Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 19 de 19
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18820, 2021 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545119

RESUMO

Coconut rhinoceros beetle (CRB), Oryctes rhinoceros, is a pest of palm trees in the Pacific. Recently, a remarkable degree of palm damage reported in Guam, Hawaii, Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands has been associated with a particular haplotype (clade I), known as "CRB-G". In the Palau Archipelago, both CRB-G and another haplotype (clade IV) belonging to the CRB-S cluster coexist in the field. In this study, more than 75% of pheromone trap-captured adults of both haplotypes were Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus (OrNV)-positive by PCR. No significant difference in OrNV prevalence between the haplotypes was detected. In PCR-positive CRB-G tissue specimens from Palau, viral particles were observed by electron microscopy. Hemocoel injection of CRB larvae with crude virus homogenates from these tissues resulted in viral infection and mortality. OrNV isolated from Palauan-sourced CRB was designated as OrNV-Palau1. Both OrNV-Palau1 and OrNV-X2B, a CRB biological control isolate released in the Pacific, were propagated using the FRI-AnCu-35 cell line for production of inoculum. However, the OrNV-Palau1 isolate exhibited lower viral production levels and longer larval survival times compared to OrNV-X2B in O. rhinoceros larvae. Full genome sequences of the OrNV-Palau1 and -X2B isolates were determined and found to be closely related to each other. Altogether these results suggest CRB adults in Palau are infected with a less virulent virus, which may affect the nature and extent of OrNV-induced pathology in Palauan populations of CRB.

2.
Science ; 373(6554): 535-541, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326235

RESUMO

Interkingdom competition occurs between hymenopteran parasitoids and insect viruses sharing the same insect hosts. It has been assumed that parasitoid larvae die with the death of the infected host or as result of competition for host resources. Here we describe a gene family, parasitoid killing factor (pkf), that encodes proteins toxic to parasitoids of the Microgastrinae group and determines parasitism success. Pkfs are found in several entomopathogenic DNA virus families and in some lepidopteran genomes. We provide evidence of equivalent and specific toxicity against endoparasites for PKFs found in entomopoxvirus, ascovirus, baculovirus, and Lepidoptera through a mechanism that elicits apoptosis in the cells of susceptible parasitoids. This highlights the evolutionary arms race between parasitoids, viruses, and their insect hosts.


Assuntos
Entomopoxvirinae/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/toxicidade , Lepidópteros/parasitologia , Lepidópteros/virologia , Proteínas Virais/toxicidade , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose , Evolução Biológica , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Genoma de Inseto , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Vírus de Insetos/fisiologia , Larva/genética , Larva/parasitologia , Larva/virologia , Lepidópteros/genética , Lepidópteros/metabolismo , Nucleopoliedrovírus/fisiologia , Spodoptera/genética , Spodoptera/metabolismo , Spodoptera/parasitologia , Spodoptera/virologia , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Insects ; 12(5)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068897

RESUMO

The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a notorious forest defoliator, and various pathogens are known to act as natural regulators of its population density. As a widespread herbivore with a broad range of inhabited areas and host plants, it is potentially exposed to parasitic microorganisms from other insect hosts. In the present paper, we determined the susceptibility of gypsy moth larvae to the microsporidium Nosema pyrausta from the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Gypsy moth samples from two localities of Western Siberia were used. N. pyrausta developed infections in the salivary gland and adipose tissue of gypsy moth prepupae and pupae, forming spore masses after 30 days of alimentary exposure to the second instar larvae. Among the experimental groups, the infection levels ranged from 0 to 9.5%. Effects of a covert baculovirus infection, phenylthiourea pretreatment and feeding insects on an artificial diet versus natural foliage were not significant in terms of microsporidia prevalence levels. Thus, L. dispar showed a low level of susceptibility to a non-specific microsporidium. It can be referred to as a resistant model host and not an appropriate substitute host for laboratory propagation of the microsporidium.

