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1.
Malar J ; 18(1): 270, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria preventive measures, including long-lasting insecticide-treated bet nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), and controlling mosquito breeding sites, are key measures to achieve malaria elimination. Still, compliance with these recommended measures remains a major challenge. By applying a novel and comprehensive model for determinants of malaria prevention behaviour, this study tests how individual perceptions influence the intentions to use malaria preventive measures and explores strategies that stimulate their consistent use. METHODS: The study was carried out in the sectors of Ruhuha and Busoro, Rwanda during October and November 2017, and these were conducted into two phases. Phase one involved a questionnaire survey (N = 742), whereas Phase two employed a qualitative approach that included nine focus group discussions, seven key informant interviews, and three in-depth interviews. RESULTS: The findings of the quantitative study showed that participants very often use LLINs (66.6%), accept IRS (73.9%), and drain stagnant water in case of presence (62%). The intentions to use malaria preventive measures were consistently driven by perceived severity, perceived self-efficacy, perceived response efficacy, and subjective norms, and hindered by perceived barriers. The intentions were also positively associated with the actual use of LLINs, acceptance of IRS, and drainage of stagnant water. There is no evidence that either not having enough LLINs (ownership of at least one bed net in the household, here referred to as availability) or having sufficient LLINs (having one LLIN per two people in the household, here referred to as accessibility) moderated the relationship between behavioural intentions and actual use of LLINs. The qualitative study indicated that participants believed malaria risk to be high and perceived a high mosquito density. They also believed that repetitive malaria episodes are caused by the perceived low effectiveness of anti-malaria medications. Lack of LLINs increased the perceived added value of LLINs, and together with the increased malaria burden increased the perceived response efficacy. Participants highlighted the need to continuously mobilize and engage community members especially those who do not use LLINs when having one, and those who do not accept the spraying activities. CONCLUSION: Malaria prevention interventions should target individual perceptions to enhance consistent use of malaria preventive measures. Three strategies to improve consistent use and acceptance of these measures are highlighted: (1) ensure access to LLINs and regular spraying activities, (2) community mobilization and (3) citizen engagement in malaria prevention activities.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Malária/prevenção & controle , Percepção , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Ruanda
2.
Res Rep Trop Med ; 9: 63-75, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30050356

RESUMO

Purpose: To identify the health system-strengthening role of a community-based malaria elimination program in Ruhuha, Rwanda, and the ways by which health system effects may have been achieved. Materials and methods: Qualitative data were collected through 14 semi-structured in-depth interviews and five focus group discussions with various stakeholders. These data were supported by analysis of project documents. Results: Use of a transdisciplinary approach allowed the program to influence several crosscutting issues spanning four broad areas - social collaboration; capacity building; structural alignment; and knowledge translation. Health system effects were identified mostly at the micro (i.e., district) level, with limited impact on strengthening national and subnational policies. Although systems thinking was not explicitly applied, the project had positive spillover effects on the health system. These include expanding the informal health workforce and introducing innovative approaches aligned to the national malaria strategy for vector control. Findings also show that the elimination program contributed to an increased understanding of the transmission dynamics of malaria in Ruhuha. Conclusion: The community-based malaria elimination program in Ruhuha successfully created a stable foundation for community mobilization toward malaria control, and explored innovative ways for long-term financing for malaria elimination. The transdisciplinary nature of the project, use of horizontal facilitation techniques for community engagement, and the sociocultural context in which the program was implemented are possible mechanisms by which systems strengthening was achieved. The knowledge gained from this assessment can be used to improve future community-focused interventions for malaria control, and develop a sustainable strategy for community engagement in health care.

3.
Malar J ; 16(1): 399, 2017 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28974204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Targeting the aquatic stages of malaria vectors via larval source management (LSM) in collaboration with local communities could accelerate progress towards malaria elimination when deployed in addition to existing vector control strategies. However, the precise role that communities can assume in implementing such an intervention has not been fully investigated. This study investigated community awareness, acceptance and participation in a study that incorporated the socio-economic and entomological impact of LSM using Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) in eastern Rwanda, and identified challenges and recommendations for future scale-up. METHODS: The implementation of the community-based LSM intervention took place in Ruhuha, Rwanda, from February to July 2015. The intervention included three arms: control, community-based (CB) and project-supervised (PS). Mixed methods were used to collect baseline and endline socio-economic data in January and October 2015. RESULTS: A high perceived safety and effectiveness of Bti was reported at the start of the intervention. Being aware of malaria symptoms and perceiving Bti as safe on other living organisms increased the likelihood of community participation through investment of labour time for Bti application. On the other hand, the likelihood for community participation was lower if respondents: (1) perceived rice farming as very profitable; (2) provided more money to the cooperative as a capital; and, (3) were already involved in rice farming for more than 6 years. After 6 months of implementation, an increase in knowledge and skills regarding Bti application was reported. The community perceived a reduction in mosquito density and nuisance biting on treated arms. Main operational, seasonal and geographical challenges included manual application of Bti, long working hours, and need for transportation for reaching the fields. Recommendations were made for future scale-up, including addressing above-mentioned concerns and government adoption of LSM as part of its vector control strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Community awareness and support for LSM increased following Bti application. A high effectiveness of Bti in terms of reduction of mosquito abundance and nuisance biting was perceived. The study confirmed the feasibility of community-based LSM interventions and served as evidence for future scale-up of Bti application and adoption into Rwandan malaria vector control strategies.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Participação da Comunidade , Culicidae , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Adulto , Animais , Participação da Comunidade/psicologia , Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores , Ruanda , Adulto Jovem
4.
