Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 104
Filtrar
1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026187

RESUMO

Congenital hiatal hernia (HH) is a rare congenital defect and is often described on a sporadic basis, but familial cases have also been reported. The mechanism of development is not well understood, and to our knowledge no specific genetic factors have been implicated to date. We report on seven individuals from two families with 9q22 duplication, who have variably associated features including congenital HH in four individuals. One family had an 1.09 Mb 9q22 duplication, and the other family had an overlapping 2.73 Mb 9q22 duplication. We review the genes in this region and discuss BARX1 (BarH-like homeobox gene 1) as a gene of interest.

2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073849

RESUMO

MPP5 is a highly conserved apical complex protein essential for cell polarity, fate and survival. Defects in cell polarity are associated with neurologic disorders including autism and microcephaly. MPP5 is essential for neurogenesis in animal models, but human variants leading to neurologic impairment have not been described. We identified three patients with heterozygous MPP5 de novo variants (DNV) and global developmental delay (GDD), and compared their phenotypes and MRIs to ascertain how MPP5 DNV lead to GDD. All three patients with MPP5 DNV experienced GDD with language delay/regression and behavioral changes. MRIs ranged from normal to decreased gyral folding and microcephaly. The effects of MPP5 depletion on developing brain was assessed by creating a heterozygous (het) murine model with CNS-specific nestin-Cre drivers (het CKO). In the het CKO model, Mpp5 depletion led to microcephaly, decreased cerebellar volume and cortical thickness. Het CKO mice had decreased ependymal cells and Mpp5 at the apical surface of cortical ventricular zone compared to wild type. Het CKO mice also failed to maintain progenitor pools essential for neurogenesis. The proportion of cortical cells undergoing apoptotic cell death increased, suggesting that cell death reduces progenitor population and neuron number. Het CKO mice also showed behavioral changes, similar to our patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that variants in MPP5 are associated with GDD, behavioral abnormalities and language regression/delay. Murine modeling shows that neurogenesis is likely altered in these individuals, with cell death and skewed cellular composition playing significant roles.

3.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 184(3): 538-570, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918368

RESUMO

Inherited retinal dystrophies are a group of monogenic disorders that, as a whole, contribute significantly to the burden of ocular disease in both pediatric and adult patients. In their syndromic forms, retinal dystrophies can be observed in association with intellectual disability, frequently alongside other systemic manifestations. There are now over 80 genes implicated in syndromic retinal dystrophies with intellectual disability. Identifying and accurately characterizing these disorders allows the clinician to narrow the differential diagnosis, evaluate for relevant associated features, arrive at a timely and accurate diagnosis, and address both sight-threatening ocular manifestations and morbidity-causing systemic manifestations. The co-occurrence of retinal dystrophy and intellectual disability in an individual can be challenging to investigate, diagnose, and counsel given the considerable phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity that exists within this broad group of disorders. We performed a review of the current literature and propose an algorithm to facilitate the evaluation, and clinical and mechanistic classification, of these individuals.

4.
Genet Med ; 22(10): 1682-1693, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475986

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Deep phenotyping is an emerging trend in precision medicine for genetic disease. The shape of the face is affected in 30-40% of known genetic syndromes. Here, we determine whether syndromes can be diagnosed from 3D images of human faces. METHODS: We analyzed variation in three-dimensional (3D) facial images of 7057 subjects: 3327 with 396 different syndromes, 727 of their relatives, and 3003 unrelated, unaffected subjects. We developed and tested machine learning and parametric approaches to automated syndrome diagnosis using 3D facial images. RESULTS: Unrelated, unaffected subjects were correctly classified with 96% accuracy. Considering both syndromic and unrelated, unaffected subjects together, balanced accuracy was 73% and mean sensitivity 49%. Excluding unrelated, unaffected subjects substantially improved both balanced accuracy (78.1%) and sensitivity (56.9%) of syndrome diagnosis. The best predictors of classification accuracy were phenotypic severity and facial distinctiveness of syndromes. Surprisingly, unaffected relatives of syndromic subjects were frequently classified as syndromic, often to the syndrome of their affected relative. CONCLUSION: Deep phenotyping by quantitative 3D facial imaging has considerable potential to facilitate syndrome diagnosis. Furthermore, 3D facial imaging of "unaffected" relatives may identify unrecognized cases or may reveal novel examples of semidominant inheritance.

