresses and greater PSII effective quantum yield under ozone and salt stresses. Furthermore, these transgenic plants exhibited significantly lower hydrogen peroxide level when tested under salt stress. These results demonstrate that an overexpressed level of MDAR properly confers enhanced tolerance against ozone, salt and PEG stress.


Assuntos
NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/genética , Ozônio/farmacologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Tabaco/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Tabaco/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 44(7): 743-9, 2003 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12881502

RESUMO

Silicon is deposited in the endodermal tissue in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) roots. Its deposition is thought to protect vascular tissues in the stele against invasion by parasites and drying soil via hardening of endodermal cells. We studied the silicon-induced changes in mechanical properties of cell walls to clarify the role of silicon in sorghum root. Sorghum seedlings were grown in nutrient solution with or without silicon. The mechanical properties of cell walls were measured in three separated root zones: basal, apical and subapical. Silicon treatment decreased cell-wall extensibility in the basal zone of isolated stele tissues covered by endodermal inner tangential walls. The silicon-induced hardening of cell walls was also measured with increases in elastic moduli (E) and viscosity coefficients (eta). These results provided new evidence that silicon deposition might protect the stele as a mechanical barrier by hardening the cell walls of stele and endodermal tissues. In contrast to the basal zone, silicon treatment increased cell-wall extensibility in the apical and subapical zones with concomitant decrease in E and eta. Simultaneously, silicon promoted root elongation. When root elongation is promoted by silicon, one of the causal factors maybe the silicon-enhanced extensibility of cell walls in the growing zone.


Assuntos
Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Silício/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Divisão Celular/fisiologia , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/fisiologia , Elasticidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Meristema/efeitos dos fármacos , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Biológicos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Silício/farmacologia , Viscosidade/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Physiol Plant ; 115(1): 87-92, 2002 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12010471

RESUMO

Sorghum belongs to a group of economically important, silicon accumulating plants. X-ray microanalysis coupled with environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of fresh root endodermal and leaf epidermal samples confirms histological and cultivar specificity of silicification. In sorghum roots, silicon is accumulated mostly in endodermal cells. Specialized silica aggregates are formed predominantly in a single row in the form of wall outgrowths on the inner tangential endodermal walls. The density of silica aggregates per square mm of inner tangential endodermal cell wall is around 2700 and there is no significant difference in the cultivars with different content of silicon in roots. In the leaf epidermis, silicon deposits were present in the outer walls of all cells, with the highest concentration in specialized idioblasts termed 'silica cells'. These cells are dumb-bell shaped in sorghum. In both the root endodermis and leaf epidermis, silicification was higher in a drought tolerant cultivar Gadambalia compared with drought sensitive cultivar Tabat. Silicon content per dry mass was higher in leaves than in roots in both cultivars. The values for cv. Gadambalia in roots and leaves are 3.5 and 4.1% Si, respectively, and for cv. Tabat 2.2 and 3.3%. However, based on X-ray microanalysis the amount of Si deposited in endodermal cell walls in drought tolerant cultivar (unlike the drought susceptible cultivar) is higher than that deposited in the leaf epidermis. The high root endodermal silicification might be related to a higher drought resistance.

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