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1.
Neurol Sci ; 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interoception is the basic process enabling evaluation of one's own internal state of body, but its alteration in brain-damaged patients has not been adequately investigated. Our study aimed to investigate awareness of visceral and somatosensorial sensations in brain-damaged patients with unilateral stroke. METHODS: Sixty patients (22 with left brain damage, LP; 25 with right brain damage without neglect, RPN-; and 13 with right brain-damage and extrapersonal and/or personal neglect, RPN+) and 45 healthy controls (HC) completed the Self-Awareness Questionnaire (SAQ), a self-report tool for assessing interoceptive awareness with two domains related to visceral (VD) and somatosensory feelings (SD), respectively. RESULTS: Comparing the SAQ subdomains scores between three groups of patients (LP, RPN-, and RPN+) and HC, we found that RPN+ had significantly lower scores on VD than HC and LP, whereas no significant difference was found on scores of SD between groups. CONCLUSION: Our results support the hypothesis of a right-hemispheric dominance for "interoceptive neural network" suggesting that processing of visceral sensations would be located mainly in the right hemisphere. Therefore, a careful assessment of interoceptive awareness in clinical practice would be useful to improve rehabilitation and to engage patients with deficit of interoceptive awareness in developing greater accuracy of body signals.

2.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 75(4): 271-282, 2019.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887733

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of doping substances is growing not only in young athletes performing competitive and non-competitive sports, but also in amateur sports, thereby representing a social and public health problem. The aim of this study was to measure knowledge, attitudes and opinions on doping and drugs and their effects, among students of secondary schools, and to assess the effectiveness of a health education intervention. "Enjoy the Sport- the school against doping and addiction 2.0" is a program developed to discourage the use of drugs, in particular doping drugs, by introducing information on the origins, on the effects of drugs and examples of appropriate lifestyles. This project was conceived by C.I.S.C.O.D. (Comitato Italiano Sport Contro Droga), an association of the C.O.N.I. and carried out with its support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The "Enjoy" project was a study with a one-arm experimental design and with a pre-post evaluation. A multiple-choice questionnaire was used to measure adolescents' knowledge, attitudes and opinions on doping and its effects. A descriptive analysis and post-pre intervention comparison was performed with the McNemar test. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in participants' knowledge of doping substances indicated by the WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) (p<0.001) and a better understanding of the meaning of the term "doping". A decrease in the number of adolescents who would use doping substances (pre = 0.06%; post = 0.0%) was observed, as well as an increase in the number of adolescents who do not consider fair that athletes of any level should use substances that alter their performance (pre = 83.7%; post = 85%). A significant increase was observed in the proportion of participants who believe that athletes should not use doping substances because they are harmful to the human organism (pre = 38.6%; post = 51.7%) (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The project "Enjoy the Sport" contributed to increasing the health literacy of secondary school students about doping (and consequent awareness of the negative aspects of drug use). Schools, therefore, are an appropriate setting for implementing educational interventions for the prevention of doping. However, it is fundamental to integrate knowledge and action, especially in the context of family, sport and sports associations.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos
3.
Appl Neuropsychol Child ; : 1-13, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860374

RESUMO

Following the triadic taxonomy, three different body representations do exist, namely the body semantics, the body structural representation and the body schema. The development of these body representations has been widely investigated in toddlers, but several issues remain to be addressed in school age. To assess age- and gender-related changes in different body representations and to investigate the presence of different patterns of interplay between these representations of the body, 90 children (age range: 7-10) and 37 young adults (age range: 18-35) were given tasks assessing the body semantics, the body structural representation and the body schema as well as control tasks. The present results suggested that the body schema, evaluated by means of hand laterality judgments, was still not completely developed in school-aged children, whereas the body structural representation reached an adult-like pattern by the age of 9-10 years. Finally, body semantics was fully developed in school-aged children. These findings were discussed in terms of their theoretical implications, for a better understanding of body representation development; also, implications for clinical assessment of body representation disorders were discussed.

4.
J Sport Rehabil ; : 1-4, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711040

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Activation time of the quadriceps is important in determining injury risk in professional soccer players. OBJECTIVE: To compare the activation time of the quadriceps and hamstrings muscles during a movement that puts stress on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) to assess the risk of ACL injury. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: University laboratory for movement analysis. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Twenty (10 males and 10 females) professional soccer players. INTERVENTION(S): An inertial sensor and 4 electrodes positioned on the quadriceps and hamstrings muscles were used for the surface electromyography. The athlete resting on 1 leg dropped, from a 32-cm-high platform, on the suspended foot (testing leg), without jumping or lowering his center of gravity and maintaining single-leg landing for 5 seconds. Using a software, it is possible to calculate the activation time of the rectus femoris, vastus medialis (VM), biceps femoris, and semimembranosus muscles before ground contact. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To evaluate the activation times of the rectus femoris, VM, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus muscles before ground contact in comparison with the range of normality calculated by the manufacturer. RESULTS: All male soccer players demonstrated a low risk related to the correct activation of all the examined muscles, while female soccer players demonstrated delayed activation of the VM. CONCLUSIONS: Delayed activation of the VM registered in females determines an increase in anterior shear force, which is an important risk factor for incurring an ACL injury. This testing protocol becomes adequate for the screening of high-risk athletes and for targeting interventions to specific imbalances that may increase injury risk.

