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1.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 101, 2019 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Chediak-Higashi Disease (CHD) is a rare autosomal disorder, purported to have cognitive and neurological impairments. Prior descriptions of cognitive impairment, however, are solely based on subjective, unstructured observations rather than on formal neuropsychological measures. METHODS: Four pediatric and 14 adult patients with diagnostically confirmed CHD were administered a neuropsychological battery assessing memory, attention, processing speed, psychomotor speed, language fluency, executive function, and general intelligence. Nine of the adult patients received follow-up evaluations to elucidate the longitudinal progression or stability of cognition over time. RESULTS: Pediatric CHD patients performed within the average range. Adult patients, however, performed below average on nearly all measures administered, and endorsed subjective reports of learning difficulties and poor academic performance in childhood. In particular, patients struggled with memory and psychomotor speed tasks, with 75% or more of patients scoring in the bottom 2.3 percentile in these two domains. No significant declines in cognition were observed among the patients who completed follow-up evaluations (M = 39.90, SD = 8.03 months between visits). Exploratory analyses suggested that adult patients who had classic CHD and previously received bone marrow transplants (BMTs; n = 3) exhibited moderately greater cognitive impairment than adult patients who had atypical CHD and had not received BMTs (n = 10). CONCLUSIONS: Adult patients with CHD uniformly exhibit deficits in multiple domains, but in psychomotor speed and memory, in particular. Based on their neuropsychological profile, their ability to hold jobs and succeed in school may require support and special accommodations. The source of cognitive deficits is probably multifactorial including central nervous system involvement in CHD, and, for those transplanted, BMT-related side effects and complications. Absence of cognitive decline at three-year follow-up is encouraging but does not exclude progression at a slower time-scale. Future work should elucidate the possible effects and timing of BMT on cognition, as well as the mechanisms driving neuropsychological impairment in CHD.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 520-529, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824121

RESUMO

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are essential enzymes responsible for charging tRNA molecules with cognate amino acids. Consistent with the essential function and ubiquitous expression of ARSs, mutations in 32 of the 37 ARS-encoding loci cause severe, early-onset recessive phenotypes. Previous genetic and functional data suggest a loss-of-function mechanism; however, our understanding of the allelic and locus heterogeneity of ARS-related disease is incomplete. Cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CARS) encodes the enzyme that charges tRNACys with cysteine in the cytoplasm. To date, CARS variants have not been implicated in any human disease phenotype. Here, we report on four subjects from three families with complex syndromes that include microcephaly, developmental delay, and brittle hair and nails. Each affected person carries bi-allelic CARS variants: one individual is compound heterozygous for c.1138C>T (p.Gln380∗) and c.1022G>A (p.Arg341His), two related individuals are compound heterozygous for c.1076C>T (p.Ser359Leu) and c.1199T>A (p.Leu400Gln), and one individual is homozygous for c.2061dup (p.Ser688Glnfs∗2). Measurement of protein abundance, yeast complementation assays, and assessments of tRNA charging indicate that each CARS variant causes a loss-of-function effect. Compared to subjects with previously reported ARS-related diseases, individuals with bi-allelic CARS variants are unique in presenting with a brittle-hair-and-nail phenotype, which most likely reflects the high cysteine content in human keratins. In sum, our efforts implicate CARS variants in human inherited disease, expand the locus and clinical heterogeneity of ARS-related clinical phenotypes, and further support impaired tRNA charging as the primary mechanism of recessive ARS-related disease.

3.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 52, 2019 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Determining the etiology of oculocutaneous albinism is important for proper clinical management and to determine prognosis. The purpose of this study was to genotype and phenotype eight adopted Chinese children who presented with oculocutaneous albinism and easy bruisability. RESULTS: The patients were evaluated at a single center; their ages ranged from 3 to 8 years. Whole exome or direct sequencing showed that two of the children had Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) type-1 (HPS-1), one had HPS-3, one had HPS-4, and four had non-syndromic oculocutaneous albinism associated with TYR variants (OCA1). Two frameshift variants in HPS1 (c.9delC and c.1477delA), one nonsense in HPS4 (c.416G > A), and one missense variant in TYR (c.1235C > T) were unreported. The child with HPS-4 is the first case with this subtype reported in the Chinese population. Hypopigmentation in patients with HPS was mild compared to that in OCA1 cases, who had severe pigment defects. Bruises, which may be more visible in patients with hypopigmentation, were found in all cases with either HPS or OCA1. Whole mount transmission electron microscopy demonstrated absent platelet dense granules in the HPS cases; up to 1.9 mean dense granules per platelet were found in those with OCA1. Platelet aggregation studies in OCA1 cases were inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical manifestations of oculocutaneous albinism and easy bruisability may be observed in children with HPS or OCA1. Establishing definitive diagnoses in children presenting with these phenotypic features is facilitated by genetic testing. Non-syndromic oculocutaneous albinism and various HPS subtypes, including HPS-4, are found in children of Chinese ancestry.


