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1.
J Vet Med Sci ; 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350162

RESUMO

The prevention of diseases through health control is essential at zoos. Recently, the gut microbiota, which is an ecosystem consisting of the bacteria living in the digestive tract, has been found to be one of the key systems that mediates animal health. However, there is little basic knowledge about gut microbiota in zoo animals, particularly the relationship between mothers and infants during lactation. Here, we investigated the formation of the gut microbiota during infancy in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in Okinawa Zoo and compared the composition between infant and mother. In addition, we analyzed the components of breast milk and examined the correlation with the infant gut microbiota. Analysis revealed that the gut microbiota of the infant contained high amount of Lactobacillales and its diversity was relatively low compared to that of the mother. We found several milk components, such as lactose, threonine and estradiol-17ß, which showed a positive correlation with the change of Lactobacillales during the lactation period. In conclusion, the present study sheds light on the mechanism of gut microbiota formation during infancy in an Asian elephant and provides important insights into the health control of Asian elephants in zoos.

2.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412684

RESUMO

AIMS: Gut dysbiosis is generally associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the effect of habitual dietary intake on gut dysbiosis in Japanese patients with T2DM has not yet been explicated. This study investigated whether alteration of the gut microbiota was influenced by dietary intake of sucrose in Japanese patients with T2DM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 97 patients with T2DM and 97 healthy individuals were matched by age and sex, and then fecal samples were obtained. Next-generation sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was performed and functional profiles for the gut microbiota were analyzed. We selected the top 30 gut microbial genera and top 20 functional profiles for the gut microbiota specified by the weighted average difference method. The association between gut microbial genera or functional profiles and habitual dietary intake was investigated by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and then clustering analysis was performed to clarify the impact of habitual dietary intake. RESULTS: The phylum of Actinobacteria was highly abundant in patients with T2DM, whereas the phylum of Bacteroidetes was less abundant. Diabetic-type gut microbes, specifically Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium, were altered by sucrose intake at the genus level. Further, sucrose intake was associated with glycolysis/gluconeogenesis in the diabetic-type functional profiles of the gut microbiota. CONCLUSIONS: The gut microbiota and functional profiles for the gut microbiota in patients with T2DM were significantly different from those in healthy individuals. Further, we showed that sucrose intake was closely associated with these differences.

3.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13366, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285557

RESUMO

Fecal microbiota in seven different monogastric animal species, elephant, horse, human, marmoset, mouse, pig and, rat were compared using the same analytical protocol of 16S rRNA metagenome. Fecal microbiota in herbivores showed higher alpha diversity than omnivores except for pigs. Additionally, principal coordinate analysis based on weighted UniFrac distance demonstrated that herbivores and pigs clustered together, whereas other animal species were separately aggregated. In view of butyrate- and lactate-producing bacteria, predominant genera were different depending on animal species. For example, the abundance of Faecalibacterium, a known butyrate producer, was 8.02% ± 3.22% in human while it was less than 1% in other animal species. Additionally, Bifidobacterium was a predominant lactate producer in human and marmoset, while it was rarely detected in other omnivores. The abundance of lactate-producing bacteria in herbivores was notably lower than omnivores. On the other hand, herbivores as well as pig possess Fibrobacter, a cellulolytic bacterium. This study demonstrated that fecal microbiota in herbivorous animals is similar, sharing some common features such as higher alpha diversity and higher abundance of cellulolytic bacterium. On the other hand, omnivorous animals seem to possess unique fecal microbiota. It is of interest that pigs, although omnivore, have fecal microbiota showing some common features with herbivores.

4.
Mar Drugs ; 18(3)2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164223

RESUMO

Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease for which there is no cure; it results in skin lesions and has a strong negative impact on patients' quality of life. Fucoidan from Cladosiphon okamuranus is a dietary seaweed fiber with immunostimulatory effects. The present study reports that the administration of fucoidan provided symptomatic relief of facial itching and altered the gut environment in the TNF receptor-associated factor 3-interacting protein 2 (Traf3ip2) mutant mice (m-Traf3ip2 mice); the Traf3ip2 mutation was responsible for psoriasis in the mouse model used in this study. A fucoidan diet ameliorated symptoms of psoriasis and decreased facial scratching. In fecal microbiota analysis, the fucoidan diet drastically altered the presence of major intestinal opportunistic microbiota. At the same time, the fucoidan diet increased mucin volume in ileum and feces, and IgA contents in cecum. These results suggest that dietary fucoidan may play a significant role in the prevention of dysfunctional immune diseases by improving the intestinal environment and increasing the production of substances that protect the immune system.