5.
Genet Med ; 22(8): 1338-1347, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424177

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Genitopatellar syndrome and Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson syndrome are caused by variants in the KAT6B gene and are part of a broad clinical spectrum called KAT6B disorders, whose variable expressivity is increasingly being recognized. METHODS: We herein present the phenotypes of 32 previously unreported individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of a KAT6B disorder, report 24 new pathogenic KAT6B variants, and review phenotypic information available on all published individuals with this condition. We also suggest a classification of clinical subtypes within the KAT6B disorder spectrum. RESULTS: We demonstrate that cerebral anomalies, optic nerve hypoplasia, neurobehavioral difficulties, and distal limb anomalies other than long thumbs and great toes, such as polydactyly, are more frequently observed than initially reported. Intestinal malrotation and its serious consequences can be present in affected individuals. Additionally, we identified four children with Pierre Robin sequence, four individuals who had increased nuchal translucency/cystic hygroma prenatally, and two fetuses with severe renal anomalies leading to renal failure. We also report an individual in which a pathogenic variant was inherited from a mildly affected parent. CONCLUSION: Our work provides a comprehensive review and expansion of the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of KAT6B disorders that will assist clinicians in the assessment, counseling, and management of affected individuals.

6.
Clin Genet ; 98(1): 10-18, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233106

RESUMO

Overlapping syndromes such as Noonan, Cardio-Facio-Cutaneous, Noonan syndrome (NS) with multiple lentigines and Costello syndromes are genetically heterogeneous conditions sharing a dysregulation of the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and are known collectively as the RASopathies. PTPN11 was the first disease-causing gene identified in NS and remains the more prevalent. We report seven patients from three families presenting heterozygous missense variants in PTPN11 probably responsible for a disease phenotype distinct from the classical Noonan syndrome. The clinical presentation and common features of these seven cases overlap with the SHORT syndrome. The latter is the consequence of PI3K/AKT signaling deregulation with the predominant disease-causing gene being PIK3R1. Our data suggest that the phenotypic spectrum associated with pathogenic variants of PTPN11 could be wider than previously described, and this could be due to the dual activity of SHP2 (ie, PTPN11 gene product) on the RAS/MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling.

7.
Clin Genet ; 97(6): 835-843, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162313

RESUMO

Exome sequencing (ES) is an effective diagnostic tool with a high yield in consanguineous families. However, how diagnostic yield and mode of inheritance relate to family structure has not been well delineated. We reviewed ES results from families enrolled in the Care4Rare Canada research consortium with various degrees of consanguinity. We contrasted the diagnostic yield in families with parents who are second cousins or closer ("close" consanguinity) vs those more distantly related or from isolated populations ("presumed" consanguinity). We further stratified by number of affected individuals (multiple affected ["multiplex"] vs single affected [simplex]). The overall yield in 116 families was 45.7% (n = 53) with no significant difference between subgroups. Homozygous variants accounted for 100% and 75% of diagnoses in close and presumed consanguineous multiplex families, respectively. In simplex presumed consanguineous families, a striking 46.2% of diagnoses were due to de novo variants, vs only 11.8% in simplex closely consanguineous families (88.2% homozygous). Our data underscores the high yield of ES in consanguineous families and highlights that while a singleton approach may frequently be reasonable and a responsible use of resources, trio sequencing should be strongly considered in simplex families in the absence of confirmed consanguinity given the proportion of de novo variants.

8.
Neuron ; 106(3): 404-420.e8, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135084

RESUMO

De novo germline mutations in the RNA helicase DDX3X account for 1%-3% of unexplained intellectual disability (ID) cases in females and are associated with autism, brain malformations, and epilepsy. Yet, the developmental and molecular mechanisms by which DDX3X mutations impair brain function are unknown. Here, we use human and mouse genetics and cell biological and biochemical approaches to elucidate mechanisms by which pathogenic DDX3X variants disrupt brain development. We report the largest clinical cohort to date with DDX3X mutations (n = 107), demonstrating a striking correlation between recurrent dominant missense mutations, polymicrogyria, and the most severe clinical outcomes. We show that Ddx3x controls cortical development by regulating neuron generation. Severe DDX3X missense mutations profoundly disrupt RNA helicase activity, induce ectopic RNA-protein granules in neural progenitors and neurons, and impair translation. Together, these results uncover key mechanisms underlying DDX3X syndrome and highlight aberrant RNA metabolism in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disease.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Neurogênese , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Córtex Cerebral/anormalidades , Córtex Cerebral/embriologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , RNA/metabolismo
9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(2): 143-152, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032513

RESUMO

Advances in genomics have transformed our ability to identify the genetic causes of rare diseases (RDs), yet we have a limited understanding of the mechanistic roles of most genes in health and disease. When a novel RD gene is first discovered, there is minimal insight into its biological function, the pathogenic mechanisms of disease-causing variants, and how therapy might be approached. To address this gap, the Canadian Rare Diseases Models and Mechanisms (RDMM) Network was established to connect clinicians discovering new disease genes with Canadian scientists able to study equivalent genes and pathways in model organisms (MOs). The Network is built around a registry of more than 500 Canadian MO scientists, representing expertise for over 7,500 human genes. RDMM uses a committee process to identify and evaluate clinician-MO scientist collaborations and approve 25,000 Canadian dollars in catalyst funding. To date, we have made 85 clinician-MO scientist connections and funded 105 projects. These collaborations help confirm variant pathogenicity and unravel the molecular mechanisms of RD, and also test novel therapies and lead to long-term collaborations. To expand the impact and reach of this model, we made the RDMM Registry open-source, portable, and customizable, and we freely share our committee structures and processes. We are currently working with emerging networks in Europe, Australia, and Japan to link international RDMM networks and registries and enable matches across borders. We will continue to create meaningful collaborations, generate knowledge, and advance RD research locally and globally for the benefit of patients and families living with RD.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Marcadores Genéticos , Doenças Raras/genética , Doenças Raras/terapia , Sistema de Registros/normas , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Genômica , Humanos , Doenças Raras/epidemiologia
11.
Neurology ; 93(16): e1535-e1542, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To better characterize adult myotubularin 1 (MTM1)-related myopathy carriers and recommend a phenotypic classification. METHODS: This cohort study was performed at the NIH Clinical Center. Participants were required to carry a confirmed MTM1 mutation and were recruited via the Congenital Muscle Disease International Registry (n = 8), a traveling local clinic of the Neuromuscular and Neurogenetic Disorders of Childhood Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH and Cure CMD (n = 1), and direct physician referral (n = 1). Neuromuscular examinations, muscle MRI, dynamic breathing MRI, cardiac MRI, pulmonary function tests (PFTs), physical therapy assessments including the Motor Function Measure 32 (MFM-32) scale, and X chromosome inactivation (XCI) studies were performed. RESULTS: Phenotypic categories were proposed based on ambulatory status and muscle weakness. Carriers were categorized as severe (nonambulatory; n = 1), moderate (minimal independent ambulation/assisted ambulation; n = 3), mild (independent ambulation but with evidence of muscle weakness; n = 4), and nonmanifesting (no evidence of muscle weakness; n = 2). Carriers with more severe muscle weakness exhibited greater degrees of respiratory insufficiency and abnormal signal on muscle imaging. Skeletal asymmetries were evident in both manifesting and nonmanifesting carriers. Skewed XCI did not explain phenotypic severity. CONCLUSION: This work illustrates the phenotypic range of MTM1-related myopathy carriers in adulthood and recommends a phenotypic classification. This classification, defined by ambulatory status and muscle weakness, is supported by muscle MRI, PFT, and MFM-32 scale composite score findings, which may serve as markers of disease progression and outcome measures in future gene therapy or other clinical trials.