Assuntos
Albinismo Oculocutâneo/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Hermanski-Pudlak/diagnóstico , Albinismo Oculocutâneo/etiologia , Albinismo Oculocutâneo/genética , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Plaquetas/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Síndrome de Hermanski-Pudlak/etiologia , Síndrome de Hermanski-Pudlak/genética , Humanos , Hipopigmentação , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Mutação/genética , Linhagem
4.
JCI Insight ; 4(2)2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30674731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) results in reduced melanin synthesis, skin hypopigmentation, increased risk of UV-induced malignancy, and developmental eye abnormalities affecting vision. No treatments exist. We have shown that oral nitisinone increases ocular and fur pigmentation in a mouse model of one form of albinism, OCA-1B, due to hypomorphic mutations in the Tyrosinase gene. METHODS: In this open-label pilot study, 5 adult patients with OCA-1B established baseline measurements of iris, skin, and hair pigmentation and were treated over 12 months with 2 mg/d oral nitisinone. Changes in pigmentation and visual function were evaluated at 3-month intervals. RESULTS: The mean change in iris transillumination, a marker of melanin, from baseline was 1.0 ± 1.54 points, representing no change. The method of iris transillumination grading showed a high intergrader reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 0.88 at each visit). The number of letters read (visual acuity) improved significantly at month 12 for both eyes (right eye, OD, mean 4.2 [95% CI, 0.3, 8.1], P = 0.04) and left eye (OS, 5 [1.0, 9.1], P = 0.003). Skin pigmentation on the inner bicep increased (M index increase = 1.72 [0.03, 3.41], P = 0.047). Finally, hair pigmentation increased by both reflectometry (M index [17.3 {4.4, 30.2}, P = 0.01]) and biochemically. CONCLUSION: Nitisinone did not result in an increase in iris melanin content but may increase hair and skin pigmentation in patients with OCA-1B. The iris transillumination grading scale used in this study proved robust, with potential for use in future clinical trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01838655. FUNDING: Intramural program of the National Eye Institute.

5.
Am J Med Genet A ; : e40514, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30369044

RESUMO

Hermanský-Pudlák syndrome (HPS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder, manifests with oculocutaneous albinism and a bleeding diathesis. However, severity of disease can be variable and is typically related to the genetic subtype of HPS; HPS type 6 (HPS-6) is an uncommon subtype generally associated with mild disease. A Caucasian adult female presented with a history of severe bleeding; ophthalmologic examination indicated occult oculocutaneous albinism. The patient was diagnosed with a platelet storage pool disorder, and platelet whole mount electron microscopy demonstrated absent delta granules. Genome-wide SNP analysis showed regions of homozygosity that included the HPS1 and HPS6 genes. Full length HPS1 transcript was amplified by PCR of genomic DNA. Targeted next-generation sequencing identified a novel homozygous missense variant in HPS6 (c.383 T > C; p.V128A); this was associated with significantly reduced HPS6 mRNA and protein expression in the patient's fibroblasts compared to control cells. These findings highlight the variable severity of disease manifestations in patients with HPS, and illustrate that HPS can be diagnosed in patients with excessive bleeding and occult oculocutaneous albinism. Genetic analysis and platelet electron microscopy are useful diagnostic tests in evaluating patients with suspected HPS. Clinical Trial registration: Registrar: ClinicalTrials.gov Website: www.clinicaltrials.gov Registration Numbers: NCT00001456 and NCT00084305.

6.
Mol Genet Metab ; 125(1-2): 168-173, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055995

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Limited information is available regarding chronic treatment with pirfenidone, an anti-fibrotic drug. Effects of long-term open-label pirfenidone were evaluated in a small cohort with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder with highly penetrant pulmonary fibrosis. RESULTS: Three patients with HPS pulmonary fibrosis treated with open-label pirfenidone and twenty-one historical controls randomized to placebo were studied at a single center. Mean duration of treatment with pirfenidone for 3 patients with HPS pulmonary fibrosis was 13.1 years. Annual changes in FVC and DLCO with pirfenidone treatment were 0.46 and - 0.93% predicted, respectively. In comparison, historical controls randomized to receive placebo experienced mean annual changes in FVC and DLCO of -4.4 and - 2.3% predicted, respectively. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans revealed improved ground glass opacities with development of minimal interstitial reticulations in 1 patient after 12.8 years of treatment with pirfenidone. Slowly progressive increase in bilateral interstitial fibrosis developed in a different patient, who received pirfenidone for 18.1 years and died at 73 years of age due to HPS pulmonary fibrosis. Another patient treated with pirfenidone for 8.4 years had attenuated ground glass opacification on HRCT scan and improved oxygenation; this patient died due to chronic complications from colitis, and not pulmonary fibrosis. Adverse effects were generally limited to mild gastrointestinal discomfort and transient elevations of alanine aminotransferase in one patient. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic treatment with pirfenidone may provide clinical benefit with few adverse effects for some patients with HPS pulmonary fibrosis. These results suggest that compassionate use of pirfenidone could be considered on a case-by-case basis for patients with HPS pulmonary fibrosis.

7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(3): 914-927.e6, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29241728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a rare disorder caused by biallelic mutations in the lysosomal trafficking regulator gene (LYST), resulting in formation of giant lysosomes or lysosome-related organelles in several cell types. The disease is characterized by immunodeficiency and a fatal hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis caused by impaired function of cytotoxic lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) cells. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the underlying biochemical cause of the impaired cytotoxicity of NK cells in patients with CHS. METHODS: We generated a human cell model of CHS using Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) technology. We used a combination of classical techniques to evaluate lysosomal function and cell activity in the model system and super-resolution microscopy to visualize F-actin and lytic granules in normal and LYST-deficient NK cells. RESULTS: Loss of LYST function in a human NK cell line, NK92mi, resulted in inhibition of NK cell cytotoxicity and reproduced other aspects of the CHS cellular phenotype, including the presence of significantly enlarged lytic granules with defective exocytosis and impaired integrity of endolysosomal compartments. The large granules had an acidic pH and normal activity of lysosomal enzymes and were positive for the proteins essential for lytic granule exocytosis. Visualization of the actin meshwork openings at the immunologic synapse revealed that the cortical actin acts as a barrier for secretion of such large granules at the cell-cell contact site. Decreasing the cortical actin density at the immunologic synapse or decreasing the lytic granule size restored the ability of LYST-deficient NK cells to degranulate and kill target cells. CONCLUSION: The cortical actin and granule size play significant roles in NK cell cytotoxic function. We present evidence that the periodicity of subsynaptic actin is an important factor limiting the release of large lytic granules from NK cells from patients with CHS and could be a novel target for pharmaceutical intervention.

8.
Front Immunol ; 8: 426, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28458669

RESUMO

Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in LYST, resulting in enlarged lysosomal compartments in multiple cell types. CHS patients display oculocutaneous albinism and may develop life-threatening hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). While NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity has been reported to be uniformly defective, variable defects in T cell-mediated cytotoxicity has been observed. The latter has been linked to the degree of HLH susceptibility. Since the discrepancies in NK cell- and T cell-mediated cellular cytotoxicity might result from differences in regulation of cytotoxic granule release, we here evaluated perforin-containing secretory lysosome size and number in freshly isolated lymphocytes from CHS patients and furthermore compared their exocytic capacities. Whereas NK cells from CHS patients generally contained a single, gigantic perforin-containing granule, cytotoxic T cells predominantly contained several smaller granules. Nonetheless, in a cohort of 21 CHS patients, cytotoxic T cell and NK cell granule exocytosis were similarly impaired upon activating receptor stimulation. Mechanistically, polarization of cytotoxic granules was defective in cytotoxic lymphocytes from CHS patients, with EEA1, a marker of early endosomes, mislocalizing to lysosomal structures. The results leads to the conclusion that lysosome enlargement corresponds to loss of distinct organelle identity in the endocytic pathway, which on a subcellular level more adversely affects NK cells than T cells. Hence, vesicular size or numbers do not per se dictate the impairment of lysosomal exocytosis in the two cell types studied.

9.
Neurology ; 88(7): e57-e65, 2017 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28193763

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To delineate the developmental and progressive neurodegenerative features in 9 young adults with the atypical form of Chediak-Higashi disease (CHD) enrolled in a natural history study. METHODS: Patients with atypical clinical features, but diagnostically confirmed CHD by standard evaluation of blood smears and molecular genotyping, underwent complete neurologic evaluation, MRI of the brain, electrophysiologic examination, and neuropsychological testing. Fibroblasts were collected to investigate the cellular phenotype and correlation with the clinical presentation. RESULTS: In 9 mildly affected patients with CHD, we documented learning and behavioral difficulties along with developmental structural abnormalities of the cerebellum and posterior fossa, which are apparent early in childhood. A range of progressive neurologic problems emerge in early adulthood, including cerebellar deficits, polyneuropathies, spasticity, cognitive decline, and parkinsonism. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with undiagnosed atypical CHD manifesting some of these wide-ranging yet nonspecific neurologic complaints may reside in general and specialty neurology clinics. The absence of the typical bleeding or infectious diathesis in mildly affected patients with CHD renders them difficult to diagnose. Identification of these individuals is important not only for close surveillance of potential CHD-related systemic complications but also for a full understanding of the natural history of CHD and the potential role of the disease-causing protein, LYST, to the pathophysiology of other neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders.

10.
Hum Genet ; 136(4): 409-420, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28213671

RESUMO

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, intellectual disability (ID), and sleep disturbances, results from a 17p11.2 microdeletion or a mutation in the RAI1 gene. We performed exome sequencing on 6 patients with SMS-like phenotypes but without chromosomal abnormalities or RAI1 variants. We identified pathogenic de novo variants in two cases, a nonsense variant in IQSEC2 and a missense variant in the SAND domain of DEAF1, and candidate de novo missense variants in an additional two cases. One candidate variant was located in an alpha helix of Necdin (NDN), phased to the paternally inherited allele. NDN is maternally imprinted within the 15q11.2 Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) region. This can help clarify NDN's role in the PWS phenotype. No definitive pathogenic gene variants were detected in the remaining SMS-like cases, but we report our findings for future comparison. This study provides information about the inheritance pattern and recurrence risk for patients with identified variants and demonstrates clinical and genetic overlap of neurodevelopmental disorders. Identification and characterization of ID-related genes that assist in development of common developmental pathways and/or gene-networks, may inform disease mechanism and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Exoma , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
11.
Muscle Nerve ; 55(3): 359-365, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27429304

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chediak-Higashi disease (CHD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with hematologic, infectious, pigmentary, and neurologic manifestations. Classic CHD (C-CHD) presents in early childhood with severe infectious or hematologic complications unless treated with bone marrow transplantation. Atypical CHD (A-CHD) has less severe hematologic and infectious manifestations. Both C-CHD and A-CHD develop neurological problems. METHODS: Eighteen patients with CHD (9 A-CHD and 9 C-CHD) underwent electrodiagnostic studies as part of a natural history study (NCT 00005917). Longitudinal studies were available for 10 patients. RESULTS: All A-CHD patients had either sensory neuropathy, sensorimotor neuropathy, and/or diffuse neurogenic findings. In C-CHD, 3 adults had sensorimotor neuropathies with diffuse neurogenic findings, and 1 adult had a sensory neuropathy. The 5 children with C-CHD had normal electrodiagnostic findings. CONCLUSIONS: CHD can result in sensory or sensorimotor neuropathies and/or a diffuse motor neuronopathy. It may take 2-3 decades for the neuropathic findings to develop, because children appear to be spared. Muscle Nerve 55: 359-365, 2017.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Síndrome de Chediak-Higashi/patologia , Condução Nervosa/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Periférico/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
JIMD Rep ; 30: 45-52, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26960557

RESUMO

We sought to establish rapid and specific genotyping methods for G360R mutation and for seven tightly linked markers in the homogentisate dioxygenase gene to address the question of whether G360R is a mutational hot spot or the result of a founder effect, as it has been repeatedly found in alkaptonuric patients from a geographic isolate in Italy.For G360R and single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping, high-resolution melting analysis was performed. Microsatellites were analysed by multiplex PCR and capillary electrophoresis. To investigate the natural history of the G360R mutation, we genotyped markers in 52 controls and in 8 unrelated patients from the UK and USA, who also segregated the G360R mutation, and calculated its age using DMLE+2.3 software.A distinct G360R-bearing haplotype was identified in all patients of Caucasian descent. Estimated mutation age was 545 generations (95% credible set, 402-854), suggesting that G360R arose in an ancestor who lived 8,000-10,000 years BC. Archaeological, historical and demographic data support that a G360R carrier has settled the remote valley where present-day population might have a heterozygote frequency of at least 6%.Given the late health-threatening complications of alkaptonuria and a cure within reach, inhabitants of this isolate would benefit from screening and genetic counselling.

13.
Neurology ; 86(14): 1320-8, 2016 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26944273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To delineate the developmental and progressive neurodegenerative features in 9 young adults with the atypical form of Chediak-Higashi disease (CHD) enrolled in a natural history study. METHODS: Patients with atypical clinical features, but diagnostically confirmed CHD by standard evaluation of blood smears and molecular genotyping, underwent complete neurologic evaluation, MRI of the brain, electrophysiologic examination, and neuropsychological testing. Fibroblasts were collected to investigate the cellular phenotype and correlation with the clinical presentation. RESULTS: In 9 mildly affected patients with CHD, we documented learning and behavioral difficulties along with developmental structural abnormalities of the cerebellum and posterior fossa, which are apparent early in childhood. A range of progressive neurologic problems emerge in early adulthood, including cerebellar deficits, polyneuropathies, spasticity, cognitive decline, and parkinsonism. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with undiagnosed atypical CHD manifesting some of these wide-ranging yet nonspecific neurologic complaints may reside in general and specialty neurology clinics. The absence of the typical bleeding or infectious diathesis in mildly affected patients with CHD renders them difficult to diagnose. Identification of these individuals is important not only for close surveillance of potential CHD-related systemic complications but also for a full understanding of the natural history of CHD and the potential role of the disease-causing protein, LYST, to the pathophysiology of other neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/patologia , Síndrome de Chediak-Higashi , Transtornos de Aprendizagem , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Adolescente , Adulto , Síndrome de Chediak-Higashi/complicações , Síndrome de Chediak-Higashi/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Chediak-Higashi/genética , Fossa Craniana Posterior/patologia , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Transtornos de Aprendizagem/etiologia , Transtornos de Aprendizagem/patologia , Transtornos de Aprendizagem/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 137(4): 1165-1177, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26478006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) cause Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), a rare immunodeficiency with impaired cytotoxic lymphocyte function, mainly that of natural killer (NK) cells. Our understanding of NK cell function deficiency in patients with CHS and how LYST regulates lytic granule exocytosis is very limited. OBJECTIVE: We sought to delineate cellular defects associated with LYST mutations responsible for the impaired NK cell function seen in patients with CHS. METHODS: We analyzed NK cells from patients with CHS with missense mutations in the LYST ARM/HEAT (armadillo/huntingtin, elongation factor 3, protein phosphatase 2A, and the yeast kinase TOR1) or BEACH (beige and Chediak-Higashi) domains. RESULTS: NK cells from patients with CHS displayed severely reduced cytotoxicity. Mutations in the ARM/HEAT domain led to a reduced number of perforin-containing granules, which were significantly increased in size but able to polarize to the immunologic synapse; however, they were unable to properly fuse with the plasma membrane. Mutations in the BEACH domain resulted in formation of normal or slightly enlarged granules that had markedly impaired polarization to the IS but could be exocytosed on reaching the immunologic synapse. Perforin-containing granules in NK cells from patients with CHS did not acquire certain lysosomal markers (lysosome-associated membrane protein 1/2) but were positive for markers of transport vesicles (cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor), late endosomes (Ras-associated binding protein 27a), and, to some extent, early endosomes (early endosome antigen 1), indicating a lack of integrity in the endolysosomal compartments. NK cells from patients with CHS had normal cytokine compartments and cytokine secretion. CONCLUSION: LYST is involved in regulation of multiple aspects of NK cell lytic activity, ranging from governance of lytic granule size to control of their polarization and exocytosis, as well as regulation of endolysosomal compartment identity. LYST functions in the regulated exocytosis but not in the constitutive secretion pathway.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Chediak-Higashi/fisiopatologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Exocitose/fisiologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Adulto , Síndrome de Chediak-Higashi/genética , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/fisiologia
15.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 8: 46, 2013 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23521865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in LYST, a gene encoding a putative lysosomal trafficking protein, cause Chédiak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), an autosomal recessive disorder typically characterized by infantile-onset hemophagocytic syndrome and immunodeficiency, and oculocutaneous albinism. A small number of reports of rare, attenuated forms of CHS exist, with affected individuals exhibiting progressive neurodegenerative disease beginning in early adulthood with cognitive decline, parkinsonism, features of spinocerebellar degeneration, and peripheral neuropathy, as well as subtle pigmentary abnormalities and subclinical or absent immune dysfunction. METHODS: In a consanguineous Pakistani kindred with clinical phenotypes consistent with attenuated CHS, we performed SNP array-based homozygosity mapping and whole gene sequencing of LYST. RESULTS: We identified three individuals homozygous for a novel six base pair in-frame deletion in LYST (c.9827_9832ATACAA), predicting the loss of asparagine and threonine residues from the LYST transcript (p.Asn3276_Thr3277del), and segregating with the phenotype in this family. CONCLUSIONS: We further characterize the neurologic features of the attenuated form of CHS, and discuss pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the neurodegenerative components of CHS. Attenuated CHS is phenotypically heterogenous and should be considered when young adults develop neurodegenerative disease and have pigmentary abnormalities. We briefly discuss surveillance and management of patients with CHS-related neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Chediak-Higashi/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Irmãos , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Paquistão , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
Mol Genet Metab ; 105(2): 198-202, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22100375

RESUMO

Alkaptonuria is a rare metabolic disorder of tyrosine catabolism in which homogentisic acid (HGA) accumulates and is deposited throughout the spine, large joints, cardiovascular system, and various tissues throughout the body. In the cardiovascular system, pigment deposition has been described in the heart valves, endocardium, pericardium, aortic intima and coronary arteries. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease in patients with alkaptonuria varies in previous reports. We present a series of 76 consecutive adult patients with alkaptonuria who underwent transthoracic echocardiography between 2000 and 2009. A subgroup of 40 patients enrolled in a treatment study underwent non-contrast CT scans and these were assessed for vascular calcifications. Six of the 76 patients had aortic valve replacement. In the remaining 70 patients, 12 patients had aortic sclerosis and 7 patients had aortic stenosis. Unlike degenerative aortic valve disease, we found no correlation with standard cardiac risk factors. There was a modest association between the severity of aortic valve disease and joint involvement, however, we saw no correlation with urine HGA levels. Vascular calcifications were seen in the coronaries, cardiac valves, aortic root, descending aorta and iliac arteries. These findings suggest an important role for echocardiographic screening of alkaptonuria patients to detect valvular heart disease and cardiac CT to detect coronary artery calcifications.


Assuntos
Alcaptonúria/metabolismo , Alcaptonúria/patologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/patologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/patologia , Ácido Homogentísico/metabolismo , Tirosina/metabolismo , Calcificação Vascular/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alcaptonúria/complicações , Alcaptonúria/epidemiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Ácido Homogentísico/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Tirosina/genética , Calcificação Vascular/complicações , Calcificação Vascular/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 6(8): e22861, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21857958

RESUMO

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex neurobehavioral disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies. The syndrome is primarily ascribed to a ∼3.7 Mb de novo deletion on chromosome 17p11.2. Haploinsufficiency of multiple genes likely underlies the complex clinical phenotype. RAI1 (Retinoic Acid Induced 1) is recognized as a major gene involved in the SMS phenotype. Extensive genetic and clinical analyses of 36 patients with SMS-like features, but without the 17p11.2 microdeletion, yielded 10 patients with RAI1 variants, including 4 with de novo deleterious mutations, and 6 with novel missense variants, 5 of which were familial. Haplotype analysis showed two major RAI1 haplotypes in our primarily Caucasian cohort; the novel RAI1 variants did not occur in a preferred haplotype. RNA analysis revealed that RAI1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in cells of patients with the common 17p11.2 deletion, as well as in those with de novo RAI1 variants. Expression levels varied in patients with familial RAI1 variants and in non-17p11.2 deleted patients without identified RAI1 defects. No correlation between SNP haplotype and RAI1 expression was found. Two clinical features, ocular abnormalities and polyembolokoilomania (object insertion), were significantly correlated with decreased RAI1 expression. While not significantly correlated, the presence of hearing loss, seizures, hoarse voice, childhood onset of obesity and specific behavioral aspects and the absence of immunologic abnormalities and cardiovascular or renal structural anomalies, appeared to be specific for the de novo RAI1 subgroup. Recognition of the combination of these features will assist in referral for RAI1 analysis of patients with SMS-like features without detectable microdeletion of 17p11.2. Moreover, RAI1 expression emerged as a genetic target for development of therapeutic interventions for SMS.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Bases , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/patologia
19.
Mol Genet Metab ; 103(4): 307-14, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21620748

RESUMO

Alkaptonuria is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder of tyrosine degradation due to deficiency of the third enzyme in the catabolic pathway. As a result, homogentisic acid (HGA) accumulates and is excreted in gram quantities in the urine, which turns dark upon alkalization. The first symptoms, occurring in early adulthood, involve a painful, progressively debilitating arthritis of the spine and large joints. Cardiac valvular disease and renal and prostate stones occur later. Previously suggested therapies have failed to show benefit, and management remains symptomatic. Nitisinone, a potent inhibitor of the second enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway, is considered a potential therapy; proof-of-principle studies showed 95% reduction in urinary HGA. Based on those findings, a prospective, randomized clinical trial was initiated in 2005 to evaluate 40 patients over a 36-month period. The primary outcome parameter was hip total range of motion with measures of musculoskeletal function serving as secondary parameters. Biochemically, this study consistently demonstrated 95% reduction of HGA in urine and plasma over the course of 3 years. Clinically, primary and secondary parameters did not prove benefit from the medication. Side effects were infrequent. This trial illustrates the remarkable tolerability of nitisinone, its biochemical efficacy, and the need to investigate its use in younger individuals prior to development of debilitating arthritis.


Assuntos
4-Hidroxifenilpiruvato Dioxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Alcaptonúria/tratamento farmacológico , Cicloexanonas/uso terapêutico , Nitrobenzoatos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Alcaptonúria/sangue , Alcaptonúria/urina , Ácido Homogentísico/sangue , Ácido Homogentísico/urina , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Tirosina/metabolismo
20.
N Engl J Med ; 358(6): 592-604, 2008 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18256394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome is a rare, sporadic, autosomal dominant syndrome that involves premature aging, generally leading to death at approximately 13 years of age due to myocardial infarction or stroke. The genetic basis of most cases of this syndrome is a change from glycine GGC to glycine GGT in codon 608 of the lamin A (LMNA) gene, which activates a cryptic splice donor site to produce abnormal lamin A; this disrupts the nuclear membrane and alters transcription. METHODS: We enrolled 15 children between 1 and 17 years of age, representing nearly half of the world's known patients with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, in a comprehensive clinical protocol between February 2005 and May 2006. RESULTS: Clinical investigations confirmed sclerotic skin, joint contractures, bone abnormalities, alopecia, and growth impairment in all 15 patients; cardiovascular and central nervous system sequelae were also documented. Previously unrecognized findings included prolonged prothrombin times, elevated platelet counts and serum phosphorus levels, measured reductions in joint range of motion, low-frequency conductive hearing loss, and functional oral deficits. Growth impairment was not related to inadequate nutrition, insulin unresponsiveness, or growth hormone deficiency. Growth hormone treatment in a few patients increased height growth by 10% and weight growth by 50%. Cardiovascular studies revealed diminishing vascular function with age, including elevated blood pressure, reduced vascular compliance, decreased ankle-brachial indexes, and adventitial thickening. CONCLUSIONS: Establishing the detailed phenotype of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome is important because advances in understanding this syndrome may offer insight into normal aging. Abnormal lamin A (progerin) appears to accumulate with aging in normal cells. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00094393.)


Assuntos
Fenótipo , Progéria/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Análise Química do Sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Crescimento , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Progéria/sangue , Progéria/patologia
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