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1.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227432

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the association of the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Risk Score for Heart Failure in Diabetes (TRS-HFDM ) with mortality using data from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In EMPA-REG OUTCOME, patients with type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease (N = 7020) received the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor, empagliflozin, 10 or 25 mg or placebo. Post hoc, patients were stratified into risk categories (low-intermediate, high, very-high risk scores) using baseline TRS-HFDM . Cox regression analyses evaluated the association of TRS-HFDM categories with all-cause mortality (ACM), CV death, hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) and CV death (excluding fatal stroke) or HHF, and whether empagliflozin reduced the risk of CV outcomes across these risk categories. RESULTS: In placebo patients, increasing risk category was associated with a higher risk of ACM, CV death, and HHF. Empagliflozin reduced the risk of ACM (low-intermediate HR 0.68 [95% CI 0.48, 0.97] and very-high 0.69 [0.52, 0.91]), CV death (0.75 [0.48, 1.18] and 0.56 [0.41, 0.78]), HHF (0.53 [0.28, 1.01] and 0.67 [0.48, 0.96]), and CV death or HHF (0.69 [0.46, 1.03]) and (0.64 [0.49, 0.82]) across all risk categories versus placebo. Higher absolute risk reductions (ARRs) were observed for CV death in the very-high versus low-intermediate category (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Applied to EMPA-REG OUTCOME, higher TRS-HFDM was associated with increased HHF and mortality risk. Empagliflozin reduced CV outcomes across TRS-HFDM categories. Higher ARRs were associated with higher risk scores.

2.
Endocrine ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162185

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is an essential tool in the diagnosis and management of pituitary diseases, indispensable for making correct treatment decisions. Successful management and follow-up of pituitary pathology requires an understanding of the MR appearance of normal and abnormal structures in the sellar region. This review will describe the MR appearance of the normal and abnormal pituitary gland and proposes an algorithm for the management strategy of some of the most common abnormalities in or around the sella.

3.
JAMA ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219386

RESUMO

Importance: Additional treatments are needed for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors may be an effective treatment for patients with HFrEF, even those without diabetes. Objective: To evaluate the effects of dapagliflozin in patients with HFrEF with and without diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Exploratory analysis of a phase 3 randomized trial conducted at 410 sites in 20 countries. Patients with New York Heart Association classification II to IV with an ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% and elevated plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide were enrolled between February 15, 2017, and August 17, 2018, with final follow-up on June 6, 2019. Interventions: Addition of once-daily 10 mg of dapagliflozin or placebo to recommended therapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the composite of an episode of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death. This outcome was analyzed by baseline diabetes status and, in patients without diabetes, by glycated hemoglobin level less than 5.7% vs greater than or equal to 5.7%. Results: Among 4744 patients randomized (mean age, 66 years; 1109 [23%] women; 2605 [55%] without diabetes), 4742 completed the trial. Among participants without diabetes, the primary outcome occurred in 171 of 1298 (13.2%) in the dapagliflozin group and 231 of 1307 (17.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.60-0.88]). In patients with diabetes, the primary outcome occurred in 215 of 1075 (20.0%) in the dapagliflozin group and 271 of 1064 (25.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.63-0.90]) (P value for interaction = .80). Among patients without diabetes and a glycated hemoglobin level less than 5.7%, the primary outcome occurred in 53 of 438 patients (12.1%) in the dapagliflozin group and 71 of 419 (16.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.47-0.96]). In patients with a glycated hemoglobin of at least 5.7%, the primary outcome occurred in 118 of 860 patients (13.7%) in the dapagliflozin group and 160 of 888 (18.0%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.59-0.94]) (P value for interaction = .72). Volume depletion was reported as an adverse event in 7.3% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 6.1% in the placebo group among patients without diabetes and in 7.8% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 7.8% in the placebo group among patients with diabetes. A kidney adverse event was reported in 4.8% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 6.0% in the placebo group among patients without diabetes and in 8.5% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 8.7% in the placebo group among patients with diabetes. Conclusions and Relevance: In this exploratory analysis of a randomized trial of patients with HFrEF, dapagliflozin compared with placebo, when added to recommended therapy, significantly reduced the risk of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death independently of diabetes status. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03036124.

