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1.
Exp Anim ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789617

RESUMO

In veterinary medicine, blood transfusion is commonly performed on companion animals. The common marmoset is a small nonhuman primate with increasing popularity as an animal model in biomedical research. Because of its small whole blood volume, the marmoset is at high risk of exsanguination, and blood transfusion is required to care for life-threatening bleeding. However, few clinical evaluations exist on transfusions for marmosets. This study performed whole blood transfusion with cross-matching on nine marmosets and surveyed the therapeutic effects. Recipients included clinical cases with persistent bleeding, anemia, and coma, as well as animals subjected to postoperative bleeding prophylaxis. Donors were selected from healthy marmosets, including littermates. Cross-match assay before transfusion were all negative, and recipients showed no visible signs of transfusion-related adverse reactions. Whole blood transfusions caused hemostasis and successful recovery in bleeding marmosets, including long-term improvement of anemia cases. Our results indicated that blood transfusion is effective for marmosets with severe anemia and persistent hemorrhage from both non-experimental and surgical causes. Furthermore, DNA sequencing for blood-group classification revealed that all subject marmosets were type A, suggesting that the risk of blood type mismatch may be low in this species.

2.
Opt Express ; 29(24): 39930-39945, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809347

RESUMO

The fast and widely tunable wavelength bank is a key enabler in creating wavelength-routing optical switches that do not use fast wavelength tunable lasers. A cost-effective design criterion needs to be developed before it can be applied to intra data center networks. In this paper, we develop a systematic method for designing a wavelength bank that yields high port-count and fast wavelength-routing optical switches for intra data center application. The wavelength bank is created with fixed-wavelength laser sources and wavelength-tunable filters with rapid wavelength selectivity. To optimize the optical switching system that uses the wavelength bank for supplying local oscillator (LO) lights for coherent detection, various parameters are analyzed, including effective bandwidth, laser output power, loss distribution, splitter port count, and optical amplifier gain. We carry out numerical simulations for optimizing the tradeoff between system performance and cost. To verify the designed wavelength bank, a silicon ring filter is newly fabricated with an average fiber-to-fiber insertion loss of 5.3 dB over a 22-nm bandwidth. Using 256-Gb/s DP-QPSK signals, experiments demonstrate a 1,024×1,024 optical switch that uses a fabricated silicon ring filter. The effectiveness of the scalable and fast-tunable LO bank is verified by achieving 262.1-Tb/s switch throughput with switching time under 18 µs.

3.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) has become the dominant therapeutic approach for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), continued sac growth after EVAR remains a major concern and is still unpredictable. Since AAA formation is thought to arise from atherosclerotic vascular damage of the aortic wall, we hypothesize that the severity of atherosclerosis in the AAA wall may influence sac growth. Therefore, we investigated whether brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of atherosclerosis severity obtained by noninvasive automatic devices, can predict sac growth after EVAR. METHODS: The data from all patients who underwent elective EVAR for AAA at a single institution from January 2012 to March 2019 were reviewed. We extracted the baPWV before EVAR and divided patients into two groups according to the baPWV cut-off value identified by a classification and regression tree (CART). The primary outcome was significant sac growth, defined as an increment of 5 mm or more in aneurysm size after EVAR relative to the aneurysm size before EVAR. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the potential predictors of sac growth. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 222 consecutive patients underwent elective EVAR for AAA. Of these, 175 patients with a median follow-up period of 36 months were included. The baPWV values were classified as <1854 cm/s (Group 0) in 100 patients and ≥1854 cm/s (Group 1) in 75 patients according to the cut-off value identified by CART. During the follow-up period, 10 (10.0%) patients in Group 0 and 18 (24.0%) patients in Group 1 demonstrated significant sac growth (P = 0.021). Risk factors for significant sac growth included baPWV (hazard ratio [HR], 3.059; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-6.64; P = 0.005), age (HR, 1.078; 95% CI, 1.01-1.16; P = 0.036), and persistent type II endoleak (HR, 3.552; 95% CI, 1.69-7.48; P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that baPWV remained a significant risk factor for sac growth after adjustment for age (HR, 2.602; 95% CI, 1.15-5.82; P = 0.02) and persistent type II endoleak (HR, 2.957; 95% CI, 1.36-6.43; P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The baPWV before EVAR was associated with significant sac growth after EVAR; thus, measuring the baPWV may be useful for assessing the risk of future sac growth in patients after EVAR.