4.
Microb Ecol ; 81(1): 193-202, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737539

RESUMO

Male-killing, the death of male offspring induced by maternally transmitted microbes, is classified as early, or late, male-killing. The primary advantage afforded by early male-killing, which typically occurs during embryogenesis, is the reallocation of resources to females, that would have otherwise been consumed by males. Meanwhile, the key advantage of late male-killing, which typically occurs during late larval development, is the maximized potential for horizontal transmission. To date, no studies have reported on the associated developmental and physiological effects of host coinfection with early and late male-killers, which may have a significant impact on the population dynamics of the male-killers. Here we used a lepidopteran tea pest Homona magnanima as a model, which is a unique system wherein an early male-killer (a Spiroplasma bacterium) and a late male-killer (an RNA virus) can coexist in nature. An artificially established matriline, coinfected with both Spiroplasma and RNA virus, exhibited embryonic death (early male-killing) as seen in the host line singly infected with Spiroplasma. Moreover, the coinfected line also exhibited developmental retardation and low pupal weight similar to the host line singly infected with the RNA virus. A series of field surveys revealed that Spiroplasma-RNA virus coinfection occurs in nature at a low frequency. Hence, although the two male-killers are capable of coexisting within the H. magnanima population independently, high associated fitness cost appears to limit the prevalence of male-killer coinfection in the field host population.


Assuntos
Mariposas/microbiologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/mortalidade , Vírus de RNA/patogenicidade , Reprodução/fisiologia , Spiroplasma/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Wolbachia/metabolismo
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1118, 2020 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980702

RESUMO

The reduction of bumblebee populations has been reported in the last decades, and the microsporidian parasite Nosema bombi is considered as one of the factors contributing to such reduction. Although the decline of bee populations affects both wild plants and human food supply, the effects of Nosema spp. infections are not known because it is difficult to obtain infective spores from wild bees due to their low prevalence. Microscopical observation of fecal samples or midgut homogenates and/or PCR are generally used for N. bombi detection. However, the germination rate of microsporidian spore declines if they are kept at 4 °C for a long time or frozen. It is therefore crucial to minimize the diagnosis and isolation time of infective spores from field-collected samples. Therefore, we performed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the direct detection of N. bombi in bumblebee midgut homogenates. Using this method, we could detect N. bombi from individuals from which it was visible under the microscope and directly from wild individuals.


Assuntos
Abelhas/microbiologia , Microsporida/genética , Microsporida/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Nosema/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Animais , Nosema/genética , Polinização , Esporos Fúngicos/genética , Esporos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação
6.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 620623, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33552030

RESUMO

Late male-killing, a male-specific death after hatching, is a unique phenotype found in Homona magnanima, oriental tea tortrix. The male-killing agent was suspected to be an RNA virus, but details were unknown. We herein successfully isolated and identified the putative male-killing virus as Osugoroshi viruses (OGVs). The three RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes detected were phylogenetically related to Partitiviridae, a group of segmented double-stranded RNA viruses. Purified dsRNA from a late male-killing strain of H. magnanima revealed 24 segments, in addition to the RdRps, with consensus terminal sequences. These segments included the previously found male-killing agents MK1068 (herein OGV-related RNA16) and MK1241 (OGV-related RNA7) RNAs. Ultramicroscopic observation of purified virions, which induced late male-killing in the progeny of injected moths, showed sizes typical of Partitiviridae. Mathematical modeling showed the importance of late male-killing in facilitating horizontal transmission of OGVs in an H. magnanima population. This study is the first report on the isolation of partiti-like virus from insects, and one thought to be associated with late male-killing, although the viral genomic contents and combinations in each virus are still unknown.

7.
Microb Ecol ; 79(4): 1011-1020, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820073

RESUMO

Wolbachia are inherited intracellular bacteria that cause male-specific death in some arthropods, called male-killing. To date, three Wolbachia strains have been identified in the oriental tea tortrix Homona magnanima (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera); however, none of these caused male-killing in the Japanese population. Here, we describe a male-killing Wolbachia strain in Taiwanese H. magnanima. From field-collected H. magnanima, two female-biased host lines were established, and antibiotic treatments revealed Wolbachia (wHm-t) as the causative agent of male-killing. The wsp and MLST genes in wHm-t are identical to corresponding genes in the nonmale-killing strain wHm-c from the Japanese population, implying a close relationship of the two strains. Crossing the Japanese and Taiwanese H. magnanima revealed that Wolbachia genotype rather than the host genetic background was responsible for the presence of the male-killing phenotype. Quantitative PCR analyses revealed that the density of wHm-t was higher than that of other Wolbachia strains in H. magnanima, including wHm-c. The densities of wHm-t were also heterogeneous between host lines. Notably, wHm-t in the low-density and high-density lines carried identical wsp and MLST genes but had distinct lethal patterns. Furthermore, over 90% of field-collected lines of H. magnanima in Taiwan were infected with wHm-t, although not all host lines harboring wHm-t showed male-killing. The host lines that showed male-killing harbored a high density of Wolbachia compared to the host lines that did not show male-killing. Thus, the differences in the phenotypes appear to be dependent on biological and genetic characteristics of closely related Wolbachia strains.


Assuntos
Mariposas/microbiologia , Wolbachia/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Insetos/análise , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/microbiologia , Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Fatores Sexuais , Razão de Masculinidade , Simbiose , Taiwan , Wolbachia/genética
8.
Microb Ecol ; 77(1): 257-266, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931623

RESUMO

Endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia interacts with host in either a mutualistic or parasitic manner. Wolbachia is frequently identified in various arthropod species, and to date, Wolbachia infections have been detected in different insects. Here, we found a triple Wolbachia infection in Homona magnanima, a serious tea pest, and investigated the effects of three infecting Wolbachia strains (wHm-a, -b, and -c) on the host. Starting with the triple-infected host line (Wabc), which was collected in western Tokyo in 1999 and maintained in laboratory, we established an uninfected line (W-) and three singly infected lines (Wa, Wb, and Wc) using antibiotics. Mating experiments with the host lines revealed that only wHm-b induced cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in H. magnanima, with the intensities of CI different between the Wb and Wabc lines. Regarding mutualistic effects, wHm-c shortened larval development time and increased pupal weight in both the Wc and Wabc lines to the same extent, whereas no distinct phenotype was observed in lines singly infected with wHm-a. Based on quantitative PCR analysis, Wolbachia density in the Wa line was higher than in the other host lines (p < 0.01, n = 10). Wolbachia density in the Wb line was also higher than in the Wc and Wabc lines, while no difference was observed between the Wc and Wabc lines. These results indicate that the difference in the CI intensity between a single or multiple infection may be attributed to the difference in wHm-b density. However, no correlation was observed between mutualistic effects and Wolbachia density.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/microbiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Wolbachia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Citoplasma , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Feminino , Larva/microbiologia , Masculino , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Pupa/microbiologia , Razão de Masculinidade , Simbiose , Wolbachia/classificação , Wolbachia/genética , Wolbachia/fisiologia
9.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 154: 58-64, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608919

RESUMO

A granulovirus (GV) that produces occlusion bodies (OBs) having an unusual morphology was found in an Adoxophyes sp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larva in a tea field in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan. This isolate is considered to be a mutant of Adoxophyes orana granulovirus, designated AdorGV-M, because the nucleotide sequence of its genome is 99.7% identical to that of an English isolate of AdorGV, AdorGV-E. AdorGV-E produces typical ovocylindrical OBs that contain one occlusion-derived virus (ODV) per OB. On the other hand, AdorGV-M produces large cuboidal OBs, but the number of ODVs per OB was unknown. In this study, we quantified viral DNA in OBs of both AdorGV-E and -M, and determined the number of ODVs occluded in an OB of AdorGV-M. The two isolates had the same quantity of viral DNA in each OB, and we thus confirmed that one OB of AdorGV-M contains one ODV. To investigate the process of OB formation, fat body tissue of A. honmai larvae inoculated with each isolate was observed in a time course by transmission electron microscopy, and OB sizes were measured from micrographs. The main difference in OB formation was that AdorGV-M required more time to mature than AdorGV-E. In AdorGV-E, ODVs began to be covered from one end with an ovocylindrical OB at 96 h post-inoculation (hpi), and most of them were completely occluded at 120 hpi. Occlusion of AdorGV-M ODVs also began at 96 hpi, but the OB shape was cuboidal. Moreover, the OB size of AdorGV-M was similar to that of AdorGV-E at 120 hpi, but continued to grow until 192 hpi. AdorGV-M thus took more time to complete OB formation. Consequently, AdorGV-E has mature OBs with a diameter 0.22 µm and length 0.39 µm, but those of AdorGV-M are 1.34 × 1.23 µm.


Assuntos
Granulovirus/fisiologia , Mariposas/virologia , Animais , DNA Viral/química , Granulovirus/genética , Granulovirus/ultraestrutura , Mariposas/ultraestrutura
10.
J Gen Virol ; 99(4): 574-584, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29517480

RESUMO

The family Ascoviridae is a recently described virus family whose members are transmitted by parasitoids and cause chronic and lethal infections in lepidopteran insects. Little is known about the biology and ecology of ascoviruses, and few isolates have been found outside the United States. We report here the isolation of a new ascovirus variant from Spodoptera litura in Japan. Full genome sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that this virus was closely related to variants in Heliothis virescens ascovirus-3a, and it was named HvAV-3j. HvAV-3j has a DNA genome of 191 718 bp, with 189 putative ORFs and a GC content of 45.6 %, and is highly similar to HvAV-3h, which was isolated in China. In a field survey, the endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis caused a high percentage of parasitization in populations of S. litura larvae, and under laboratory conditions M. pulchricornis was able to transmit HvAV-3j from infected to uninfected larvae by oviposition. Meteorus pulchricornis is thus likely to be a major vector for HvAV-3j transmission in Japan. This species is recognized here for the first time as a vector of ascoviruses that parasitizes a range of host species that extends across families.


Assuntos
Ascoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Mariposas/virologia , Spodoptera/virologia , Vespas/virologia , Animais , Ascoviridae/classificação , Ascoviridae/genética , Ascoviridae/fisiologia , Composição de Bases , Feminino , Japão , Larva/virologia , Masculino , Mariposas/parasitologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Vespas/fisiologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29194737

RESUMO

Honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers contribute to the maintenance of colonies in various ways. The primary functions of workers are divided into two types depending on age: young workers (nurses) primarily engage in such behaviors as cleaning and food handling within the hive, whereas older workers (foragers) acquire floral nutrients beyond the colony. Concomitant with this age-dependent change in activity, physiological changes occur in the tissues and organs of workers. Nurses supply younger larvae with honey containing high levels of glucose and supply older larvae with honey containing high levels of fructose. Given that nurses must determine both the concentration and type of sugar used in honey, gustatory receptors (Gr) expressed in the chemosensory organs likely play a role in distinguishing between sugars. Glucose is recognized by Gr1 in honey bees (AmGr1); however, it remains unclear which Gr are responsible for fructose recognition. This study aimed to identify fructose receptors in honey bees and reported that AmGr3, when transiently expressed in Xenopus oocytes, responded only to fructose, and to no other sugars. We analyzed expression levels of AmGr3 to identify which tissues and organs of workers are involved in fructose recognition and determined that expression of AmGr3 was particularly high in the antennae and legs of nurses. Our results suggest that nurses use their antennae and legs to recognize fructose, and that AmGr3 functions as an accurate nutrient sensor used to maintain food quality in honey bee hives.


Assuntos
Antenas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Abelhas/metabolismo , Frutose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Animais , Abelhas/genética , Comportamento Animal , Xenopus
12.
J Hered ; 108(5): 553-560, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28505369

RESUMO

Arthropods are frequently infected with inherited symbionts, which sometimes confer fitness benefits on female hosts or manipulate host reproduction. Early male killing, in which infected males die during embryogenesis, is induced by some bacteria, such as Wolbachia and Spiroplasma. A female-biased sex ratio has been found in Homona magnanima, collected from a tea plantation in Japan. Here, we examined the male-killing trait in H. magnanima and identified the agent that induces early male killing. The sex ratio distortion (SR) strain produced only females and no males, and its egg hatch rate was significantly lower than that of the normal (N) strain. The N strain was infected with only Wolbachia, whereas the SR strain was infected with both Wolbachia and Spiroplasma. Antibiotic treatment with 0.10% tetracycline restored the 1:1 sex ratio in the SR strain. Females treated with 0.05% tetracycline were positive for Spiroplasma but not for Wolbachia and showed a female-biased sex ratio, whereas Wolbachia-positive females did not revert to male killing. When inoculated with a homogenate of the SR strain female, females infected with only Spiroplasma produced female-biased offspring. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that Spiroplasma sp. of H. magnanima belonged to the ixodetis clade. These results indicate that Spiroplasma was responsible for male killing in H. magnanima. Late male killing is induced in H. magnanima by an RNA-like virus, and therefore this is the first case in which different male-killing agents expressed at different times in the life cycle have been found within one host species.


Assuntos
Mariposas/microbiologia , Mariposas/fisiologia , Razão de Masculinidade , Spiroplasma/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Japão , Masculino , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Spiroplasma/genética , Simbiose , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Wolbachia/fisiologia
13.
J Gen Virol ; 98(2): 296-304, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28008817

RESUMO

A strain of Adoxophyes honmai resistant to Adoxophyes honmai nucleopolyhedrovirus (AdhoNPV) was established from a field-collected colony by repeated selection. Fifth-instar larvae of this resistant strain (R-strain) had over 66 666-fold greater resistance in terms of 50 % lethal concentration values to oral infection of AdhoNPV than non-selected strain larvae (susceptible for AdhoNPV; S2-strain). In this study, the mechanism of resistance to AdhoNPV was determined in R-strain larvae. An assessment of viral genome replication in AdhoNPV-infected S2- and R-strain larvae by quantitative PCR showed no viral genome replication occurring in R-strain larvae. Transcription of AdhoNPV ie-1, vp39 and polyhedrin genes was also not detected in R-strain midgut cells. Besides, a fluorescent brightener had no effect on AdhoNPV infection in either S2- or R-strain. However, binding and fusion of occlusion-derived virus with R-strain were significantly lower than those of S2-strain. These findings suggest that R-strain Adoxophyeshonmai larvae possess a midgut-based resistance to oral infection by AdhoNPV in which midgut epithelial cells are infected less efficiently.