Malar J ; 15(1): 594, 2016 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27986094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Active community participation in malaria control is key to achieving malaria pre-elimination in Rwanda. This paper describes development, implementation and evaluation of a community-based malaria elimination project in Ruhuha sector, Bugesera district, Eastern province of Rwanda. METHODS: Guided by an intervention mapping approach, a needs assessment was conducted using household and entomological surveys and focus group interviews. Data related to behavioural, epidemiological, entomological and economical aspects were collected. Desired behavioural and environmental outcomes were identified concurrently with behavioural and environmental determinants. Theoretical methods and their practical applications were enumerated to guide programme development and implementation. An operational plan including the scope and sequence as well as programme materials was developed. Two project components were subsequently implemented following community trainings: (1) community malaria action teams (CMATs) were initiated in mid-2014 as platforms to deliver malaria preventive messages at village level, and (2) a mosquito larval source control programme using biological substances was deployed for a duration of 6 months, implemented from January to July 2015. Process and outcome evaluation has been conducted for both programme components to inform future scale up. RESULTS: The project highlighted malaria patterns in the area and underpinned behavioural and environmental factors contributing to malaria transmission. Active involvement of the community in collaboration with CMATs contributed to health literacy, particularly increasing ability to make knowledgeable decisions in regards to malaria prevention and control. A follow up survey conducted six months following the establishment of CMATs reported a reduction of presumed malaria cases at the end of 2014. The changes were related to an increase in the acceptance and use of available preventive measures, such as indoor residual spraying and increase in community-based health insurance membership, also considered as a predictor of prompt and adequate care. The innovative larval source control intervention contributed to reduction in mosquito density and nuisance bites, increased knowledge and skills for malaria control as well as programme ownership. CONCLUSION: This community-based programme demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of active community participation in malaria control activities, which largely contributed to community empowerment and reduction of presumed malaria in the area. Further studies should explore how gains may be sustained to achieve the goal of malaria pre-elimination.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Participação da Comunidade , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Ruanda/epidemiologia
5.
Malar J ; 15: 227, 2016 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27098976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to understand factors influencing fever/malaria management practices among community-based individuals, the study evaluated psychosocial, socio-demographic and environmental determinants of prompt and adequate healthcare-seeking behaviours. METHODS: A quantitative household (HH) survey was conducted from December 2014 to February 2015 in Ruhuha sector, Bugesera district in the Eastern province of Rwanda. HHs that reported having had at least one member who experienced a fever and/or malaria episode in the previous 3 months prior to the study were included in the analysis. Healthcare-seeking behaviours associated with the last episode of illness were analysed. Socio-demographic, health facility access, long-lasting insecticidal-treated nets (LLINs), data on malaria knowledge, data and theory of planned behaviour (TPB) related variables (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control) with regard to fever/malaria healthcare seeking, were collected. The primary outcome was prompt and adequate care defined as: (1) seeking advice or treatment at a health facility (health centre or hospital) or from a community health worker (CHW); (2) advice or treatment seeking within same/next day of symptoms onset; (3) received a laboratory diagnosis; (4) received advice or treatment; and, (5) reported completing the prescribed dose of medication. Determinants of prompt and adequate care among presumed malaria cases were evaluated using a logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 302 (21 %) of the 1410 interviewed HHs reported at least one member as having experienced a fever or malaria within the 3 months prior to the survey. The number of HHs (where at least one member reported fever/malaria) that reported seeking advice or treatment at a health facility (health centre or hospital) or from a CHW was 249 (82.4 %). Of those who sought advice or treatment, 87.3 % had done so on same/next day of symptoms developing, 82.8 % received a laboratory diagnosis, and more than 90 % who received treatment reported completing the prescribed dosage. Prompt and adequate care was reported from 162 of the 302 HHs (53.6 %) that experienced fever or malaria for one or more HH members. Bivariate analyses showed that head of household (HoH)-related characteristics including reported knowledge of three or more malaria symptoms, having health insurance, being able to pay for medical services, use of LLINs the night before the survey, having a positive attitude, perceiving social support, as well as a high-perceived behavioural control with regard to healthcare seeking, were all significantly associated with prompt and adequate care. In the final logistic regression model, a high-perceived behavioural control (odds ratio (OR) 5.068, p = 0.042), having a health insurance (OR 2.410, p = 0.044) and having knowledge of malaria symptoms (OR 1.654, p = 0.049) significantly predicted prompt and adequate care. CONCLUSIONS: To promote prompt and adequate care seeking for malaria in the area, particular emphasis should be placed on community-focused strategies that promote early malaria symptom recognition, increased health insurance coverage and enhanced perceived behavioural control with regard to healthcare-seeking.