4.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836924

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The rapid spread of COVID-19 posed a global burden. Substantial number of people died of the disease in the acute phase of infection. In addition, a significant proportion of patients have been reported to suffer from post-acute phase symptoms, sequelae of COVID-19, which may negatively influence the quality of daily living and/or socioeconomic circumstances of the patients. However, no previous study has comprehensively and objectively assessed the quality of life of patients by using existing international scales. Further, evidence of socioeconomic consequences among patients with COVID-19 is scarce. To address the multidimensional issues from sequelae of COVID-19, evidence from comprehensive surveys beyond clinical perspectives is critical that investigates health, and social determinants of disease progression as well as socioeconomic consequences at a large scale. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In this study, we plan to conduct a nationwide and comprehensive survey for the sequelae of COVID-19 in a total of 1000 patients diagnosed at 27 hospitals throughout Japan. This study will evaluate not only the health-related status of patients from clinical perspectives but also the Health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) scores, socioeconomic status and consequences to discuss the sequelae of the disease and the related risk factors. The primary endpoint is the frequency of long-term complications of COVID-19 infection. The secondary endpoints are risk factors for progression to sequelae of COVID-19 infection. The study will provide robust and important evidence as a resource to tackle the issues from the sequelae of COVID-19 from the multi-dimensional perspectives. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This trial was approved by the Keio University School of Medicine Ethics Committee (20200243, UMIN000042299). The results of this study will be reported at a society meeting or published in a peer-reviewed journal.

5.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599685

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) produces exfoliated tumor cells that occasionally cause local recurrence. However, the biological characteristics of these tumor cells have not been clarified. The aim of this study was to clarify the genetic background and viability of exfoliated tumor cells in colorectal ESDs, as well as possible method for their elimination. METHODS: Post-ESD intraluminal lavage samples from 19 patients who underwent colorectal ESDs were collected. In four patients with adenocarcinoma, gene mutations in the primary tumors and exfoliated cells in lavage samples were analyzed using a next-generation sequencer (NGS). In 15 patients with adenoma or adenocarcinoma, the viability of exfoliated cells and the cell-killing effect of povidone-iodine on exfoliated cells were evaluated. RESULTS: The analysis using a NGS demonstrated that tumors targeted for ESD had already acquired mutations in many genes involved in cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and invasions. Furthermore, gene mutations between the exfoliated tumor cells and tumors resected by ESDs showed a 92 to 100% concordance. The median viable cell counts and the median viability of exfoliated cells in intraluminal lavage samples after ESDs were 4.9 × 105 cells/mL and 24%, respectively. The viability of the exfoliated cells did not decrease even 12 h after ESD. However, contact with 2.0% povidone-iodine solution reduced both viable cell counts and viability, significantly. CONCLUSION: A large number of tumor cells exfoliated during colorectal ESDs had acquired survival-favorable gene mutations and could survive for some time. Therefore, a lavage using a solution of 2.0% povidone-iodine may be effective against such cells. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The prospective study registered 1317, and the retrospective study registered 2729. The prospective study approved on June 20, 2016, and the retrospective study approved on October 6, 2020.

6.
Asian J Neurosurg ; 16(3): 589-594, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660375

RESUMO

Most meningiomas grow intracranially, and primary intraosseous meningioma is rarely reported. We present two rare surgical cases of giant intraosseous meningothelial meningioma. The first patient was a 35-year-old male with parietal skull deformity without neurological symptoms. Total resection was successful. The origin was the parasagittal intraosseous layer, and the superior sagittal sinus was partially opened. The second patient was a 20-year-old female with a slightly upward protrusion of the frontal skull without pain or neurological deficits. The lesion was totally resected, and the origin was the parasagittal intraosseous layer invading into the dura matter and subcutaneous layer. The clinical management of these cases presented a surgical challenge because of detachment and repair from venous sinuses. The current report provides surgical tips for such rare diseases and is a good reference for the future treatment of similar diseases.