5.
Infect Drug Resist ; 12: 1161-1170, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123413

RESUMO

Background and purpose: Athletes participating in contact or collision sports have a great chance of acquiring Staphylococcus aureus infections. The risk factors for colonization and infections include frequent antibiotic use, close contact situations, skin trauma, sharing of sports equipment, and poor hygiene. Therefore, our specific goals were to determine (1) prevalence of S. aureus among different types of contact sport athletes which were barely studied in the European region, (2) antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus isolates, and (3) association of carriage with particular risk factors of spor t practices. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among contact or collision sport athletes in Italy. A questionnaire was used to gather information about sociodemographic characteristics, specific sport activities, and participants' health conditions. Swabs were collected from the nares, oropharynx, and fingers and tested for S. aureus isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility. Results: S. aureus was carried by 42% of 238 enrolled athletes. Colonization was associated with number of weekly training days, sharing of sports equipment, not taking a shower immediately after training, and a previous history of pharyngitis or sinusitis and skin manifestations. Isolates were resistant to clindamycin (24.8%) and erythromycin (15.8%). Of all athletes, 1.3% carried methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA); MRSA were 3% of all S. aureus isolates. No strains were resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Conclusion: Our results have shown a high prevalence of S. aureus carriage and a relevant resistance to antimicrobials used for the treatment of S. aureus infections. Prevention efforts aimed at reducing S. aureus colonization, and thus potentially reducing infections, should be improved.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(28): e7272, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28700470

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the stress-related responses and the coach's capability to match perceived efforts of youth athletes during a taekwondo championship.Using a cross-sectional study design, salivary cortisol (sC) and alpha-amylase (sAA) were measured in 6 males and 3 females young (11.0 ±â€Š0.9 years) athletes at awakening, 5 minutes before, and 1 minute and 30 minutes after official combats. State anxiety was recorded 60 minutes before the first competition, whereas coach's and athletes' ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were obtained at the end of the combats. Time-matched (awakening and pre-competition) salivary samples and trait anxiety were collected 7-day postcompetition during a resting day.No effect for match outcome emerged. No difference emerged between athletes and coach RPEs. Higher (P = .03) state anxiety (41.6 ±â€Š10.9 points) was shown than trait anxiety (34.8 ±â€Š7.1 points). Time-matched sAA were similar. Peak sAA observed at the end of the combat (114.2 ±â€Š108.1 U/mL) was higher (P < .01) than the other samples (range: 20.6-48.1 U/mL), whereas sC increased (P < .05) from awakening (8.0 ±â€Š1.5 nmol/L), with peak levels observed at 30 minutes into the recovery phase (19.3 ±â€Š4.3 nmol/L). Furthermore, pre-competition sC (16.5 ±â€Š4.5 nmol/L) values were higher (P < .01) with respect to time-matched samples during the resting day (4.6 ±â€Š1.0 nmol/L). The 3 athletes engaged in consecutive matches showed a tendency toward increasing sAA and sC.Taekwondo combats pose a high stress on young athletes, eliciting a fast reactivity of the sympathetic-adreno-medullary system relative to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system. Understanding the athlete's efforts during combats, coaches are recommended to apply effective recovery strategies between matches.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/metabolismo , Atletas/psicologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Artes Marciais/psicologia , alfa-Amilases Salivares/metabolismo , Ansiedade/etiologia , Criança , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Percepção , Testes Psicológicos , Saliva/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
7.
J Strength Cond Res ; 25(2): 334-9, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21233770

RESUMO

This study investigated physiological and performance aspects of 15 (4 women and 11 men) elite Taekwondo athletes (24.0 ± 5.7 years) during their National Championship. The load of the competition was evaluated by means of heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (La). Pre and postmatch countermovement jump (CMJ), and handgrip performances were compared (p < 0.05). The match imposed a high load (HR > 85% of individual HRmax = 92 ± 12%; La = 6.7 ± 2.5 mmol·L⁻¹) on athletes. After the match, better (p < 0.0001) CMJ (men: 43.9 ± 5.2 cm; women: 30.8 ± 2.3 cm) and worst (p = 0.006) handgrip performances (men: 459 ± 87 N; women: 337 ± 70 N) were found with respect to prematch ones (CMJ: men = 40.8 ± 4.9 cm, women = 28.2 ± 2.5 cm; handgrip: men = 486 ± 88 N, women: 337 ± 70 N). Results indicate that the intermittent activity of the Taekwondo competition elicits a high neuromuscular activation of the lower limbs. Instead, the decreases in grip strength could be because of the repeated concussions on the upper limbs used to protect from the opponent's kicks and punches directed toward the scoring area of the torso. Practically, these results urge coaches to structure training sessions that enable athletes to maintain their upper limb strength during their match.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Atletas , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Lactatos/sangue , Masculino , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Valores de Referência , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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