4.
Eur Heart J ; 2020 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221582

RESUMO

AIMS: In the DAPA-HF trial, the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin reduced the risk of worsening heart failure (HF) and death in patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction. We examined whether this benefit was consistent in relation to background HF therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this post hoc analysis, we examined the effect of study treatment in the following yes/no subgroups: diuretic, digoxin, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA), sacubitril/valsartan, ivabradine, implanted cardioverter-defibrillating (ICD) device, and cardiac resynchronization therapy. We also examined the effect of study drug according to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker dose, beta-blocker (BB) dose, and MRA (≥50% and <50% of target dose). We analysed the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular death or a worsening HF event. Most randomized patients (n = 4744) were treated with a diuretic (84%), renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blocker (94%), and BB (96%); 52% of those taking a BB and 38% taking a RAS blocker were treated with ≥50% of the recommended dose. Overall, the dapagliflozin vs. placebo hazard ratio (HR) was 0.74 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65-0.85] for the primary composite endpoint (P < 0.0001). The effect of dapagliflozin was consistent across all subgroups examined: the HR ranged from 0.57 to 0.86 for primary endpoint, with no significant randomized treatment-by-subgroup interaction. For example, the HR in patients taking a RAS blocker, BB, and MRA at baseline was 0.72 (95% CI 0.61-0.86) compared with 0.77 (95% CI 0.63-0.94) in those not on all three of these treatments (P-interaction 0.64). CONCLUSION: The benefit of dapagliflozin was consistent regardless of background therapy for HF.

5.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030863

RESUMO

In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, we explored the association between pre-randomization uric acid level tertile (<309.30 µmol/L; 309.30 to <387.21 µmol/L; ≥387.21 µmol/L) and cardiovascular (CV) death, hospitalization for heart failure (HHF), HHF or CV death, all-cause mortality, three-point major adverse CV events (MACE), and incident or worsening nephropathy. Patients with type 2 diabetes and CV disease received empagliflozin or placebo. The median baseline plasma uric acid level was 344.98 µmol/L, and patients' baseline characteristics were mainly balanced across tertiles. Baseline uric acid levels were associated with cardio-renal outcomes: in the placebo group, for the highest versus lowest tertile, the multivariable hazard ratios for three-point MACE, HHF or CV death, and incident or worsening nephropathy were 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-1.67; P = 0.2088), 1.51 (95% CI 1.02-2.23; P = 0.0396) and 1.77 (95% CI 1.33-2.34; P < 0.0001), respectively. When tested as a continuous variable, baseline uric acid was associated with all outcomes in the placebo group. Empagliflozin improved all cardio-renal outcomes across tertiles, with all interaction P values >0.05. Further investigation of these relationships is required.

7.
Circulation ; 141(2): 100-111, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The DAPA-HF trial (Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse-Outcomes in Heart Failure) showed that dapagliflozin added to other guideline-recommended therapies reduced the risk of mortality and heart failure hospitalization and improved symptoms in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. We examined the effects of dapagliflozin according to age, given potential concerns about the efficacy and safety of therapies in the elderly. METHODS: Patients in New York Heart Association functional class II or greater with a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% and a modest elevation of NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) were eligible. Key exclusion criteria included systolic blood pressure <95 mm Hg and estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2. The primary outcome was the composite of an episode of worsening heart failure (heart failure hospitalization or urgent heart failure visit) or cardiovascular death, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: A total of 4744 patients 22 to 94 years of age (mean age, 66.3 [SD 10.9] years) were randomized: 636 patients (13.4%) were <55 years of age, 1242 (26.2%) were 55 to 64 years of age, 1717 (36.2%) were 65 to 74 years of age, and 1149 (24.2%) were ≥75 years of age. The rate of the primary outcome (per 100 person-years, placebo arm) in each age group was 13.6 (95% CI, 10.4-17.9), 15.7 (95% CI, 13.2-18.7), 15.1 (95% CI, 13.1-17.5), and 18.0 (95% CI, 15.2-21.4) with corresponding dapagliflozin/placebo hazard ratios of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.60-1.28), 0.71 (95% CI, 0.55-0.93), 0.76 (95% CI, 0.61-0.95), and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.53-0.88; P for interaction=0.76). Consistent benefits were observed for the components of the primary outcome, all-cause mortality, and symptoms. Although adverse events and study drug discontinuation increased with age, neither was significantly more common with dapagliflozin in any age group. CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of death and worsening heart failure and improved symptoms across the broad spectrum of age studied in DAPA-HF. There was no significant imbalance in tolerability or safety events between dapagliflozin and placebo, even in elderly individuals. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03036124.

8.
Circulation ; 141(2): 90-99, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Goals of management in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction include reducing death and hospitalizations, and improving health status (symptoms, physical function, and quality of life). In the DAPA-HF trial (Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse-Outcomes in Heart Failure), sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin, reduced death and hospitalizations, and improved symptoms in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. In this analysis, we examine the effects of dapagliflozin on a broad range of health status outcomes, using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ). METHODS: KCCQ was evaluated at randomization, 4 and 8 months. Patients were divided by baseline KCCQ total symptom score (TSS); Cox proportional hazards models examined the effects of dapagliflozin on clinical events across these subgroups. We also evaluated the effects of dapagliflozin on KCCQ-TSS, clinical summary score, and overall summary score. Responder analyses were performed to compare proportions of dapagliflozin versus placebo-treated patients with clinically meaningful changes in KCCQ at 8 months. RESULTS: A total of 4443 patients had available KCCQ at baseline (median KCCQ-TSS, 77.1 [interquartile range, 58.3-91.7]). The effects of dapagliflozin vs placebo on reducing cardiovascular death or worsening heart failure were consistent across the range of KCCQ-TSS (lowest to highest tertile: hazard ratio, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.57-0.86]; hazard ratio, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.61-0.98]; hazard ratio, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.46-0.83]; P for heterogeneity=0.52). Patients treated with dapagliflozin had greater improvement in mean KCCQ-TSS, clinical summary score, and overall summary score at 8 months (2.8, 2.5 and 2.3 points higher versus placebo; P<0.0001 for all). Fewer patients treated with dapagliflozin had a deterioration in KCCQ-TSS (odds ratio, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.78-0.90]; P<0.0001); and more patients had at least small, moderate, and large improvements (odds ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.08-1.23]; odds ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.08-1.22]; odds ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.07-1.22]; number needed to treat=14, 15, and 18, respectively; P<0.0001 for all; results consistent for KCCQ clinical summary score and overall summary score). CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin reduced cardiovascular death and worsening heart failure across the range of baseline KCCQ, and improved symptoms, physical function, and quality of life in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Furthermore, dapagliflozin increased the proportion of patients experiencing at least small, moderate, and large improvements in health status; these effects were clinically important. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03036124.

9.
Eur Heart J ; 41(2): 209-217, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504427

RESUMO

AIMS: Hypoglycaemia, in patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) events. In EMPA-REG OUTCOME, the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor empagliflozin reduced the risk of CV death by 38% and heart failure hospitalization (HHF) by 35%, while decreasing glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) without increasing hypoglycaemia. We investigated CV outcomes in patients with hypoglycaemia during the trial and the impact of hypoglycaemia on the treatment effect of empagliflozin. METHODS AND RESULTS: About 7020 patients with T2D (HbA1c 7-10%) were treated with empagliflozin 10 or 25 mg, or placebo and followed for median 3.1 years. The relationship between on-trial hypoglycaemia and CV outcomes, and effects of empagliflozin on outcomes by incident hypoglycaemia [HYPO-broad: symptomatic hypoglycaemia with plasma glucose (PG) ≤70 mg/dL, any hypoglycaemia with PG <54 mg/dL, or severe hypoglycaemia, and HYPO-strict: hypoglycaemia with PG <54 mg/dL, or severe hypoglycaemia] was investigated using adjusted Cox regression models with time-varying covariates for hypoglycaemia and interaction with treatment. HYPO-broad occurred in 28% in each group and HYPO-strict in 19%. In the placebo group, hypoglycaemia was associated with an increased risk of HHF for both HYPO-broad [hazard ratio (HR, 95% confidence interval, CI) 1.91 (1.25-2.93)] and HYPO-strict [1.72 (1.06-2.78)]. HYPO-broad (but not HYPO-strict) was associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) [HR 1.56 (1.06-2.29)]. Empagliflozin improved CV outcomes, regardless of occurrence of hypoglycaemia (P-for interactions >0.05). CONCLUSION: In this post hoc exploratory analysis, hypoglycaemia was associated with an increased risk of HHF and MI. Hypoglycaemia risk was not increased with empagliflozin and incident hypoglycaemia did not attenuate its cardio-protective effects.

10.
Diabetes Care ; 43(1): 244-246, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) revised metformin's label to permit use in patients with mild-moderate chronic kidney disease. We sought to determine whether this change was associated with increased reports of metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA) to the FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Publicly available FAERS reports were analyzed. RESULTS: MALA reports increased from 521 in 2015 to 1,939 in 2018. After restriction to U.S. reports, absolute and relative increase in MALA reports was less, from 111 to 243. The proportionate reporting ratio (PRR), a measure adjusted for rates of other adverse event reports, was stable. CONCLUSIONS: The increased reports deserve attention, but the PRR's stability and FAERS's known limitations, including lack of a denominator or control group, do not permit the conclusion that U.S. MALA rates have increased. Further study with more robust data sources is needed.

11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(1): 126-135, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820559

RESUMO

AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common in patients with diabetes and heart failure (HF) and increases the future risk of adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. This analysis from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial explores CV and renal outcomes in patients with vs. without AF at baseline and assesses the benefits of empagliflozin. METHODS AND RESULTS: Analyses were conducted on patients distinguished by the presence (n = 389) or absence (n = 6631) of AF at baseline. Outcome events were more frequent in patients with AF than those without AF. Empagliflozin compared to placebo reduced CV death or HF hospitalisation consistently in patients with AF [hazard ratio (HR) 0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36-0.92] and without AF (HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.55-0.82, Pinteraction  = 0.56). Similar results were observed for the components of this endpoint, all-cause mortality, new or worsening nephropathy, first introduction of loop diuretics, or occurrence of oedema. The absolute number of prevented events was higher in patients with AF, resulting in larger absolute treatment effects of empagliflozin. New loop diuretics or oedema were associated with increased rates of subsequent events, and rates appeared lower in those randomised to empagliflozin. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established CV disease, those with AF at baseline had higher rates of adverse HF outcomes than those without AF. Irrespective of the presence of AF, empagliflozin reduced HF-related and renal events. The absolute number of prevented events is higher in patients with AF than without AF. Patients with diabetes, CV disease and AF may especially benefit from use of empagliflozin.

12.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789445

RESUMO

AIMS: In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial, the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin when given in addition to standard care improved cardiovascular (CV) and renal outcomes, and reduced mortality. Trial participants were on a variety of glucose-lowering therapies at baseline, some of which could potentially affect CV risk. This analysis investigated whether the use of background diabetes therapy affected the risk of CV death, hospitalizations for heart failure, and progression of chronic kidney disease, among patients treated with empagliflozin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomized to placebo, empagliflozin 10 mg or empagliflozin 25 mg; glucose-lowering therapy was to remain unchanged for 12 weeks and then adjusted to achieve glycaemic control according to local guidelines. Differences in risk of cardio-renal outcomes between empagliflozin and placebo by baseline use of metformin, sulphonylurea (SU) and insulin were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Of 7020 eligible patients, 74% were receiving metformin, 43% SU and 48% insulin at baseline (each alone or in combination); the most common regimens were metformin plus SU (20%) and metformin plus insulin (20%). Empagliflozin reduced the risk of CV death irrespective of the use of: metformin [with: hazard ratio (HR) 0.71 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.54-0.94); without: 0.46 (0.32-0.68); Pinteraction = 0.07]; SU [with: HR 0.64 (0.44-0.92); without: 0.61 (0.46-0.81); Pinteraction = 0.85]; or insulin [with: HR 0.63 (0.46-0.85); without: 0.61 (0.44-0.85); Pinteraction = 0.92]. Reductions in three-point major adverse CV events, hospitalizations for heart failure, and all-cause mortality were consistent across subgroups of baseline therapies. Empagliflozin reduced the risks of incident or worsening nephropathy versus placebo irrespective of the use of SU or insulin at baseline (Pinteraction > 0.05), but there was a greater reduction in this risk for patients not using metformin [HR 0.47 (95% CI 0.37-0.59)] versus those using metformin [HR 0.68 (95% CI 0.58-0.79)] at baseline (Pinteraction = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The addition of empagliflozin to antihyperglycaemic regimens of patients with type 2 diabetes and CV disease consistently reduced their risks of adverse CV outcomes and mortality irrespective of baseline use of metformin, SU or insulin. For chronic kidney disease progression, there may be a larger benefit from empagliflozin in those patients who are not using metformin.