7.
Oncologist ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate prognostic understanding in patients with advanced cancer is essential for shared decision making; however, patients may experience psychological burden through knowing the incurable nature of advanced cancer. It has been unclear how their prognostic understanding fluctuates and whether accurate prognostic understanding is associated with psychological distress from the time of diagnosis over time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We longitudinally investigated prognostic understanding in 225 patients with newly diagnosed advanced lung cancer at 16 hospitals in Japan until 24 months after diagnosis. We examined associated factors with being consistently accurate in prognostic understanding, especially focusing on its association with psychological well-being. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with an inaccurate prognostic understanding remained approximately 20% over time with the presence of patients with inconsistent understanding. Patients with consistently accurate prognostic understanding showed a significantly lower Emotional Well-Being subscale score at both 3 and 6 months after diagnosis (p = .010 and p = .014, respectively). In multivariate analyses, being consistently accurate in prognostic understanding was significantly associated with female gender and higher lung cancer-specific symptom burden at 3 months (p = .008 and p = .005, respectively) and lower emotional well-being at 6 months (p = .006). CONCLUSION: Although substantial proportions of patients with advanced lung cancer had inaccurate prognostic understanding from the time of diagnosis over time, patients with consistently accurate prognostic understanding experienced greater psychological burden. Our findings highlight the importance of continuous psychological care and support for patients who understand their severe prognosis accurately. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This study demonstrated that approximately 20% of patients with advanced lung cancer had an inaccurate understanding about their prognosis, not only at the time of diagnosis but also at the later time points. Being consistently accurate in prognostic understanding was significantly associated with elevated levels of psychological distress. Although accurate prognostic understanding is essential for decision making for treatment and advance care planning, health care providers should be aware of psychological burdens in patients that accept their severe prognosis accurately. Appropriate care and support for such patients are warranted from diagnosis over time.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(36): e27212, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516526

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We aimed to prospectively identify the risk factors of sarcopenia in patients with cirrhosis.Patients (n = 193) included in a discovery cohort (January 2011 and December 2014) were categorized into alcoholic (A1; n = 55) and non-alcoholic cirrhosis (NA; n = 138) groups, and those (n = 235) in a validation cohort (January 2015 to December 2019) were categorized into alcoholic (n = 92), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-related (n = 27), and hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis groups (n = 116). Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was determined using computed tomography (SMI-CT) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (SMI-BIA). Endotoxin activity (EA) was measured with an EA assay.SMI-CT correlated with grip strength in all the groups but significantly correlated with SMI-BIA of the men in group A1 (R = 0.64, P < .0001) and both sexes in group NA (male: R = 0.44, P = .0001; female: R = 0.35, P = .003). SMI-CT inversely correlated with the EA levels of the men in group A1 (R = -0.67, P < .0001) and myostatin levels in group NA (R = -0.53, P < .0001). Lower extremity SMI had a strong negative correlation with the EA levels of the men in group A1 (R = -0.58, P < .001), whereas upper extremity SMI showed an inverse trend with EA levels (R = -0.28, P = .08). SMI-CT also inversely correlated with the EA levels in groups A2 (R = -0.52, P = .003) and N (R = -0.67, P < .0001) and myostatin levels in group C (R = -0.65, P < .0001). Moreover, SMI-CT correlated with nutritional factors, including cholinesterase (R = 0.50, P = .005), zinc (R = 0.45, P = .01), branched amino acid-to-tyrosine ratio (R = 0.39, P = .02), and triglyceride (R = 0.33, P = .03) in group N.Sarcopenia risk factors differ among cirrhosis etiologies. Alcohol-induced, intestine-mediated peripheral endotoxemia could participate in sarcopenia development in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
J Immunol ; 207(9): 2223-2234, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588217

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) requires the activation of Ag-specific T cells, including effector and regulatory T cells. The differentiation and function of these T cells is epigenetically regulated through DNA methylation and histone modifications. However, the roles of altered histone H3K27 methylation in T cells in the development of ACD remain unknown. Two types of histone H3K27 demethylases, Utx and Jmjd3, have been reported in mammals. To determine the role of the histone H3K27 demethylase expression of T cells in the development of ACD, we generated T cell-specific, Utx-deficient (Utx KO) mice or Jmjd3-deficient (Jmjd3 KO) mice. Unlike control mice, Utx KO mice had severer symptoms of ACD, whereas Jmjd3 KO mice showed symptoms identical to those in control mice. In Utx KO mice with ACD, the massive infiltration of myeloid cells, including neutrophils and dendritic cells, has been observed. In addition, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in CD4+ T cells of the draining lymph nodes (LNs) and in CD8+ T cells of the skin was increased in Utx KO mice, whereas the ratio of Foxp3+ regulatory CD4+ T cells to Foxp3- conventional CD4+ T cells was decreased in both the draining LNs and the skin of Utx KO mice with ACD. Furthermore, Foxp3+ regulatory CD4+ T cells of Utx KO mice with ACD expressed a decreased level of CCR4 (a skin-tropic chemokine receptor) in comparison with control. Thus, in CD4+ T cells, Utx could potentially be involved in the regulation of the pathogenesis of ACD.


