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1.
Endocrine ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599944

RESUMO

AIM: To perform a baseline survey on condition-specific information access among patients/parents/caregivers with rare endocrine disorders (RD) in Europe. METHODS: Electronic invitation to participate in a survey (19 questions) was sent to 120 patient advocacy groups (PAGs), and further distributed to 32 European countries. RESULTS: A total of 1138 respondents from 22 countries (74% women), aged between 1 year (parents) and 70 years, participated. The Netherlands, France, Germany, Italy and France had highest participation rates. All Main Thematic Groups (MTGs) were represented; the adrenal (32%), pituitary (26%) and thyroid (22%) were the most common. The majority of the respondents got information from their endocrinologist (75%), PAGs (37%) and expert reference centre (22%); 95% received information in their mother tongue. Leaflets (70%), infographics (65%), webinars (60%) and Internet films (55%) were preferred ways of learning. Respondents relied mostly on materials by PAGs and alliances (79%), rather than from specific international RD sites (15%). Fifty-six percent used Facebook, and 37% other social media, with a significant age difference (<40/>40 years) among non-users, 19% vs. 36%, p < 0.0001. Of all, 685 answered questions on informational materials for children-79% wanted materials that can be used by the children themselves. There was significant age difference (<40 years/>40 years) in the willingness to help create new educational materials; 49% vs. 34%, p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our current patient information access survey provides a sound basis for further planning and execution of educational and teaching activities by Endo-ERN.

2.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite published guidelines no unified approach to hormone replacement in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) exists. We aimed to explore geographical and temporal variations in the treatment with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids in CAH. DESIGN: This retrospective multi-center study, including 31 centers (16 countries), analyzed data from the International-CAH Registry. METHODS: Data was collected from 461 patients aged 0-18 years with classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency (54.9% females) under follow-up between 1982 - 2018. Type, dose and timing of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement was analyzed from 4174 patient visits. RESULTS: The most frequently used glucocorticoid was hydrocortisone (87.6%). Overall, there were significant differences between age groups with regards to daily hydrocortisone-equivalent dose for body surface, with the lowest dose (median with interquartile range) of 12.0 (10.0 - 14.5) mg/ m2/ day at age 1 - 8 years and the highest dose of 14.0 (11.6 - 17.4) mg/ m2/ day at age 12-18 years. Glucocorticoid doses decreased after 2010 in patients 0-8 years (p<0.001) and remained unchanged in patients aged 8-18 years. Fludrocortisone was used in 92% of patients, with relative doses decreasing with age. A wide variation was observed among countries with regards to all aspects of steroid hormone replacement. CONCLUSIONS: Data from the I-CAH Registry suggests international variations in hormone replacement therapy, with a tendency to treatment with high doses in children.

3.
Endocr Connect ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The European Reference Network on Rare Endocrine Conditions (Endo-ERN), operational since 2017, consists of 71 health care providers (HCPs) in 19 EU member states. Our objective was to assess education and knowledge on rare endocrine conditions. DESIGN AND METHODS: A survey was developed and sent through the DIGIT-EUROSURVEY system to all Endo-ERN HCPs. RESULTS: Response rate was 55% (n=146), 95% physicians, 58% >20 years of experience, 96% academics. Largest knowledge gaps were reported for the transition and neonatal ages, and for the GPs. Less than 50% of HCPs had structured educational rare diseases (RD) plans, while 86% used RD specific guidelines. HCPs would share educational materials within Endo-ERN (74%), and participate in an accreditation model (85%). E-learning portals of the endocrine scientific societies used 58% (ESPE) and 64% (ESE). Most participants (90%) regarded Endo-ERN coordinated educational activities (annual meetings slots, webinars, etc.) as highly important and supported a common educational platform. Social media was perceived as important for educating patients (86%) but not for physicians (36%). Seventy-five % had developed patient education materials; only 31% had specific children's materials, and by-country availability varied from 0% to 100%. Respondents provided newly diagnosed patients with own material in the national language (81%); referred to advocacy groups (68%), and relevant on-line sources (50%). Respondents believed European Commission should fund education through Endo-ERN. CONCLUSION: Identified knowledge gaps in rare endocrine disorders set the basis for fast catch-up through collaboration, alignment with patients' needs, and further development of existing and newly developed educational resources.

4.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291645

RESUMO

Identification of participants' characteristics who benefited most from large community-based intervention studies may guide future prevention initiatives in order to maximize their effectiveness. The current study aimed to examine the socio-demographic, anthropometric, and behavioral characteristics, as well as the health and eating perceptions of those who improved their lipidemic profile, in the Feel4Diabetes early screening and prevention program. In the present analyses, 1773 adults from families at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were enrolled, receiving either the standard care or the more intensive intervention, and 33.3-55.2% of them improved one or more of their lipidemic indices by >5%. Women, people living in Southeastern Europe, coming from two-parent families, having higher financial security, educational level and better diet quality were associated with a 27-64% higher likelihood for benefiting from the program regarding one or more of their lipidemic profile indices. Participants who were overweight or obese (especially with central obesity), employed, with prolonged sedentary behavior, prone to emotional eating and perceiving their weight status as lower than their actual weight were 24-43% less likely to have benefited. These findings should guide future interventions, prioritizing regions in greater need, and being tailor-made to specific population characteristics in order to further improve their effectiveness.

5.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082526

RESUMO

The RASopathies are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous developmental disorders caused by dysregulation of the RAS/MAPK signalling pathway. Variants in several components and regulators of this pathway have been identified as the pathogenetic cause. In 2015, missense variants in A2ML1 were reported in three unrelated families with clinical diagnosis of Noonan syndrome (NS) and a zebrafish model was presented showing heart and craniofacial defects similar to those caused by a NS-associated Shp2 variant. However, a causal role of A2ML1 variants in NS has not been confirmed since. Herein, we report on 15 individuals who underwent screening of RASopathy-associated genes and were found to carry rare variants in A2ML1, including variants previously proposed to be causative for NS. In cases where parental DNA was available, the respective A2ML1 variant was found to be inherited from an unaffected parent. Seven index patients carrying an A2ML1 variant presented with an alternate disease-causing genetic aberration. These findings underscore that current evidence is insufficient to support a causal relation between variants in A2ML1 and NS, questioning the inclusion of A2ML1 screening in diagnostic RASopathy testing.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036371

RESUMO

This study aimed at (1) studying the effect of the standardized ToyBox intervention on European preschoolers' snacking behavior, and (2) studying whether a higher process evaluation score from teachers and parents/caregivers was associated with a more positive result for preschoolers' snack intake. A sample of 4970 preschoolers (51.4% boys, 4.74 ± 0.44 years) from six European countries provided information on snack intake with the use of a Food Frequency Questionnaire. To investigate the effect of the intervention, multilevel repeated measures analyses were executed for the total sample and the six country-specific samples. Furthermore, questionnaires to measure process evaluation were used to compute a total process evaluation score for teachers and parents/caregivers. No significant intervention effects on preschoolers' snack intake were found (all p > 0.003). In general, no different effects of the intervention on snack intake were found according to kindergarten teachers' and parents'/caregivers' process evaluation scores. The lack of effects could be due to limited intervention duration and dose. To induce larger effects on preschoolers' snack intake, a less standardized intervention which is more tailored to the local needs might be needed.

7.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065990

RESUMO

The Feel4Diabetes program was comprised of a community-based screening and a two-year intervention phase aiming to prevent type 2 diabetes (T2D) in families at risk for diabetes across Europe. The current work aimed to identify the socio-demographic characteristics and body weight perceptions of participants who benefitted the most, achieving at least a 5% reduction in body weight, waist circumference and glycaemic indices (fasting plasma glucose, insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin levels), over two-year period. Following a two-stage screening procedure, 2294 high-risk parents were randomly allocated to standard care or more intensive intervention. The participants who benefitted most were living in Southern (OR 2.39-3.67, p < 0.001) and Eastern Europe (OR 1.55-2.47, p < 0.05), received more intensive intervention (OR 1.53-1.90, p = 0.002) and were younger (<40 years old) adults (OR 1.48-1.51, p < 0.05). Furthermore, individuals with tertiary education (OR 2.06, p < 0.001), who were unemployed (OR 1.62-1.68, p < 0.05) and perceived their body weight to be higher than normal (OR 1.58-3.00, p < 0.05) were more likely to benefit from the program. Lastly, males were more likely to show improvements in their glycaemic profiles compared to females (OR 1.40, p = 0.024). These findings point out the regions in Europe and the sociodemographic profile of individuals that benefitted the most in the current study, highlighting the need to prioritise regions in greater need for such interventions and also tailor future interventions to the characteristics and perceptions of the target populations.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is known to be associated with adrenal crises (AC), its association with patient or clinician reported sick day episodes (SDE) is less clear. METHODS: Data on children with classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency CAH from 34 centers in 18 countries, of which 7 were Low or Middle Income (LMIC) and 11 were High Income (HIC), were collected from the International CAH Registry and analysed to examine the clinical factors associated with SDE and AC. RESULTS: 518 children with a median of 11 children (range 1, 53) per center had 5,388 visits evaluated over a total of 2,300 patient years. The median number of AC and SDE per patient year per center was 0 (0, 3) and 0.4 (0.0, 13.3), respectively. Of the 1,544 SDE, an AC was reported in 62 (4%), with no fatalities. Infectious illness was the most frequent precipitating event, reported in 1,105 (72%) and 29 (47%) of SDE and AC, respectively. On comparing cases from LMIC and HIC, the median SDE per patient year was 0.75 (0, 13.3) vs 0.11 (0, 12.0) (p<0.001), respectively and the median AC per patient year was 0 (0, 2.2) vs 0 (0, 3.0) (p=0.43), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The real-world data that are collected within the I-CAH Registry show wide variability in the reported occurrence of adrenal insufficiency related adverse events. As these data become increasingly used as a clinical benchmark in CAH care, there is a need for further research to improve and standardise the definition of SDE.

9.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 21(8): 1537-1545, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902910

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The accuracy of blood pressure (BP) measurement is a prerequisite for the reliable diagnosis and management of hypertension. OBJECTIVES: This survey evaluated the use of office and out-of-office BP measurements and the antihypertensive pharmacological treatment in expert pediatric diabetes centers. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed in 78 reference pediatric diabetes centers of the SWEET international consortium. The methodology, devices, indications, and interpretation of office BP measurements (OBPM), 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and home BP monitoring (HBPM), and the preference for antihypertensive drug treatment was assessed. A grading score was developed to evaluate centers for overall BP measurement performance. RESULTS: Fifty-two centers responded. The average score for OBPM methodology was 72.5%, for technology 77.5% and the overall center score was 74.75%.The majority of the centers used appropriate methodology and technology, however, there was heterogeneity among them. Manual auscultatory or automated devices specifically validated for children were used by 26/52 centers. ABPM was recommended by 35/52 centers (27/35 had health insurance coverage) and HBPM by 18/52 centers. The BP measurement methodology and devices used for ABPM and HBPM were frequently inadequate. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors were the most frequently prescribed drugs for treating hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of SWEET pediatric diabetes centers use adequate methodology and devices for BP measurement. ABPM is recommended by two thirds of the centers, whereas HBPM is less widely used. Further improvement in the quality of office and out-of-office BP measurements and harmonization among centers is necessary according to current guidelines.

10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1231, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the European Feel4Diabetes intervention, promoting a healthy lifestyle, on physical activity and its correlates among families at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (based on the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score) in Belgium. METHODS: The Feel4Diabetes intervention involved three components: family, school and community component, with the family component consisting of 6 counseling sessions for families at risk. Main outcomes were objectively measured physical activity levels and its subjectively measured correlates. The final sample consisted of 454 parents (mean age 39.4 years; 72.0% women) and 444 children (mean age 8.0 years; 50.1% girls). Multilevel repeated measures analyses were performed to assess intervention effectiveness after 1 year. RESULTS: In parents, there was no significant intervention effect. In children, there were only significant negative effects for moderate to vigorous physical activity (p = 0.05; ηp2 = 0.008) and steps (p = 0.03; ηp2 = 0.006%) on weekdays, with physical activity decreasing (more) in the intervention group. CONCLUSIONS: The F4D-intervention lacks effectiveness on high-risk families' physical activity and its correlates in Belgium. This could partially be explained by low attendance rates and a large drop-out. To reach vulnerable populations, future interventions should invest in more appropriate recruitment (e.g. more face-to-face contact) and more bottom-up development of the intervention (i.e. co-creation of the intervention with the target group). TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Feel4Diabetes-study was prospectively registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02393872 on 20 March 2015.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Adulto , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Criança , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Medição de Risco , Serviços de Saúde Escolar
11.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629949

RESUMO

The Feel4Diabetes intervention was a school and community-based intervention aiming to promote healthy lifestyle and tackle obesity and obesity-related metabolic risk factors for the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) among families at risk of developing this disease. The current study aims to present the results on lifestyle behaviors obtained from parents during the first year of the Feel4Diabetes intervention. This multicomponent intervention had a cluster randomized design and was implemented in Belgium, Bulgaria, Finland, Greece, Hungary and Spain over two years (2016-2018). Standardized protocols and procedures were used by the participating centers in all countries to collect data on parents' lifestyle behaviors (diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior). The Feel4Diabetes intervention was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (registration number: NCT02393872). In total, 2110 high-risk parents participated in the baseline and 12-month follow-up examination measurements. Participants allocated to the intervention group reduced their daily consumption of sugary drinks (p = 0.037) and sweets (p = 0.031) and their daily screen time (p = 0.032), compared with the control group. In addition, participants in the intervention group in Greece and Spain increased their consumption of breakfast (p = 0.034) and fruits (p = 0.029), while in Belgium and Finland they increased their water intake (p = 0.024). These findings indicate that the first year of the Feel4Diabetes intervention resulted in the improvement of certain lifestyle behaviors in parents from high-risk families.

12.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 20(Suppl 2): 52, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there are many interventions targeting childhood obesity prevention, only few have demonstrated positive results. The current review aimed to gather and evaluate available school-based intervention studies with family involvement targeting dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviors among primary schoolchildren and their families, in order to identify the most effective strategies. METHODS: Studies published between 2000 and January 2015 were retrieved from scientific electronic databases and grey literature. The databases used included MEDLINE/PubMed, Web-of-Science, CINAHL and Scopus. Included studies had to be experimental controlled studies and had duration over 1 school year, had family involvement, combined PA and dietary behaviors and were implemented in school setting. A complementary search was executed to update the review to cover the period from February 2015 to January 2019. RESULTS: From the studies examined (n = 425), 27 intervention programs (33 publications) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among these, 15 presented significant effect on weight status and/ or overweight/ obesity or clinical indices, 3 presented significant effect on most energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) while 9 presented significant effect on some/few EBRBs or determinants. Strategies implemented in effective interventions were: teachers acting as role-models and being actively involved in the delivery of the intervention, school policies supporting the availability of healthy food and beverage choices and limiting unhealthy snacks, changes in the schoolyard, in the recess rules and in the physical education classes to increase physical activity, and involving parents in the intervention via assignments, meetings, informative material and encouraging them to improve the home environment. Use of incentives for children, social marketing techniques, collaboration with local stakeholders were found to increase effectiveness. Programs that focused only on educational sessions and material for parents, without promoting relevant environmental and policy changes, were found to be less effective. Cultural adaptations have been suggested to increase the intervention's acceptance in specific or vulnerable population groups. CONCLUSIONS: Several effective strategies were identified in the reviewed programs. Outcomes of the current review were taken into account in developing the Feel4Diabetes-intervention and summed up as recommendations in the current work in order to facilitate other researchers designing similar childhood obesity prevention initiatives.

13.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 20(Suppl 2): 46, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper is to present the development of the Feel4Diabetes Healthy Diet Score and to evaluate its clinical validity. METHODS: Study population consisted of 3268 adults (63% women) from high diabetes risk families living in 6 European countries. Participants filled in questionnaires at baseline and after 1 year, reflecting the dietary goals of the Feel4Diabetes intervention. Based on these questions the Healthy Diet Score was constructed, consisting of the following components: breakfast, vegetables, fruit and berries, sugary drinks, whole-grain cereals, nuts and seeds, low-fat dairy products, oils and fats, red meat, sweet snacks, salty snacks, and family meals. Maximum score for each component was set based on its estimated relative importance regarding T2DM risk, higher score indicating better quality of diet. Clinical measurements included height, weight, waist circumference, heart rate, blood pressure, and fasting blood sampling, with analyses of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analysis of (co) variance was used to compare the Healthy Diet Score and its components between countries and sexes using baseline data, and to test differences in clinical characteristics between score categories, adjusted for age, sex and country. Pearson's correlations were used to study the association between changes from baseline to year 1 in the Healthy Diet Score and clinical markers. To estimate reproducibility, Pearson's correlations were studied between baseline and 1 year score, within the control group only. RESULTS: The mean total score was 52.8 ± 12.8 among women and 46.6 ± 12.8 among men (p <  0.001). The total score and its components differed between countries. The change in the Healthy Diet Score was significantly correlated with changes in BMI, waist circumference, and total and LDL cholesterol. The Healthy Diet Score as well as its components at baseline were significantly correlated with the values at year 1, in the control group participants. CONCLUSION: The Feel4Diabetes Healthy Diet Score is a reproducible method to capture the dietary information collected with the Feel4Diabetes questionnaire and measure the level of and changes in the adherence to the dietary goals of the intervention. It gives a simple parameter that associates with clinical risk factors in a meaningful manner. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02393872. Registered March 20, 2015.

14.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235566

RESUMO

Early identification of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension (HTN) risk may improve prevention and promote public health. Implementation of self-reported scores for risk assessment provides an alternative cost-effective tool. The study aimed to develop and validate two easy-to-apply screening tools identifying high-risk individuals for insulin resistance (IR) and HTN in a European cohort. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, anthropometric and clinical data obtained from 1581 and 1350 adults (baseline data from the Feel4Diabetes-study) were used for the European IR and the European HTN risk assessment index respectively. Body mass index, waist circumference, sex, age, breakfast consumption, alcohol, legumes and sugary drinks intake, physical activity and sedentary behavior were significantly correlated with Homeostatic Model Assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) and/or HTN and incorporated in the two models. For the IR index, the Area Under the Curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity for identifying individuals above the 75th and 95th of HOMA-IR percentiles were 0.768 (95%CI: 0.721-0.815), 0.720 and 0.691 and 0.828 (95%CI: 0.766-0.890), 0.696 and 0.778 respectively. For the HTN index, the AUC, sensitivity and specificity were 0.778 (95%CI: 0.680-0.876), 0.667 and 0.797. The developed risk assessment tools are easy-to-apply, valid, and low-cost, identifying European adults at high risk for developing T2DM or having HTN.

15.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 20(Suppl 1): 12, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The implementation of population screening and early prevention strategies targeting individuals at high-risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) seems to be a public health priority. The current work aimed to describe the screening procedure applied in the Feel4Diabetes-study and examine its effectiveness in identifying individuals and families at high risk, primarily for T2D and secondarily for hypertension, among vulnerable populations in low to middle-income countries (LMICs) and high-income countries (HICs) across Europe. METHODS: A two-stage screening procedure, using primary schools as the entry-point to the community, was applied in low socioeconomic status (SES) regions in LMICs (Bulgaria-Hungary), HICs (Belgium-Finland) and HICs under austerity measures (Greece-Spain). During the first-stage screening via the school-setting, a total of 20,501 parents (mothers and/or fathers) of schoolchildren from 11,396 families completed the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) questionnaire, while their children underwent anthropometric measurements in the school setting. Parents from the identified "high-risk families" (n = 4484) were invited to participate in the second-stage screening, including the measurement of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and blood pressure (BP). In total, 3153 parents participated in the second-stage screening (mean age 41.1 ± 5.6 years, 65.8% females). RESULTS: Among parents who attended the second-stage screening, the prevalence of prediabetes (as defined by impaired fasting glucose; FPG 100-125 mg/dl) and T2D (FPG > 126 mg/dl) was 23.2 and 3.0% respectively, and it was found to be higher in the higher FINDRISC categories. The percentage of undiagnosed T2D among the participants identified with T2D was 53.5%. The prevalence of high normal BP (systolic BP 130-139 mmHg and/ or diastolic BP 85-89 mmHg) and hypertension (systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg and/ or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg) was 14 and 18.6% respectively, which was also higher in the higher FINDRISC categories. The percentage of cases not receiving antihypertensive treatment among the participants identified with hypertension was 80.3%. CONCLUSION: The findings of the current study indicate that the two-stage school and community-based screening procedure followed, effectively identified high-risk individuals and families in vulnerable populations across Europe. This approach could be potentially scalable and sustainable and support initiatives for the early prevention of T2D and hypertension. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Feel4Diabetes-intervention is registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov/ (NCT02393872; date of trial registration: March 20, 2015).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Adulto , Criança , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Redes Comunitárias/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Família , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/normas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 20(Suppl 1): 134, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) comprises the vast majority of all diabetes cases in adults, with alarmingly increasing prevalence over the past few decades worldwide. A particularly heavy healthcare burden of diabetes is noted in Europe, where 8.8% of the population aged 20-79 years is estimated to have diabetes according to the International Diabetes Federation. Multiple risk factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of T2DM with complex underlying interplay and intricate gene-environment interactions. Thus, intense research has been focused on studying the role of T2DM risk factors and on identifying vulnerable groups for T2DM in the general population which can then be targeted for prevention interventions. METHODS: For this narrative review, we conducted a comprehensive search of the existing literature on T2DM risk factors, focusing on studies in adult cohorts from European countries which were published in English after January 2000. RESULTS: Multiple lifestyle-related and sociodemographic factors were identified as related to high T2DM risk, including age, ethnicity, family history, low socioeconomic status, obesity, metabolic syndrome and each of its components, as well as certain unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. As Europe has an increasingly aging population, multiple migrant and ethnic minority groups and significant socioeconomic diversity both within and across different countries, this review focuses not only on modifiable T2DM risk factors, but also on the impact of pertinent demographic and socioeconomic factors. CONCLUSION: In addition to other T2DM risk factors, low socioeconomic status can significantly increase the risk for prediabetes and T2DM, but is often overlooked. In multinational and multicultural regions such as Europe, a holistic approach, which will take into account both traditional and socioeconomic/socioecological factors, is becoming increasingly crucial in order to implement multidimensional public health programs and integrated community-based interventions for effective T2DM prevention.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Estilo de Vida , Populações Vulneráveis , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 20(Suppl 1): 135, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessment of diet and physical activity and their determinants still remains a demanding task, especially when the objective is to evaluate the efficacy of lifestyle interventions. In the context of the Feel4Diabetes study (a European community based intervention study in families with school aged children and at high risk of developing diabetes), we aimed to develop questionnaires for the assessment of food-frequency and eating behaviors, and physical activity and sedentary behaviors in both parents and school-aged children and a questionnaire for overall family's energy balance-related behaviors. METHODS: Questionnaires were developed to be used in 6 countries under standardized harmonization procedures and included questions regarding not only food intake and physical activity, but also questions of their determinants. A reliability study was conducted in 191 pairs of parents and their children (N = 191). Parents completed the questionnaires on two occasions, within a 1-2 week interval. Reliability was tested by the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) of test-retest. RESULTS: Most of the questions in all questionnaires had excellent reliability, assessed as an ICC of > 0.810. Mean ICCs for food-frequency and eating behaviors questionnaires were 0.838 and 0.787, and for physical activity and sedentary behaviors questionnaires were 0.734 and 0.793, in adults and children respectively. Mean ICC for overall family's energy balance-related behaviors and their determinants was 0.659. CONCLUSION: The developed questionnaires showed acceptable reliability and may be valuable tools in the assessment of children's and parents' behaviors related to diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior and overall energy balance in school- and community-based interventions.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Exercício Físico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/normas , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto/métodos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto/normas , Psicometria/métodos , Psicometria/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Autoavaliação , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas
18.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 20(Suppl 1): 14, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical and economic burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus on society is rising. Effective and efficient preventive measures may stop the increasing prevalence, given that type 2 diabetes mellitus is mainly a lifestyle-driven disease. The Feel4Diabetes-study aimed to tackle unhealthy lifestyle (unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and excess weight) of families with a child in the first grades of elementary school. These schools were located in regions with a relatively low socio-economic status in Belgium, Bulgaria, Finland, Greece, Hungary and Spain. Special attention was paid to families with a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: The aim of this paper is to describe the detailed methodology of the intervention's cost-effectiveness analysis. Based on the health economic evaluation of the Toybox-study, both a decision analytic part and a Markov model have been designed to assess the long-term (time horizon of 70 year with one-year cycles) intervention's value for money. Data sources used for the calculation of health state incidences, transition probabilities between health states, health state costs, and health state utilities are listed. Intervention-related costs were collected by questionnaires and diaries, and attributed to either all families or high risk families only. CONCLUSIONS: The optimal use of limited resources is pivotal. The future results of the health economic evaluation of the Feel4Diabetes-study will contribute to the efficient use of those resources.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/economia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Adulto , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dieta , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Família , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/organização & administração , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 20(Suppl 1): 140, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feel4Diabetes was a school and community based intervention aiming to promote healthy lifestyle and tackle obesity for the prevention of type 2 diabetes among families in 6 European countries. We conducted this literature review in order to guide the development of evidence-based implementation of the Feel4Diabetes intervention. We focused on type 2 diabetes prevention strategies, including all the phases from risk identification to implementation and maintenance. Special focus was given to prevention among vulnerable groups and people under 45 years. METHODS: Scientific and grey literature published between January 2000 and January 2015 was searched for relevant studies using electronic databases. To present the literature review findings in a systematic way, we used the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. A complementary literature search from February 2015 to December 2018 was also conducted. RESULTS: The initial review included 27 studies with a follow-up ≥12 months and 9 studies with a follow-up ≥6 months and with a participant mean age < 45 years. We found out that interventions should be targeted at people at risk to improve recruiting and intervention effectiveness. Screening questionnaires (primarily Finnish Diabetes Risk Score FINDRISC) and blood glucose measurement can both be used for screening; the method does not appear to affect intervention effectiveness. Screening and recruitment is time-consuming, especially when targeting lower socioeconomic status and age under 45 years. The intervention intensity is more important for effectiveness than the mode of delivery. Moderate changes in several lifestyle habits lead to good intervention results. A minimum of 3-year follow-up seemed to be required to show a reduction in diabetes risk in high-risk individuals. In participants < 45 years, the achieved results in outcomes were less pronounced. The complementary review included 12 studies, with similar results regarding intervention targets and delivery modes, as well as clinical significance. CONCLUSION: This narrative review highlighted several important aspects that subsequently guided the development of the Feel4Diabetes high-risk intervention. Research on diabetes prevention interventions targeted at younger adults or vulnerable population groups is still relatively scarce. Feel4Diabetes is a good example of a project aiming to fill this research gap. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT02393872, registered 20th March 2015.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/organização & administração , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/normas , Humanos , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/terapia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa
20.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 20(Suppl 1): 27, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feel4Diabetes was a large-scale, multicenter lifestyle intervention aiming to prevent type 2 diabetes among families from vulnerable population groups in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Finland, Greece, Hungary and Spain). The current study aimed to describe the process that was followed to harmonize and standardize the measurement of anthropometric (weight, height and waist circumference) and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) indices, as well as to assess the intra- and inter- observer reliability of these measurements. METHODS: A central training workshop was conducted prior to the baseline measurements of the Feel4Diabetes-intervention. One researcher from each intervention country, as well as 12 adults and 12 children (for the anthropometric measurements) and 21 adults (for the blood pressure measurements) participated in this workshop. Technical Error of Measurement (TEM) and reliability (%R) were calculated to assess the reliability of the indices which were assessed to evaluate the outcome of the Feel4Diabetes-intervention. The Feel4Diabetes-intervention is registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov/ (NCT02393872). RESULTS: Intra-observer reliability was found to be higher than 99.5% for all anthropometric measurements in both children and adults. Inter-observer reliability was found to be higher than 98% regarding the anthropometric measurements, while for blood pressure measurements %R was 76.62 and 91.38% for systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements, respectively. CONCLUSION: The central training of the Fee4Diabetes-intervention ensured that the data collected for the outcome evaluation of the Feel4Diabetes-intervention in the six European countries at three different time points (baseline, follow-up 1 and follow-up 2) were valid and comparable.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/normas , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/normas , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Redes Comunitárias/normas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Educação , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/patologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/fisiopatologia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/normas , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos
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