Assuntos
Sistema Digestório/virologia , Lepidópteros/virologia , Nucleopoliedrovírus/fisiologia , Replicação Viral , Animais , Camellia sinensis/parasitologia , Sistema Digestório/citologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Genoma Viral , Nucleopoliedrovírus/genética , Transcrição Genética
14.
PLoS One ; 11(11): e0167233, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27898704

RESUMO

Declines in honeybee populations have been a recent concern. Although causes of the declines remain unclear, environmental factors may be responsible. We focused on the potential environmental determinants of local populations of wild honeybees, Apis cerana japonica, in Japan. This subspecies has little genetic variation in terms of its mitochondrial DNA sequences, and genetic variations at nuclear loci are as yet unknown. We estimated the genetic structure and environmental determinants of local genetic diversity in nuclear microsatellite genotypes of fathers and mothers, inferred from workers collected at 139 sites. The genotypes of fathers and mothers showed weak isolation by distance and negligible genetic structure. The local genetic diversity was high in central Japan, decreasing toward the peripheries, and depended on the climate and land use characteristics of the sites. The local genetic diversity decreased as the annual precipitation increased, and increased as the proportion of urban and paddy field areas increased. Positive effects of natural forest area, which have also been observed in terms of forager abundance in farms, were not detected with respect to the local genetic diversity. The findings suggest that A. cerana japonica forms a single population connected by gene flow in its main distributional range, and that climate and landscape properties potentially affect its local genetic diversity.


Assuntos
Abelhas/genética , Meio Ambiente , Variação Genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Clima , Análise por Conglomerados , Fluxo Gênico , Genótipo , Haploidia , Japão , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
15.
Ecol Evol ; 5(18): 4098-107, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26445661

RESUMO

Polygyny in social insects can greatly reduce within-nest genetic relatedness. In polygynous ant species, potential rival queens in colonies with multiple queens are often executed by other queens, workers, or both. The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, native to South America, forms a "supercolony" that is composed of a large number of nests and is considered to contribute to the ant's invasion success. Currently, four mutually antagonistic supercolonies are contiguously distributed within a small area of Japan. Here, we analyzed the genetic structure and relatedness within and among the four supercolonies using microsatellite markers to clarify how L. humile maintains its supercoloniality. The results of AMOVA and BASP, the F ST values, and the existence of several private alleles indicated that the L. humile population in the Kobe area had a characteristic genetic structure. Within a given supercolony, there was significant genetic differentiation (F ST) among workers collected in May and those collected in September. The significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium increased, and the relatedness among workers significantly increased from May to September in all supercolonies. This result suggested that the supercolonies replaced old queens with new ones during the reproductive season, thus supporting the plausibility of queen execution. From the perspective of kin selection, workers collectively eliminate queens, thereby increasing their own inclusive fitness. Restricted gene flow among supercolonies, together with mating with sib and queen execution, could help to maintain the unique social structure of L. humile, the distribution of which is expanding worldwide.

16.
Ecotoxicology ; 24(6): 1221-8, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25980487

RESUMO

Fipronil is one of the most effective insecticides to control the invasive ant Linepithema humile, but its effectiveness has been assessed without considering the genetic differences among L. humile supercolonies. We hypothesized that the susceptibility of the ant to fipronil might differ among supercolonies. If so, dosage and concentration of fipronil may need to be adjusted for effective eradication of each supercolony. The relative sensitivities of four L. humile supercolonies established in Hyogo (Japan) to fipronil baits were examined based on their acute toxicity (48-h LC(50)). Toxicities of fipronil to seven ground arthropods, including four native ant species, one native isopoda, and two cockroaches were also determined and compared to that of L. humile supercolonies using species sensitivity distributions. Marked differences in susceptibility of fipronil were apparent among the supercolonies (P < 0.008), with the 'Japanese main supercolony' (271 µg L(-1)) being five to ten times more sensitive to fipronil than other colonies (1183-2782 µg L(-1)). Toxicities to non-target species (330-2327 µg L(-1)) were in the same range as that of L. humile, and SSDs between the two species groups were not significantly different (t = -1.389, P = 0.180), suggesting that fipronil's insecticidal activity is practically the same for L. humile as for non-target arthropods. Therefore, if the invasive ant is to be controlled using fipronil, this would also affect the local arthropod biodiversity. Only the 'Japanese main supercolony' can be controlled with appropriate bait dosages of fipronil that would have little impact on the other species.


Assuntos
Formigas/efeitos dos fármacos , Baratas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Isópodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Formigas/genética , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Espécies Introduzidas , Japão , Pirazóis/toxicidade
17.
J Insect Physiol ; 80: 71-80, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25727179

RESUMO

Juvenile hormones (JHs) and ecdysteroids are critical insect developmental hormones. JH esterase (JHE) and JH epoxide hydrolase (JHEH) are JH-selective enzymes that metabolize JH and thus regulate the titer of JH. Baculoviruses are known to alter host endocrine regulation. The nucleopolyhedroviruses, AdhoNPV and AdorNPV, are known to have slow and fast killing activity against Adoxophyes honmai (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), respectively. Here we found that when penultimate (4th) instar A. honmai are inoculated with AdhoNPV or AdorNPV, the mean survival time is 9.7 and 8.2 days, respectively. The larvae molted once but did not pupate. The AdhoNPV- or AdorNPV-infected larvae did not show a dramatic increase in JHE activity as was found in mock-infected larvae, instead they showed a marked decrease in JHE activity. In contrast, both viral infections had no effect on JHEH activity. In order to further characterize the JHE activity, the JHE-coding sequence of A. honmai (ahjhe) was cloned and confirmed to encode a biologically active JHE. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of ahjhe expression in 4th and 5th instar A. honmai revealed that AdhoNPV and AdorNPV are able to reduce ahjhe expression levels.


Assuntos
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Epóxido Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/enzimologia , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/virologia , Nucleopoliedrovírus/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Epóxido Hidrolases/genética , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/virologia , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mariposas/enzimologia , Mariposas/genética , Filogenia
18.
Naturwissenschaften ; 99(10): 853-61, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22976124

RESUMO

With the exception of several species, bumblebees are monandrous. We examined mating frequency in feral colonies of the introduced bumblebee Bombus terrestris in Japan. Using microsatellite markers, genotyping of sperm DNA stored in the spermatheca of nine queens detected multiple insemination paternities in one queen; the others were singly mated. The average effective paternity frequency estimated from the genotypes of queens and workers was 1.23; that estimated from the workers' genotype alone was 2.12. These values were greater than those of laboratory-reared colonies in the native ranges of B. terrestris. The genotypes of one or two workers did not match those of their queens or showed paternities different from those of their nestmates; this may have arisen from either queen takeover or drifting of workers. These alien workers were responsible for the heterogeneous genotype distribution within each B. terrestris colony, resulting in higher estimates of paternity frequency than of insemination frequency. The high mating frequency of introduced B. terrestris may have occurred by artificial selection through mass breeding for commercialization. Moreover, polyandrous queens may be selectively advantageous, because reproduction by such queens is less likely to be disturbed by interspecific mating than that by monandrous queens.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Abelhas/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Japão , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Reprodução
19.
J Theor Biol ; 265(2): 211-7, 2010 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20394756

RESUMO

We tested whether geographic profiling (GP) can predict multiple nest locations of bumble bees. GP was originally developed in the field of criminology for predicting the area where an offender most likely resides on the basis of the actual crime sites and the predefined probability of crime interaction. The predefined probability of crime interaction in the GP model depends on the distance of a site from an offender's residence. We applied GP for predicting nest locations, assuming that foraging and nest sites were the crime sites and the offenders' residences, respectively. We identified the foraging and nest sites of the invasive species Bombus terrestris in 2004, 2005, and 2006. We fitted GP model coefficients to the field data of the foraging and nest sites, and used GP with the fitting coefficients. GP succeeded in predicting about 10-30% of actual nests. Sensitivity analysis showed that the predictability of the GP model mainly depended on the coefficient value of buffer zone, the distance at the mode of the foraging probability. GP will be able to predict the nest locations of bumble bees in other area by using the fitting coefficient values measured in this study. It will be possible to further improve the predictability of the GP model by considering food site preference and nest density.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Criminologia/métodos , Comportamento de Nidação , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Geografia , Modelos Biológicos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...