Assuntos
Debilidade Muscular/genética , Mutação/genética , Miopatias Congênitas Estruturais/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases não Receptoras/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Miopatias Congênitas Estruturais/classificação , Fenótipo
12.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(8): 1395-1406, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402629

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the molecular and clinical phenotypic basis of developmental and epileptic encephalopathies caused by rare biallelic variants in CACNA2D2. METHODS: Two affected individuals from a family with clinical features of early onset epileptic encephalopathy were recruited for exome sequencing at the Centers for Mendelian Genomics to identify their molecular diagnosis. GeneMatcher facilitated identification of a second family with a shared candidate disease gene identified through clinical gene panel-based testing. RESULTS: Rare biallelic CACNA2D2 variants have been previously reported in three families with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, and one family with congenital ataxia. We identified three individuals in two unrelated families with novel homozygous rare variants in CACNA2D2 with clinical features of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy and cerebellar atrophy. Family 1 includes two affected siblings with a likely damaging homozygous rare missense variant c.1778G>C; p.(Arg593Pro) in CACNA2D2. Family 2 includes a proband with a homozygous rare nonsense variant c.485_486del; p.(Tyr162Ter) in CACNA2D2. We compared clinical and molecular findings from all nine individuals reported to date and note that cerebellar atrophy is shared among all. INTERPRETATION: Our study supports the candidacy of CACNA2D2 as a disease gene associated with a phenotypic spectrum of neurological disease that include features of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, ataxia, and cerebellar atrophy. Age at presentation may affect apparent penetrance of neurogenetic trait manifestations and of a particular clinical neurological endophenotype, for example, seizures or ataxia.

13.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(10): 1611-1618, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278393

RESUMO

The developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE) are a heterogeneous group of chronic encephalopathies frequently associated with rare de novo nonsynonymous coding variants in neuronally expressed genes. Here, we describe eight probands with a DEE phenotype comprising intellectual disability, epilepsy, and hypotonia. Exome trio analysis showed de novo variants in TRPM3, encoding a brain-expressed transient receptor potential channel, in each. Seven probands were identically heterozygous for a recurrent substitution, p.(Val837Met), in TRPM3's S4-S5 linker region, a conserved domain proposed to undergo conformational change during gated channel opening. The eighth individual was heterozygous for a proline substitution, p.(Pro937Gln), at the boundary between TRPM3's flexible pore-forming loop and an adjacent alpha-helix. General-population truncating variants and microdeletions occur throughout TRPM3, suggesting a pathomechanism other than simple haploinsufficiency. We conclude that de novo variants in TRPM3 are a cause of intellectual disability and epilepsy.

14.
Genet Med ; 21(11): 2662, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316168

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

15.
EBioMedicine ; 45: 379-392, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathies are often caused by disruption of genes responsible for myelination or axonal transport. In particular, impairment in mitochondrial fission and fusion are known causes of peripheral neuropathies. However, the causal mechanisms for peripheral neuropathy gene mutations are not always known. While loss of function mutations in MYH14 typically cause non-syndromic hearing loss, the recently described R941L mutation in MYH14, encoding the non-muscle myosin protein isoform NMIIC, leads to a complex clinical presentation with an unexplained peripheral neuropathy phenotype. METHODS: Confocal microscopy was used to examine mitochondrial dynamics in MYH14 patient fibroblast cells, as well as U2OS and M17 cells overexpressing NMIIC. The consequence of the R941L mutation on myosin activity was modeled in C. elegans. FINDINGS: We describe the third family carrying the R941L mutation in MYH14, and demonstrate that the R941L mutation impairs non-muscle myosin protein function. To better understand the molecular basis of the peripheral neuropathy phenotype associated with the R941L mutation, which has been hindered by the fact that NMIIC is largely uncharacterized, we have established a previously unrecognized biological role for NMIIC in mediating mitochondrial fission in human cells. Notably, the R941L mutation acts in a dominant-negative fashion to inhibit mitochondrial fission, especially in the cell periphery. In addition, we observed alterations to the organization of the mitochondrial genome. INTERPRETATION: As impairments in mitochondrial fission cause peripheral neuropathy, this insight into the function of NMIIC likely explains the peripheral neuropathy phenotype associated with the R941L mutation. FUND: This study was supported by the Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Care4Rare Canada Consortium.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/genética , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/genética , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Miosina Tipo II/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/genética , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Mutação , Fosfatase de Miosina-de-Cadeia-Leve/genética , Linhagem , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
16.
Genet Med ; 21(12): 2798-2806, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239560

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Exome sequencing (ES) can rapidly identify disease-causing variants responsible for rare, single-gene diseases, and potentially reduce the duration of the diagnostic odyssey. Our study examines how parents and families value ES. METHODS: We developed a discrete choice experiment (DCE) survey that was administered to parents of children with rare diseases. The DCE included 14 choice tasks with 6 attributes and 3 alternatives. A valuation-space model was used to estimate willingness to pay, willingness to wait for test results, and minimum acceptable chance of a diagnosis for changes in each attribute. RESULTS: There were n = 319 respondents of whom 89% reported their child had genetic testing, and 66% reported their child had a diagnosis. Twenty-six percent reported that their child had been offered ES. Parents were willing to pay CAD$6590 (US$4943), wait 5.2 years to obtain diagnostic test results, and accept a reduction of 3.1% in the chance of a diagnosis for ES compared with operative procedures. CONCLUSION: Timely access to ES could reduce the diagnostic odyssey and associated costs. Before ES is incorporated routinely into care for patients with rare diseases in Canada and more broadly, there must be a clear understanding of its value to patients and families.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/ética , Preferência do Paciente/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá , Comportamento de Escolha/ética , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais/psicologia , Doenças Raras/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/ética
18.
Cell ; 177(1): 32-37, 2019 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901545

RESUMO

The introduction of exome sequencing in the clinic has sparked tremendous optimism for the future of rare disease diagnosis, and there is exciting opportunity to further leverage these advances. To provide diagnostic clarity to all of these patients, however, there is a critical need for the field to develop and implement strategies to understand the mechanisms underlying all rare diseases and translate these to clinical care.


Assuntos
Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/tendências , Exoma , Testes Genéticos , Genoma Humano/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/tendências , Humanos , Doenças Raras/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
19.
Life Sci Alliance ; 2(2)2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858161

RESUMO

Exome sequencing of two sisters with congenital cataracts, short stature, and white matter changes identified compound heterozygous variants in the PISD gene, encoding the phosphatidylserine decarboxylase enzyme that converts phosphatidylserine to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). Decreased conversion of phosphatidylserine to PE in patient fibroblasts is consistent with impaired phosphatidylserine decarboxylase (PISD) enzyme activity. Meanwhile, as evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction, patient fibroblasts exhibited more fragmented mitochondrial networks, enlarged lysosomes, decreased maximal oxygen consumption rates, and increased sensitivity to 2-deoxyglucose. Moreover, treatment with lyso-PE, which can replenish the mitochondrial pool of PE, and genetic complementation restored mitochondrial and lysosome morphology in patient fibroblasts. Functional characterization of the PISD variants demonstrates that the maternal variant causes an alternative splice product. Meanwhile, the paternal variant impairs autocatalytic self-processing of the PISD protein required for its activity. Finally, evidence for impaired activity of mitochondrial IMM proteases suggests an explanation as to why the phenotypes of these PISD patients resemble recently described "mitochondrial chaperonopathies." Collectively, these findings demonstrate that PISD is a novel mitochondrial disease gene.


Assuntos
Carboxiliases/genética , Catarata/genética , Doenças Mitocondriais/enzimologia , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/genética , Substância Branca/patologia , Adulto , Carboxiliases/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Células HEK293 , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Doenças Mitocondriais/sangue , Doenças Mitocondriais/patologia , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Fenótipo , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Transfecção , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA