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Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 99(3): 364-373, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596942


INTRODUCTION: Birthweight is a critical predictor of survival in extremely early-onset fetal growth restriction (diagnosed pre-28 weeks' gestation, with abnormal umbilical/uterine artery Doppler waveforms), therefore accurate fetal weight estimation is a crucial component of antenatal management. Currently available sonographic fetal weight estimation models were predominantly developed in populations of mixed gestational age and varying fetal weights, but not specifically tested within the context of extremely early-onset fetal growth restriction. This study aimed to determine the accuracy and precision of fetal weight estimation in this population and investigate whether model performance is affected by other factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cases where a growth scan was performed within 48 hours of delivery (n = 65) were identified from a cohort of extremely early-onset fetal growth-restricted pregnancies at a single tertiary maternity center (n = 159). Fetal biometry measurements were used to calculate estimated fetal weight using 21 previously published models. Systematic and random errors were calculated for each model and used to identify the best performing model, which in turn was used to explore the relationship between error and gestation, estimated fetal weight, fetal presentation, fetal asymmetry and amniotic fluid volume. RESULTS: Both systematic (median 8.2%; range -44.1 to 49.5%) and random error (median 11.6%; range 9.7-23.8%) varied widely across models. The best performing model was Hadlock head circumference-abdominal circumference-femur length (HC-AC-FL), regardless of gestational age, fetal size, fetal presentation or asymmetry, with an overall systematic error of 1.5% and random error of 9.7%. Despite this, it only calculated the estimated fetal weight within 10% of birthweight in 64.6% of cases. There was a weak negative relation between mean percentage error with Hadlock HC-AC-FL and amniotic fluid volume, suggesting fetal weight is overestimated at lower liquor volumes and underestimated at higher liquor volumes (P = 0.002, adjusted R2  = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: Hadlock HC-AC-FL is the most accurate model currently available to estimate fetal weight in extremely early-onset fetal growth restriction independent of gestation or fetal size, asymmetry or presentation. However, for 35.4% of cases in this study, estimated fetal weight calculated using this model deviates by more than 10% from birthweight, highlighting a need for an improved model.

Prenat Diagn ; 40(1): 38-48, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306507


OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of placental invasion has been part of clinical practice for many years. The possibility of being better able to assess placental vascularization and function using MRI has multiple potential applications. This review summarises up-to-date research on placental function using different MRI modalities. METHOD: We discuss how combinations of these MRI techniques have much to contribute to fetal conditions amenable for therapy such as singletons at high risk for fetal growth restriction (FGR) and monochorionic twin pregnancies for planning surgery and counselling for selective growth restriction and transfusion conditions. RESULTS: The whole placenta can easily be visualized on MRI, with a clear boundary against the amniotic fluid, and a less clear placental-uterine boundary. Contrasts such as diffusion weighted imaging, relaxometry, blood oxygenation level dependent MRI and flow and metabolite measurement by dynamic contrast enhanced MRI, arterial spin labeling, or spectroscopic techniques are contributing to our wider understanding of placental function. CONCLUSION: The future of placental MRI is exciting, with the increasing availability of multiple contrasts and new models that will boost the capability of MRI to measure oxygen saturation and placental exchange, enabling examination of placental function in complicated pregnancies.

J Physiol ; 596(23): 5523-5534, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29377190


The placenta is crucial for life. It is an ephemeral but complex organ acting as the barrier interface between maternal and fetal circulations, providing exchange of gases, nutrients, hormones, waste products and immunoglobulins. Many gaps exist in our understanding of the detailed placental structure and function, particularly in relation to oxygen handling and transfer in healthy and pathological states in utero. Measurements to understand oxygen transfer in vivo in the human are limited, with no general agreement on the most appropriate methods. An invasive method for measuring partial pressure of oxygen in the intervillous space through needle electrode insertion at the time of Caesarean sections has been reported. This allows for direct measurements in vivo whilst maintaining near normal placental conditions; however, there are practical and ethical implications in using this method for determination of placental oxygenation. Furthermore, oxygen levels are likely to be highly heterogeneous within the placenta. Emerging non-invasive techniques, such as MRI, and ex vivo research are capable of enhancing and improving current imaging methodology for placental villous structure and increase the precision of oxygen measurement within placental compartments. These techniques, in combination with mathematical modelling, have stimulated novel cross-disciplinary approaches that could advance our understanding of placental oxygenation and its metabolism in normal and pathological pregnancies, improving clinical treatment options and ultimately outcomes for the patient.

Oxigênio/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Gravidez
Radiology ; 285(3): 953-960, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28708473


Purpose To evaluate oxygen-enhanced and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging parameters in normal pregnancies and those complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR). Materials and Methods This case-control study was approved by the local research ethics committee. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects. From October 2010 to October 2015, 28 women with uncomplicated pregnancies (individualized birthweight ratio [IBR] >20th percentile and delivery >37 weeks) and 23 with pregnancies complicated by FGR (IBR <5th percentile and abnormal Doppler ultrasonography [US] studies) underwent MR imaging. Differences in placental longitudinal R1 (1/T1) and transverse R2* (1/T2*) were quantified, with subjects breathing either air or oxygen. The difference in R1 (ΔR1) after hyperoxia was converted to change in partial pressure of oxygen (ΔPo2). Data were acquired prospectively, with retrospective interpretation of group differences (unpaired t tests). Diagnostic models were developed by using logistic regression analysis with gestational age as a covariate. Results The mean baseline R1 and R2* for normal pregnancies (R1: 0.59 sec-1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.58 sec-1, 0.60 sec-1; R2*: 17 sec-1, 95% CI: 14 sec-1, 20 sec-1) were significantly different from those of pregnancies complicated by FGR (R1: 0.63 sec-1, 95% CI: 0.62 sec-1, 0.65 sec-1; R2*: 26 sec-1, 95% CI: 22 sec-1, 32 sec-1) (P < .0001). The ΔR1 showed a significant negative association with gestational age (P < .0001) in the combined cohort, with the FGR group having a ΔR1 that was generally 61.5% lower than that in the normal pregnancy group (P = .003). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the differentiation between pregnancy complicated by FGR and normal pregnancy by using ΔPo2, baseline R1, and baseline R2* was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.82, 0.99). Conclusion R1, R2*, and ΔPo2 were significantly different between normal pregnancies and those complicated by severe FGR. MR imaging parameters have the potential to help identify placental dysfunction associated with FGR and may have clinical utility in correctly identifying FGR among fetuses that are small for gestational age. A larger prospective study is needed to assess the incremental benefit beyond that offered by US. © RSNA, 2017.

Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/sangue , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Oximetria/métodos , Oxigênio/sangue , Insuficiência Placentária/sangue , Insuficiência Placentária/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
Placenta ; 39: 151-3, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26992688


Oxygen-enhanced MRI non-invasively monitors placental oxygenation in-vivo. This technique has been demonstrated at 1.5 Tesla (T) in healthy pregnancies. The aim of this study was to investigate whether findings are comparable at 3T. Nine pregnant volunteers underwent MRI at 3T. Scans obtained R1 (1/T1) measures from T1 maps under air, followed by a dynamic series breathing 100% oxygen. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between dR1 and gestation (P = 0.0008, r = -0.90, Pearson correlation test). The effect of the field strength was not significant within regression analysis. Placental Oxygen-Enhanced MRI at 3T gives comparable results to those previously obtained at 1.5T.

Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Consumo de Oxigênio , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem