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1.
Dermatol Ther ; : e14514, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166029

RESUMO

The skin is the most common organ of involvement during the course of lupus erythematosus (LE). The literature data concerning the dermatoscopic patterns of the different clinical variants of cutaneous LE (CLE), namely chronic (CCLE), subacute (SCLE), and acute (ACLE), are scarce. To determine the dermatoscopic spectrum of CLE and to correlate the dermatoscopic features with the histological findings. This was a retrospective, observational, multicenter, cohort study. We evaluated the dermatoscopic features in a cohort of patients diagnosed with CLE. Furthermore, we investigated their frequency per clinical subtype and correlated them with the anatomic alterations. We included 79 patients. The most prevalent dermatoscopic features of CCLE included follicular plugs (86.4%, P < .01), patchy distribution (75%, P = .1) of mostly linear curved vessels (56.8%, P = .8), white scales (68.2%, P < .01), and structureless white color (68.2%, P < .01). The most common criteria of SCLE were patchy distribution (90%, P = .1) of mostly linear curved vessels (53.3%, P = .8) and fine white scales (60%, P < .01), while ACLE was characterized by erythema (100%, P < .05) and patchy distribution (100%, P = .1) of mostly dotted vessels (60%, P = .4). Follicular plugs/rosettes in dermatoscopy strongly correlated with follicular plugs in histology (rho = 0.919). Hyperkeratosis significantly correlated with white (rho = 0.644) and yellow/brown scales (rho = 0.225), telangiectasia with linear curved vessels (rho = 0.321) and white color with dermal fibrosis (rho = 0.623). Depending on CLE subtype, distinct dermatoscopic patterns are recognized. In CLE there is a high correlation between certain dermatoscopic criteria and the underneath anatomic alteration.

2.
J Cardiol ; 76(6): 568-572, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741655

RESUMO

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common, inherited disorder of cholesterol metabolism characterized by very high plasma concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. It is crucial to diagnose and treat this disorder early since if left untreated it increases the risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) at least by 10-fold. Although genetic testing for FH, when available and affordable, should ideally be offered to most individuals with clinical phenotype suggestive of FH, it is underutilized in most countries. Therefore, FH diagnosis in the majority of cases is made by combining cholesterol levels and clinical characteristics of the patient leaving the need for genetic testing usually in equivocal cases. The presence of some cutaneous and ocular signs can raise the suspicion or even lead to the diagnosis of FH among usually "healthy" individuals. These physical signs comprise cutaneous lesions such as tendon xanthomas or the less specific xanthelasmata and ocular signs, such as corneal arcus in individuals under the age of 45 years. The presence of these signs should prompt the physician to request lipid tests and use clinical scores to diagnose FH. If the diagnosis of FH is likely, aggressive lipid-lowering therapy should be initiated to reduce the risk of CAD and a cascade screening of family members should also be requested.

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