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Instalações de Saúde , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Ruanda , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Malar J ; 14: 136, 2015 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25889789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN), indoor residual spraying (IRS) and malaria case treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) have been proven to significantly reduce malaria, but may not necessarily lead to malaria elimination. This study explored factors hindering the acceptability and use of available malaria preventive measures to better inform area specific strategies that can lead to malaria elimination. METHODS: Nine focus group discussions (FGD) covering a cross-section of 81 lay community members and local leaders were conducted in Ruhuha, Southern Eastern Rwanda in December 2013 to determine: community perceptions on malaria disease, acceptability of LLIN and IRS, health care-seeking behaviours and other malaria elimination strategies deployed at household and environmental levels. Discussions were recorded in Kinyarwanda, transcribed into English and coded using Nvivo 10 software. RESULTS: Participants ranked malaria as the top among five common diseases in the Ruhuha sector. Participants expressed comprehensive knowledge and understanding of malaria transmission and symptoms. The concept of malaria elimination was acknowledged, but challenges were reported. Sleeping under a bed net was negatively affected by increase of bedbugs (and the associated irritability) as well as discomfortable warmness particularly during the dry season. These two factors were reported as common hindrances of the use of LLIN. Also, widespread use of LLIN in constructing chicken pens or as fences around vegetable gardens was reported. Participants also reported that IRS appeared to lead to an increase in number of mosquitoes and other household bugs rather than kill them. Prompt health centre utilization among participants with presumed malaria was reported to be common particularly among subscribers to the subsidized community-based health insurance (CBHI) scheme. In contrast, the lack of CBHI and/or perceptions that health centre visits were time consuming were common reasons for the use of over-the-counter medicines for malaria management. CONCLUSION: In this study, identification of behavioural determinants in relation to LLIN use, IRS acceptability and health care seeking is a critical step in the development of effective, targeted interventions aiming to further reduce malaria transmission and elimination in the area.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruanda/epidemiologia
7.
Malar J ; 13: 167, 2014 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24886145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the significant reduction of malaria transmission in Rwanda, Ruhuha sector is still a highly endemic area for malaria. The objective of this activity was to explore and brainstorm the potential roles of various community stakeholders in malaria elimination. METHODS: Horizontal participatory approaches such as 'open space' have been deployed to explore local priorities, stimulate community contribution to project planning, and to promote local capacity to manage programmes. Two open space meetings were conducted with 62 and 82 participants in years 1 and 2, respectively. Participants included purposively selected community and local organizations' representatives. RESULTS: Malaria was perceived as a health concern by the respondents despite the reported reduction in prevalence from 60 to 20% for cases at the local health centre. Some misconceptions of the cause of malaria and misuse of preventive strategies were noted. Poverty was deemed to be a contributing factor to malaria transmission, with suggestions that improvement of living conditions for poor families might help malaria reduction. Participants expressed willingness to contribute to malaria elimination and underscored the need for constant education, sensitization and mobilization towards malaria control in general. Active diagnosis, preventative strategies and prompt treatment of malaria cases were all mentioned by participants as ways to reduce malaria. Participants suggested that partnership of stakeholders at various levels could speed up programme activities. A community rewards system was deemed important to motivate engaged participants, i.e., community health workers and households. Establishment of malaria clubs in schools settings was also suggested as crucial to speed up community awareness and increase skills towards further malaria reduction. CONCLUSIONS: This bottom-up approach was found useful in engaging the local community, enabling them to explore issues related to malaria in the area and suggest solutions for sustainable malaria elimination gains.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Erradicação de Doenças/organização & administração , Malária/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Ruanda/epidemiologia
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