5.
Allergy ; 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bronchial asthma is a chronic disease characterized by inflammation, obstruction, and hyperresponsiveness of the airways. There is currently no curative therapy for asthma. Type 2 helper T cell response plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Protein S is a glycoprotein endowed with anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. Whether protein S can suppress bronchial asthma and be useful for its therapy is unknown. METHODS: To address this question here we compared the development of allergen-associated bronchial asthma between wild type and protein S-overexpressing transgenic mice. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. We also evaluated the circulating levels of total and active protein S in patients with bronchial asthma and healthy controls. RESULTS: The circulating level of total protein S and of its active form was significantly decreased in patients with bronchial asthma compared to controls. Allergic protein S transgenic mice showed a significant reduction of airway hyperresponsiveness, lung tissue inflammatory cell infiltration, lung levels of Th2 cytokines and IgE compared to their wild-type counterparts. Administration of exogenous human protein S also decreased airway hyperresponsiveness and Th2-mediated lung inflammation in allergic wild-type mice compared with their untreated mouse counterparts. Human protein S significantly shifted the Th1/Th2 balance to Th1 and promoted the secretion of Th1 cytokines (IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α) from dendritic cells. CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest the strong protective activity of protein S against the development of allergic bronchial asthma implicating its potential usefulness for the disease treatment.

6.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 115: 104631, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114409

RESUMO

Williams syndrome (WS) is caused by a microdeletion of chromosome 7q11.23, and is characterized by various physical and cognitive symptoms. In particular, WS is characterized by hypersocial (overfriendly) behavior; WS has gained attention as aspects of the WS phenotype contrast with those of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) contributes to social phenotypes in relation to regulation of oxytocin (OXT) secretion. Additionally, mounting evidence has recently shown that DNA methylation of OXTR is associated with human social behavior. However, the role of OXTR in WS remains unclear. This study investigated the regulation of OXTR in WS. We examined the gene expression levels in blood from WS patients and controls, and then analyzed the methylation levels in two independent cohorts. We showed that OXTR was down-regulated and hypermethylated in WS patients compared to controls. Our findings may provide an insight into OXTR in mediating complex social phenotypes in WS.

7.
Chem Asian J ; 15(3): 406-414, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922659

RESUMO

Molecular functions depend on conformations and motions of the corresponding molecular species. An air-water interface is a suitable asymmetric field for the control of molecular conformations and motions under a small applied force. In this work, double-paddled binuclear PtII complexes containing pyrazole rings linked by alkyl spacers were synthesized and their orientations and emission properties dynamically manipulated at the air-water interface. The complexes emerge from water with concurrent variation of interface orientation of the planes of the PtII complexes from perpendicular to parallel during mechanical compression suggesting a unique 'submarine emission'. Phosphorescence of the complexes is quenched at the air-water interface prior to monolayer formation with intensities subsequently rapidly increasing during monolayer compression. These results indicate that asymmetric reactions and motions might be controlled by applying mechanical force at the air-water interface.