Assuntos
Dermatite de Contato/imunologia , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/metabolismo , Pele/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores CCR4/metabolismo
10.
Medicines (Basel) ; 8(7)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357155

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GTP) to assess the single and combined benefits of these biological markers for the detection of chronic excessive alcohol consumption in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Methods: Biological markers were determined in blood samples from patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (drinking group, n = 35; nondrinking group, n = 81). The prediction accuracy of %CDT alone, γ-GTP alone, and their combination for the detection of excessive alcohol consumption was determined in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Results: Serum total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-GTP, and alkaline phosphatase levels and %CDT were significantly higher and serum albumin levels were significantly lower in the drinking group than in the nondrinking group. The combination of %CDT and γ-GTP compared with %CDT or γ-GTP alone showed a higher prediction accuracy. The combination of %CDT and γ-GTP exhibited a higher specificity than γ-GTP alone. However, in terms of sensitivity, no significant difference was found between single or combined markers. Conclusions: The combination of %CDT and γ-GTP is considered a useful biomarker of chronic excessive alcohol consumption in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.

11.
J Med Primatol ; 50(6): 335-338, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448212

RESUMO

A seven-year-old female common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) presented with weight loss. Imaging revealed a left thoracic mass, confirmed at necropsy. Histology and immunohistochemistry suggested a well-differentiated pulmonary adenocarcinoma. No evidence of local lymphovascular invasion or distant metastasis was observed. This is the first report of pulmonary adenocarcinoma in marmosets.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Doenças dos Macacos , Animais , Callithrix , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/diagnóstico
12.
Audiol Res ; 11(3): 357-364, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287242

RESUMO

Ultrasound can deliver speech information when it is amplitude-modulated with speech and presented via bone conduction. This speech-modulated bone-conducted ultrasound (SM-BCU) can also transmit prosodic information. However, there is insufficient research on the recognition of vowel duration in SM-BCU. The aim of this study was to investigate the categorization of vowel durational changes in SM-BCU using a behavioral test. Eight Japanese-speaking participants with normal hearing participated in a forced-choice behavioral task to discriminate between "hato" (pigeon) and "haato" (heart). Speech signal stimuli were presented in seven duration grades from 220 ms to 340 ms. The threshold at which 50% of responses were "haato" was calculated and compared for air-conducted audible sound (ACAS) and SM-BCU. The boundary width was also evaluated. Although the SM-BCU threshold (mean: 274.6 ms) was significantly longer than the ACAS threshold (mean: 269.6 ms), there were no differences in boundary width. These results suggest that SM-BCU can deliver prosodic information about vowel duration with a similar difference limen to that of ACAS in normal hearing.

13.
Nature ; 599(7885): 458-464, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325466

RESUMO

Centenarians have a decreased susceptibility to ageing-associated illnesses, chronic inflammation and infectious diseases1-3. Here we show that centenarians have a distinct gut microbiome that is enriched in microorganisms that are capable of generating unique secondary bile acids, including various isoforms of lithocholic acid (LCA): iso-, 3-oxo-, allo-, 3-oxoallo- and isoallolithocholic acid. Among these bile acids, the biosynthetic pathway for isoalloLCA had not been described previously. By screening 68 bacterial isolates from the faecal microbiota of a centenarian, we identified Odoribacteraceae strains as effective producers of isoalloLCA both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we found that the enzymes 5α-reductase (5AR) and 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3ß-HSDH) were responsible for the production of isoalloLCA. IsoalloLCA exerted potent antimicrobial effects against Gram-positive (but not Gram-negative) multidrug-resistant pathogens, including Clostridioides difficile and Enterococcus faecium. These findings suggest that the metabolism of specific bile acids may be involved in reducing the risk of infection with pathobionts, thereby potentially contributing to the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis.