13.
Age Ageing ; 48(6): 859-866, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579904

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The risks of cardio-renal complications of diabetes increase with age. In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial, empagliflozin reduced cardiovascular (CV) mortality by 38% in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and CV disease. Here we compare outcomes with empagliflozin in older patients in EMPA-REG OUTCOME. METHODS: Patients with T2D and CV disease were randomised to empagliflozin 10 or 25 mg, or placebo plus standard of care. In post hoc analyses, risks of 3-point major adverse CV events (3P-MACE: composite of CV death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) or non-fatal stroke), CV death, hospitalisation for heart failure, all-cause mortality, all-cause hospitalisation and incident/worsening nephropathy were evaluated for empagliflozin versus placebo by baseline age (<65, 65 to <75, ≥75 years). Adverse events (AEs) were analysed descriptively. RESULTS: Effect of empagliflozin on all outcomes was consistent across age categories (P ≥ 0.05 for interactions) except 3P-MACE. The 3P-MACE hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84, 1.29), 0.74 (0.58, 0.93) and 0.68 (0.46, 1.00) in patients aged <65, 65 to <75, and ≥75 years, respectively (P = 0.047 for treatment-by-age group interaction). Corresponding CV death HRs were 0.72 (95% CI 0.52, 1.01), 0.54 (0.37, 0.79) and 0.55 (0.32, 0.94), respectively (P = 0.484 for treatment-by-age group interaction). Across age categories, empagliflozin AEs reflected its known safety profile. Rates of bone fractures, renal AEs and diabetic ketoacidosis were similar between empagliflozin and placebo across age categories. CONCLUSIONS: In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, empagliflozin reduced risks of CV mortality, heart failure and renal outcomes, supporting its cardio-renal benefits in older patients.

14.
N Engl J Med ; 381(21): 1995-2008, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with type 2 diabetes, inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) reduce the risk of a first hospitalization for heart failure, possibly through glucose-independent mechanisms. More data are needed regarding the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with established heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, regardless of the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this phase 3, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 4744 patients with New York Heart Association class II, III, or IV heart failure and an ejection fraction of 40% or less to receive either dapagliflozin (at a dose of 10 mg once daily) or placebo, in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of worsening heart failure (hospitalization or an urgent visit resulting in intravenous therapy for heart failure) or cardiovascular death. RESULTS: Over a median of 18.2 months, the primary outcome occurred in 386 of 2373 patients (16.3%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 502 of 2371 patients (21.2%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.85; P<0.001). A first worsening heart failure event occurred in 237 patients (10.0%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 326 patients (13.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.83). Death from cardiovascular causes occurred in 227 patients (9.6%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 273 patients (11.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.98); 276 patients (11.6%) and 329 patients (13.9%), respectively, died from any cause (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.97). Findings in patients with diabetes were similar to those in patients without diabetes. The frequency of adverse events related to volume depletion, renal dysfunction, and hypoglycemia did not differ between treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, the risk of worsening heart failure or death from cardiovascular causes was lower among those who received dapagliflozin than among those who received placebo, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. (Funded by AstraZeneca; DAPA-HF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03036124.).


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Terapia Combinada , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Circulation ; 140(18): 1463-1476, 2019 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcome trials in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have demonstrated reduced hospitalizations for heart failure (HF) with sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors. However, few of these patients had HF, and those that did were not well-characterized. Thus, the effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors in patients with established HF with reduced ejection fraction, including those with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus, remain unknown. METHODS: DEFINE-HF (Dapagliflozin Effects on Biomarkers, Symptoms and Functional Status in Patients with HF with Reduced Ejection Fraction) was an investigator-initiated, multi-center, randomized controlled trial of HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II-III, estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥30 mL/min/1.73m2, and elevated natriuretic peptides. In total, 263 patients were randomized to dapagliflozin 10 mg daily or placebo for 12 weeks. Dual primary outcomes were (1) mean NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide) and (2) proportion of patients with ≥5-point increase in HF disease-specific health status on the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score, or a ≥20% decrease in NT-proBNP. RESULTS: Patient characteristics reflected stable, chronic HF with reduced ejection fraction with high use of optimal medical therapy. There was no significant difference in average 6- and 12-week adjusted NT-proBNP with dapagliflozin versus placebo (1133 pg/dL (95% CI 1036-1238) vs 1191 pg/dL (95% CI 1089-1304), P=0.43). For the second dual-primary outcome of a meaningful improvement in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score or NT-proBNP, 61.5% of dapagliflozin-treated patients met this end point versus 50.4% with placebo (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.03-3.06, nominal P=0.039). This was attributable to both higher proportions of patients with ≥5-point improvement in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score (42.9 vs 32.5%, adjusted OR 1.73, 95% CI 0.98-3.05), and ≥20% reduction in NT-proBNP (44.0 vs 29.4%, adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.3) by 12 weeks. Results were consistent among patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus, and other prespecified subgroups (all P values for interaction=NS). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, use of dapagliflozin over 12 weeks did not affect mean NT-proBNP but increased the proportion of patients experiencing clinically meaningful improvements in HF-related health status or natriuretic peptides. Benefits of dapagliflozin on clinically meaningful HF measures appear to extend to patients without type 2 diabetes mellitus. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02653482.

18.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(11): 1402-1411, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to: (i) report the baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in the Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure (DAPA-HF) trial, (ii) compare DAPA-HF patients to participants in contemporary heart failure (HF) registries and in other recent HF trials, and (iii) compare individuals with diabetes, pre-diabetes and a normal glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in DAPA-HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adults with HF in New York Heart Association functional class ≥ II, a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%, an elevated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentration and receiving standard treatment were eligible for DAPA-HF, which is comparing dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily to matching placebo. In patients without a history of diabetes, previously undiagnosed diabetes was defined as a confirmed HbA1c ≥ 6.5%. Among patients without known or undiagnosed diabetes, pre-diabetes was defined as a HbA1c ≥ 5.7% The remainder of patients, with a HbA1c < 5.7%, were defined as normoglycaemic. Of the 4744 patients (mean age 66 years; 23% women) randomized, 42% had known diabetes and 3% undiagnosed diabetes. Of the remainder, 67% had pre-diabetes and 33% normal HbA1c. Overall, DAPA-HF patients were generally similar to those in recent registries and in relevant trials and had high levels of background therapy: 94% angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker/angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, 96% beta-blocker, and 71% mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist; 26% had a defibrillator. Patients with diabetes had worse HF status, more co-morbidity, and greater renal impairment but received similar HF therapy. Patients with diabetes received non-insulin hypoglycaemic therapy alone in 49%, insulin alone in 11%, both in 14%, and none in 26%. CONCLUSIONS: Patients randomized in DAPA-HF were similar to those in other contemporary HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) registries and trials. These patients were receiving recommended HFrEF therapy and those with diabetes were also treated with conventional glucose-lowering therapy. Consequently, DAPA-HF will test the incremental efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin in HFrEF patients with and without diabetes. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03036124.

20.
Kidney Int ; 96(2): 489-504, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142441

RESUMO

In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular (CV) disease, empagliflozin (EMPA) decreased progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), likely via a reduction in intraglomerular pressure. Due to prevalent comorbidities, such as hypertension and albuminuria, patients often receive other agents that alter intrarenal hemodynamics, including angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEi/ARBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and diuretics. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may also be used by some individuals. In this exploratory, non-prespecified analysis, we investigated whether the kidney benefits of EMPA are altered in individuals already using the medications in these categories. In the BI 10773 (Empagliflozin) Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients (EMPA-REG OUTCOME®) trial, 7020 patients were essentially equally randomized to EMPA 10 mg, 25 mg or placebo added to their standard care. Differences in risk of incident or worsening nephropathy for pooled EMPA vs placebo across subgroups by baseline background medications (to which patients were not randomized) were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Risk reductions in incident or worsening nephropathy with EMPA were consistent across medication subgroups, with no heterogeneity of treatment effect. As a representative example, the risk for acute renal failure was overall slightly increased in patients using ACEi/ARBs in all groups (placebo, EMPA 10 mg or EMPA 25 mg) but incidence rates were numerically lower in those assigned to EMPA. Similar patterns were observed for other medications included in this analysis. Thus, EMPA may assist to prevent CKD progression in patients with T2DM with CV disease, irrespective of common background medications that alter intrarenal hemodynamics, and without increasing acute renal adverse events.

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