8.
Neurosci Lett ; 720: 134753, 2020 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931033

RESUMO

Gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the maintenance of mental health and influences mental disorders such as depression and anxiety. Several studies have reported the beneficial affects of probiotics in mental health. Heat-killed Enterococcus faecalis strain EC-12 (EC-12), a lactic acid bacterium induces activation of the immune system. However, little is known about the effect of EC-12 on mental health. In the present study, the anti-anxiety effect of EC-12 was elucidated in vivo. Male mice fed on diet supplemented with EC-12 showed decreased anxiety-like behavior in open-field and elevated plus-mazetest. In addition, EC-12 supplementation exhibited an anti-depressive trend in mice subjected to forced swim test. The expression of neurotransmitter receptor genes: Adrb3 and Avpr1a were significantly enhanced in EC-12 supplemented mice compared to that of the control mice. In mice, analyses of gut microbiota composition by next generation sequencing revealed significant increase in Butyricicoccus and Enterococcus with EC-12 supplementation. Significant difference was not detected in the expression of neurotransmitter receptor genes in the prefrontal cortex with the administration of sodium butyrate compared to that of the control group. The mechanism associated with EC-12 mediated reduced anxiety-like behavior and altered gene expression in the brain needs to be further elucidated. Taken together, the present study is the first to report the possibility of exploiting the anti-anxiety effect of heat-killed EC-12 as a novel probiotic to promote mental health.

9.
Behav Pharmacol ; 31(1): 45-60, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625972

RESUMO

Baseline locomotion and behavioral traits in the common marmoset Parkinson's disease model were examined to provide basic information for preclinical evaluations of medical treatments. A single regimen of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine at a cumulative dose of 5 mg/kg as the free base over three consecutive days was administered subcutaneously to 10 marmosets. Data obtained from these marmosets were compared to pre-1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine levels or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine free marmosets. After the single regimen, reduced daily locomotion, a measure of immobility (a primary sign of Parkinsonism), was observed for more than a year. A moving tremor was also observed by visual inspection during this period. When apomorphine (0.13 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered, either right or left circling behavior was observed in a cylindrical chamber in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine marmosets, suggestive of unequal neural damage between the two brain hemispheres to different extents. MRI revealed that T1 relaxation time in the right substantia nigra correlated with right circling in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine marmosets. Histology was supportive of dopaminergic neural loss in the striatum. These results increase our understanding of the utility and limitations of the Parkinson's disease model in marmosets with a single 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine regimen, and provide reference data for efficacious preclinical evaluations.

10.
Digestion ; 101(1): 38-45, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is associated with poor health-related quality of life. Recent evidence suggests that the main pathogenesis suspect is the gut mucosa-associated microbiota (MAM). However, little is known about the MAM in FD subjects. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between upper gastrointestinal symptoms in FD and the characteristics of the gastrointestinal MAM. SUMMARY: Five mucosa samples from the upper gut (intraoral, mid-esophagus, gastric body, gastric antrum, and descending portion of the duodenum) were collected with a brush under endoscopic examination from FD and healthy control subjects. MAM profiles of each sample were analyzed by 16S-rRNA -V3-V4 gene sequences. Questionnaire was used to assess gastrointestinal symptoms in FD. Between FD and healthy control subjects, although the comparison of MAM α-diversity showed no significant differences, the structure of MAM (ß-diversity) was clearly different. Only the phylum Firmicutes was increased in FD compared to healthy control subjects in all sites of the upper gut. At the genus level, Streptococcus was significantly increased in all sites in the upper gut in FD. The relative abundance of Streptococcus was positively correlated with upper gastrointestinal symptoms in each upper gut group. Furthermore, the relative abundance of OTU 90 was positively correlated with upper gastrointestinal symptoms in all sites in the upper gut in FD. Key Messages: Streptococcus is a bacterium strongly correlated with upper gastrointestinal symptoms in FD.

11.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 60(2): 256-263, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538342

RESUMO

Although axitinib shows a good objective response rate and acceptable tolerability for advanced renal cell carcinoma, substantial differences in drug concentrations among individuals have hampered the reliable administration of the drug in a neoadjuvant setting. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between axitinib pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma treated in a neoadjuvant setting. We retrospectively reviewed 16 patients who underwent neoadjuvant axitinib treatment from prospective phase 2 study cohorts treated with axitinib and assessed whether the drug concentration was associated with clinical efficacy for primary tumors of advanced metastatic/oligometastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Axitinib was administered orally at a starting dose of 5 mg twice daily for 2 months in principle before the operation, and the axitinib pharmacokinetics were examined. Best response, reduction rate, adverse events (AEs), and surgical complication were assessed. Four patients (25.0%) showed a partial response, and 12 (75.0%) had stable disease, with a mean reduction rate of 22.8%. No progressive disease was noted, and 9 of the 16 patinets (56.3%) showed downstaging. The trough level of axitinib significantly correlated with the objective response rate (P = .0052) and best tumor reduction (P = .0128). All AEs could be safely managed until termination of the dosing period. With respect to perioperative complications, grade 2 anemia was observed. Neoadjuvant axitinib treatment showed acceptable antitumor activity and safety profile for advanced renal cell carcinoma. The pharmacokinetics of neoadjuvant axitinib influenced the efficacy in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.

12.
J Clin Biochem Nutr ; 65(3): 240-244, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777426

RESUMO

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a major hereditary small vessel disease caused by mutations in NOTCH3. The variations in progression and severity among patients suggest that the CADASIL phenotype is modified by some genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies have shown the potential roles of gut microbiota in human diseases. We hypothesized that gut microbiota modifies the disease phenotype. We performed gut microbial meta 16S rRNA analysis of fecal samples from 15 CADASIL patients and 16 controls. The microbial α- and ß-diversities and taxonomy were compared between CADASIL patients and controls and between CADASIL patients with and without an ischemic stroke history. No significant difference in α- or ß-diversity was observed in either case-control or subgroup comparisons. In the taxonomic microbial analysis, there was a significant increase in abundance of 6 genera and significant decrease in 2 genera in CADASIL patients compared with controls. There was a significant decrease in abundance of 2 genera in CADASIL patients with compared with those without stroke. This is the first study on CADASIL focusing on gut microbiota. Our findings suggest that gut microbiota modifies the onset and progression of CADASIL.

13.
J Clin Biochem Nutr ; 65(2): 118-124, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592206

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate elemental diet (ED)-induced alteration of the fecal and mucosal microbiome in mice. The control group was fed a normal chow and the ED group was fed normal chow containing 50% w/w Elental® (EA Pharma, Tokyo, Japan) for 28 days. Fecal and mucosal microbiome were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In the fecal samples, the observed species, an index for microbial richness, was significantly decreased in the ED group. Principal coordinate analysis revealed that there were significant compositional differences between the control and ED groups (PERMANOVA p = 0.0007 for unweighted and p = 0.002 for weighted UniFrac distance, respectively). In contrast, there was no significant difference in the overall structure of mucosal microbiome between the control and ED groups. In the fecal samples, abundance of the genera Adlercreutzia, Akkermansia, Streptococcus, Helicobacter, Coprobacillus and Coprococcus was significantly reduced in the ED group compared to the control group. Abundance of the genera Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus was significantly increased in the ED group. In a functional analysis using PICRUSt software, ED altered various pathways involved in amino acid metabolism of the gut microbiome. In conclusion, ED caused a reduction in bacterial diversity and altered metabolic functions.

14.
J Clin Biochem Nutr ; 65(2): 125-131, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592207

RESUMO

Several outcomes have been reported on the role of gut microbiota in health promotion and disease prevention. Kyotango, one of the longevity areas with various centenarians, is a provincial city located in the northern part of Kyoto Prefecture in Japan. To understand the relationship between gut microbiota and urbanization, we compared the diversity, abundance, and function of gut microbiota in older healthy subjects between Kyotango and Kyoto cities; Kyoto is an urban city located in the southern part of Kyoto Prefecture. In total, 51 subjects at Kyotango and 51 subjects at Kyoto matched by age and gender were recruited, and their fecal samples were obtained to analyze the gut microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Principal coordinate analysis for ß-diversity revealed significant differences in the gut microbiota between two cities. In contrast, the analysis of α-diversity revealed no significant differences between the groups. On comparison at the phylum levels, the abundance of Firmicutes was decreased with the urbanization, whereas that of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes increased. On comparison at the genus levels, with urbanization, a significant decrease was observed in Lachnospiraceae families including genus Roseburia and Coprococcus, and significant increases was observed in Bacteroides, Oscillospira, Parabacteroides, and Ruminococcus. The most markedly increased functional pathway with urbanization was lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis proteins and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, and decreased pathway was transporters and ABC transporters. In conclusion, the present findings indicate significant differences in the gut microbiota between the provincial city and urban cities at Kyoto Prefecture. These alterations in the microbiota may provide new insights to consider the relationship between longevity and gut microbiota.

15.
Science ; 365(6459): 1308-1313, 2019 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604241

RESUMO

The neural mechanisms underlying memory regulation during sleep are not yet fully understood. We found that melanin concentrating hormone-producing neurons (MCH neurons) in the hypothalamus actively contribute to forgetting in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Hypothalamic MCH neurons densely innervated the dorsal hippocampus. Activation or inhibition of MCH neurons impaired or improved hippocampus-dependent memory, respectively. Activation of MCH nerve terminals in vitro reduced firing of hippocampal pyramidal neurons by increasing inhibitory inputs. Wake- and REM sleep-active MCH neurons were distinct populations that were randomly distributed in the hypothalamus. REM sleep state-dependent inhibition of MCH neurons impaired hippocampus-dependent memory without affecting sleep architecture or quality. REM sleep-active MCH neurons in the hypothalamus are thus involved in active forgetting in the hippocampus.

16.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509971

RESUMO

Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) is a water-soluble dietary fiber and is used in solid and liquid food to regulate gut function. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of PHGG on bowel movements (stool form and frequency), plasma bile acids, quality of life, and gut microbiota of healthy volunteers with a tendency toward diarrhea, i.e., irritable bowel syndrome diarrhea (IBS-D)-like symptoms. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and parallel trial was performed on 44 healthy volunteers (22 males, 22 females, 41.9 ± 6.3 years old (average ± SD)) with minimum 7 bowel movements every week, wherein above 50% of their stool was between the Bristol stool scale (BSS) value of 5 and 6. Intake of the PHGG for 3 months significantly improved stool form, evaluated using BSS, and had no effects on stool frequency. BSS was significantly normalized in the group consuming the PHGG compared with the placebo. Comprehensive fecal microbiome analysis by the 16S rRNA-sequence method detected significant changes in the ratio of some bacteria, such as an increase of Bifidobacterium (p < 0.05) in the PHGG group. Our results suggest that intake of PHGG improves human stool form via regulating intestinal microbiota.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Defecação , Diarreia/terapia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fezes/microbiologia , Galactanos/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mananas/administração & dosagem , Gomas Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/fisiopatologia , Fibras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Galactanos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hidrólise , Masculino , Mananas/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gomas Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Prebióticos/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Tempo , Tóquio , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Clin Biochem Nutr ; 65(1): 34-46, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379412

RESUMO

Gut microbiota have profound effects on bile acid metabolism by promoting deconjugation, dehydrogenation, and dehydroxylation of primary bile acids in the distal small intestine and colon. High-fat diet-induced dysbiosis of gut microbiota and bile acid dysregulation may be involved in the pathology of steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant polyphenolic catechin in green tea, has been widely investigated for its inhibitory or preventive effects against fatty liver. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of EGCG on the abundance of gut microbiota and the composition of serum bile acids in high-fat diet-fed mice and determine the specific bacterial genera that can improve the serum bile acid dysregulation associated with EGCG anti-hepatic steatosis action. Male C57BL/6N mice were fed with the control diet, high-fat diet, or high-fat diet + EGCG at a concentration of 0.32% for 8 weeks. EGCG significantly inhibited the increases in weight, the area of fatty lesions, and the triglyceride content in the liver induced by the high-fat diet. Principal coordinate analysis revealed significant differences in microbial structure among the groups. At the genus level, EGCG induced changes in the microbiota composition in high-fat diet-fed mice, showing a significantly higher abundance of Adlercreutzia, Akkermansia, Allobaculum and a significantly lower abundance of Desulfovibrionaceae. EGCG significantly reversed the decreased population of serum primary cholic acid and ß-muricholic acid as well as the increased population of taurine-conjugated cholic acid, ß-muricholic acid and deoxycholic acid in high-fat diet-fed mice. Finally, the correlation analysis between bile acid profiles and gut microbiota demonstrated the contribution of Akkermansia and Desulfovibrionaceae in the improvement of bile acid dysregulation in high-fat diet-fed mice by treatment with EGCG. In conclusion, the present study suggests that EGCG could alter bile acid metabolism, especially taurine deconjugation, and suppress fatty liver disease by improving the intestinal luminal environment.

18.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(9): 837-845, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413245

RESUMO

Producing structural viscosity in colloidal dispersions, such as vesicles and capsules, prevents separation of dispersed particles by increasing the viscosity between them, which is advantageous in terms of usability. So far, the separation behavior of various particles has been studied; however, there are very few examples wherein a stable dispersion state was constructed and controlled. In this study, we produced stable dispersions induced by the depletion effect in mixtures of vesicles of cationic surfactant derived from triethanolamine-based esterquat (TEQ) and a specific dextrin derivative (SDD) as a non-adsorptive polymer. In the composition region, where 8 to 16% of TEQ vesicles and 1.2% or less of SDDs were mixed, the viscosity increased proportionally with the particle concentration, and it was observed that stable dispersions were produced by structural viscosity. Furthermore, the effects of TEQ and SDD concentrations, and SDD size on the structural viscosity and cohesive energy were investigated, which were similar to the depletion effect in the Asakura-Oosawa (AO) theory. From the results, it was suggested that the structural viscosity of the mixed dispersions (TEQ vesicles and SDDs) was produced by the aggregated TEQ vesicle networks induced by the depletion flocculation.


Assuntos
Lipossomos/química , Dextrinas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Tensoativos/química , Viscosidade
19.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1795, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428095

RESUMO

Inflammation, reversible obstruction, and hyperresponsiveness of the airways are characteristic findings of bronchial asthma. Several evidence has demonstrated the involvement of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in allergic airway inflammation. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 may promote aberrant tissue remodeling in late stages of allergic airway inflammation. However, whether matrix metalloproteinase-2 is detrimental or protective in early stages of allergic airway inflammation remains unclear. To evaluate this here we compared the severity of allergic bronchial asthma between mice overexpressing human matrix metalloproteinase-2 and wild type mice. After sensitization and challenge with an allergen, mice overexpressing the human matrix metalloproteinase-2 showed a significant reduction in airway hyperresponsiveness and in the expression of Th2 cytokines and IgE compared to their wild type counterparts. An inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases abolished this beneficial effect of human matrix metalloproteinase-2 overexpression. Allergen-sensitized and challenged human matrix metalloproteinase-2 transgenic mice had enhanced percentage of M1 macrophages with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and STAT1 activation in the lungs compared to their wild type counterparts. There was no difference in the percentage of regulatory T cells between mouse groups. The results of this study showed that matrix metalloproteinase-2 is protective in allergic bronchial asthma by promoting polarization of macrophages to M1 phenotype.

20.
Inorg Chem ; 58(14): 9076-9084, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247829

RESUMO

In this paper, we describe the first phosphorescent molecules that do not exhibit the concentration quenching in the homogeneous solution state throughout the entire range of concentrations. A series of newly designed polymethylene-vaulted trans-bis[2-(iminomethyl)imidazolato]platinum(II) complexes (1a, n = 10; 1b, n = 12; 1c, n = 14) was prepared by treating [PtCl2(CH3CN)2] with the corresponding N,N'-bis[(1H-imidazol-2-yl)methylene]-1,ω-alkanediamines. The trans coordination and vaulted structures of 1 have been unequivocally established from X-ray diffraction studies. When the concentration of a clear homogeneous solution of 1a-c in organic solvents increases from the diluted to the saturated state, the emission intensity and quantum efficiency increase continuously without concentration quenching at ambient temperature. This is in contrast to the emission profiles of other analogues 2-4 and typical AIEgens, which show ordinary concentration quenching under the same measurement conditions. The present concentration-driven emission enhancement is observed more intensely in a solution of a racemic mixture of 1 in comparison to that of the optically pure solution. Kinetic studies, 1H NMR, XRD analyses, and DFT calculations revealed that this specifically intense emission enhancement of 1 is attributed to an increase in the contribution of a 3MMLCT to 1GS transition, which is caused by the specific ability for the formation of a cofacial association dimer of 1.

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