14.
Front Surg ; 8: 671624, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239892

RESUMO

Background: Pathologically, Meniere's disease symptoms are considered to be associated with endolymphatic hydrops. Examinations revealing endolymphatic hydrops can be useful for accurate Meniere's disease diagnosis. We previously reported a quantitative method for evaluating endolymphatic hydrops, i.e., by measuring the volume of the endolymphatic space using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the inner ear. This study aimed to confirm the usefulness of our methods for diagnosing Meniere's disease. Here, we extracted new explanatory factors for diagnosing Meniere's disease by comparing the volume of the endolymphatic space between healthy volunteers and patients with Meniere's disease. Additionally, we validated our method by comparing its diagnostic accuracy with that of the conventional method. Methods and Findings: This is a prospective diagnostic accuracy study performed at vertigo/dizziness centre of our university hospital, a tertiary hospital. Eighty-six patients with definite unilateral Meniere's disease and 47 healthy volunteers (25 and 33 males, and 22 and 53 females in the control and patient groups, respectively) were enrolled. All participants underwent 3-Tesla MRI 4 h after intravenous injection of gadolinium to reveal the endolymphatic space. The volume of the endolymphatic space was measured and a model for Meniere's disease diagnosis was constructed and compared with models using conventional criteria to confirm the effectiveness of the methods used. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the method proposed in this study was excellent (0.924), and significantly higher than that derived using the conventional criteria (0.877). The four indices, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value, were given at the threshold; all of these indices achieved higher scores for the 3D model compared to the 2D model. Cross-validation of the models revealed that the improvement was due to the incorporation of the semi-circular canals. Conclusions: Our method showed high diagnostic accuracy for Meniere's disease. Additionally, we revealed the importance of observing the semi-circular canals for Meniere's disease diagnosis. The proposed method can contribute toward providing effective symptomatic relief in Meniere's disease.

15.
J Nat Prod ; 84(7): 2048-2052, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34189920

RESUMO

Unloading stress enhances oxidative stress, which in turn induces disuse muscle atrophy. This study evaluated the suppressive effect of lemon peel extract containing eriocitrin on muscle atrophy. Both lemon peel extract and eriocitrin suppressed weight loss in the gastrocnemius muscle under denervation in C57BL/6 mice. The mRNA level of ubiquitin ligases and their transcription factor were downregulated by eriocitrin. Eriocitrin inhibited the increase in lipid peroxidation and the ratio of glutathione disulfide/glutathione. These data suggest that eriocitrin ameliorated disuse muscle atrophy by suppressing the expression of ubiquitin ligase genes by its antioxidative effect.

16.
JSES Int ; 5(3): 564-570, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34136872

RESUMO

Hypothesis: This study aimed to investigate the results, indications, and limitations of absorbable pin fixation for osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral capitellum in the separation stage. Methods: This study included 35 patients (mean age, 14.0 years). Patients were divided into two groups: Group A included those who obtained complete union within 6 months and Group B included those who did not observe complete union within 6 months. The clinical findings were compared between the groups. Results: There were 26 and 6 patients in Groups A and B, respectively. Two patients did not obtain complete union. Clinical outcomes improved after the procedure. In univariate analysis, delayed union was associated with larger major diameter (P = .0004) and more depth (P = .03) of the osteochondral fragment measured by computed tomography, the presence of osteosclerosis in the subchondral bed on X-ray imaging (P = .003), and the presence of comminution of subchondral bone on ultrasound imaging (P = .01). In multivariate analysis, there was a significant difference only in the major diameter of the osteochondral fragment (P = .03). Receiver operating characteristic curves analysis shows that if the major diameter of the osteochondral fragment is 11 mm or less, 85% of patients achieve complete union of the osteochondral fragments within 6 months. Conclusion: Absorbable pin fixation may be considered for the osteochondral fragments with major diameter of 11 mm or less and should not be considered for patients who demonstrate osteosclerosis in the subchondral bed or comminution of subchondral bone.

17.
J Anus Rectum Colon ; 5(2): 158-166, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33937556

RESUMO

Objectives: Many patients have endoscopic evidence of recurrent Crohn's disease (CD) 1 year after intestinal resection, and endoscopic lesions predict future clinical recurrence. The aim of this study was to describe some anastomotic lesions including changes in endoscopic features in CD patients and to discuss recurrence. We also compared anastomotic lesions in CD patients and in right-side colon cancer (rt-CC) patients. Methods: We enrolled patients with CD and rt-CC who underwent surgical resection between 2008 and 2014. Eleven CD patients underwent postoperative endoscopy at least twice, with the first time being from 6 months to 1 year after surgery and the second time being from 2 to 3 years after surgery. Eighty-six patients with rt-CC underwent postoperative endoscopy after approximately one year. Results: A total of 90.9% of CD patients had postoperative lesions around the anastomosis at the first postoperative ileocolonoscopy, which was markedly higher than that in rt-CC patients (3.5%, p<0.001). Many of these lesions in CD required enhanced treatment. However, linear superficial ulcers at the anastomotic line at the first ileocolonoscopy did not worsen with the same treatment (18.1%). Conclusions: Postoperative anastomotic lesions were detected at a higher rate in CD cases than that in rt-CC cases. Many anastomotic lesions were recognized as recurrent disease and required enhanced treatment, whereas linear superficial ulcers did not require treatment changes. Therefore, linear superficial ulcers might not be recurrent disease. As this issue is related to recurrence, it should be further explored with the accumulation of more cases in a multicenter analysis.

18.
Opt Express ; 29(8): 12252-12265, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984989

RESUMO

To answer the question: "Is optical phase conjugation (OPC) capable of compensating nonlinear distortions caused by not only Kerr effect of optical fibre, but also the carrier dynamics of semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs)?", we investigate the effectiveness of OPC-based nonlinear compensation for SOAs amplifying a few-channel WDM signal modulated with m-QAM. We use a pair of SOAs with an OPC stage sandwiched between the two so that the combination works as a low-distortion amplifier. Symbol-period longer than the gain recovery time is chosen in our experiments to avoid bit-pattern effects introduced by the SOA. We amplify a 12Gbaud, 16QAM modulated three-channel WDM signal with this technique in the back-to-back configuration which remarkably outperforms a single SOA in the nonlinear regime of operation with an average Q2 improvement better than 4 dB for an output power of 4 dBm. We further demonstrate the practical advantage of the low distortion higher output power capability of the SOA shown in the back-to-back result by carrying out a transmission of the amplified signal through a 160-km fibre, where relatively high launch power is desirable. We also study the case of 64QAM signals and show that approximately a 3 dB Q2 factor improvement can be obtained over single SOA, while without nonlinear phase distortion compensation, the demodulation is nearly impracticable.

19.
J Med Primatol ; 50(3): 164-175, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A survey was developed to characterize disease incidence, common pathology lesions, environmental characteristics, and nutrition programs within captive research marmoset colonies. METHODS: Seventeen research facilities completed the electronic survey. RESULTS: Nutritional management programs varied amongst research institutions housing marmosets; eight primary base diets were reported. The most common clinical syndromes reported were gastrointestinal disease (i.e. inflammatory bowel disease like disease, chronic lymphocytic enteritis, chronic malabsorption, chronic diarrhea), metabolic bone disease or fracture, infectious diarrhea, and oral disease (tooth root abscesses, gingivitis, tooth root resorption). The five most common pathology morphologic diagnoses were colitis, nephropathy/nephritis, enteritis, chronic lymphoplasmacytic enteritis, and cholecystitis. Obesity was more common (average 20% of a reporting institution's population) than thin body condition (average 5%). CONCLUSIONS: Through review of current practices, we aim to inspire development of evidence-based practices to standardize husbandry and nutrition practices for marmoset research colonies.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas , Callithrix , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Incidência , Obesidade
20.
Opt Lett ; 46(7): 1534-1537, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793479

RESUMO

We demonstrate a method of measuring group refractive indices (ng) by using only a temporal waveform of a color-selective multi-pulse (CSMP) generated with a spatial-light-modulator-based optical pulse shaper. Each pulse of the CSMP is characterized by different spectral components. Thus, ng of a sample can be estimated by calculating the group delay of the spectrally different pulses in the CSMP after passing through the sample. As a proof-of-concept, we measured ng of a glass plate by using a CSMP. We confirmed that the measured ng values were in agreement with those derived from Sellmeier's formula with an accuracy on the order of 10-4.

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