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1.
Front Immunol ; 10: 297, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941118

RESUMO

Non-canonical NF-κB-pathway signaling is integral in immunoregulation. Heterozygous mutations in NFKB2 have recently been established as a molecular cause of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and DAVID-syndrome, a rare condition combining deficiency of anterior pituitary hormone with CVID. Here, we investigate 15 previously unreported patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) from eleven unrelated families with heterozygous NFKB2-mutations including eight patients with the common p.Arg853* nonsense mutation and five patients harboring unique novel C-terminal truncating mutations. In addition, we describe the clinical phenotype of two patients with proximal truncating mutations. Cohort analysis extended to all 35 previously published NFKB2-cases revealed occurrence of early-onset PID in 46/50 patients (mean age of onset 5.9 years, median 4.0 years). ACTH-deficiency occurred in 44%. Three mutation carriers have deceased, four developed malignancies. Only two mutation carriers were clinically asymptomatic. In contrast to typical CVID, most patients suffered from early-onset and severe disease manifestations, including clinical signs of T cell dysfunction e.g., chronic-viral or opportunistic infections. In addition, 80% of patients suffered from (predominately T cell mediated) autoimmune (AI) phenomena (alopecia > various lymphocytic organ-infiltration > diarrhea > arthritis > AI-cytopenia). Unlike in other forms of CVID, auto-antibodies or lymphoproliferation were not common hallmarks of disease. Immunophenotyping showed largely normal or even increased quantities of naïve and memory CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells and normal T-cell proliferation. NK-cell number and function were also normal. In contrast, impaired B-cell differentiation and hypogammaglobinemia were consistent features of NFKB2-associated disease. In addition, an array of lymphocyte subpopulations, such as regulatory T cell, Th17-, cTFH-, NKT-, and MAIT-cell numbers were decreased. We conclude that heterozygous damaging mutations in NFKB2 represent a distinct PID entity exceeding the usual clinical spectrum of CVID. Impairment of the non-canonical NF-κB pathways affects function and differentiation of numerous lymphocyte-subpopulations and thus causes a heterogeneous, more severe form of PID phenotype with early-onset. Further characteristic features are multifaceted, primarily T cell-mediated autoimmunity, such as alopecia, lymphocytic organ infiltration, and in addition frequently ACTH-deficiency.

2.
Blood ; 133(24): 2586-2596, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015189

RESUMO

DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by various degrees of T-cell deficiency. In partial DGS (pDGS), other risk factors could predispose to recurrent infections, autoimmunity, and allergy. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different factors in the development of infections, autoimmunity, and/or allergy in patients with pDGS. We studied 467 pDGS patients in follow-up at Great Ormond Street Hospital. Using a multivariate approach, we observed that palatal anomalies represent a risk factor for the development of recurrent otitis media with effusion. Gastroesophageal reflux/dysphagia and asthma/rhinitis represent a risk factor for the development of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. Allergy and autoimmunity were associated with persistently low immunoglobulin M levels and lymphopenia, respectively. Patients with autoimmunity showed lower levels of CD3+, CD3+CD4+, and naïve CD4+CD45RA+CD27+ T lymphocytes compared with pDGS patients without autoimmunity. We also observed that the physiological age-related decline of the T-cell number was slower in pDGS patients compared with age-matched controls. The age-related recovery of the T-cell number depended on a homeostatic peripheral proliferation of T cells, as suggested by an accelerated decline of the naïve T lymphocytes in pDGS as well as a more skewed T-cell repertoire in older pDGS patients. These evidences suggest that premature CD4+ T-cell aging and lymphopenia induced spontaneous peripheral T-cell proliferation might contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmunity in patients with pDGS. Infections in these patients represent, in most of the cases, a complication of anatomical or gastroenterological anomalies rather than a feature of the underlying immunodeficiency.

3.
Eur J Immunol ; 49(5): 790-800, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801692

RESUMO

STAT1 gain-of-function (GOF) variants lead to defective Th17 cell development and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), but frequently also to autoimmunity. Stimulation of cells with STAT1 inducing cytokines like interferons (IFN) result in hyperphosphorylation and delayed dephosphorylation of GOF STAT1. However, the mechanism how the delayed dephosphorylation exactly causes the increased expression of STAT1-dependent genes, and how the intracellular signal transduction from cytokine receptors is affected, remains unknown. In this study we show that the circulating levels of IFN-α were not persistently elevated in STAT1 GOF patients. Nevertheless, the expression of interferon signature genes was evident even in the patient with low or undetectable serum IFN-α levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments revealed that the active chromatin mark trimethylation of lysine 4 of histone 3 (H3K4me3), was significantly enriched in areas associated with interferon-stimulated genes in STAT1 GOF cells in comparison to cells from healthy donors. This suggests that the chromatin binding of GOF STAT1 variant promotes epigenetic changes compatible with higher gene expression and elevated reactivity to type I interferons, and possibly predisposes for interferon-related autoimmunity. The results also suggest that epigenetic rewiring may be responsible for treatment failure of Janus kinase 1/2 (JAK1/2) inhibitors in certain patients.

5.
Cytotherapy ; 20(6): 830-838, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29753677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adenovirus (ADV) reactivation can cause significant morbidity and mortality in children after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Antiviral drugs can control viremia, but viral clearance requires recovery of cell-mediated immunity. METHOD: This study was an open-label phase 1/2 study to investigate the feasibility of generating donor-derived ADV-specific T cells (Cytovir ADV, Cell Medica) and to assess the safety of pre-emptive administration of ADV-specific T cells in high-risk pediatric patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to treat adenoviremia. Primary safety endpoints included graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), and secondary endpoints determined antiviral responses and use of antiviral drugs. RESULTS: Between January 2013 and May 2016, 92 donors were enrolled for the production of ADV T cells at three centers in the United Kingdom (UK), and 83 products were generated from 72 mobilized peripheral blood harvests and 20 steady-state whole blood donations. Eight children received Cytovir ADV T cells after standard therapy and all resolved ADV viremia between 15 and 127 days later. ADV-specific T cells were detectable using enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISpot) in the peripheral blood of all patients analyzed. Serious adverse events included Grade II GvHD, Astrovirus encephalitis and pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates the safety and feasibility of pre-emptively manufacturing peptide pulsed ADV-specific cells for high-risk pediatric patients after transplantation and provides early evidence of clinical efficacy.

6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 140(6): 1660-1670.e16, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28400115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thymus transplantation is a promising strategy for the treatment of athymic complete DiGeorge syndrome (cDGS). METHODS: Twelve patients with cDGS underwent transplantation with allogeneic cultured thymus. OBJECTIVE: We sought to confirm and extend the results previously obtained in a single center. RESULTS: Two patients died of pre-existing viral infections without having thymopoiesis, and 1 late death occurred from autoimmune thrombocytopenia. One infant had septic shock shortly after transplantation, resulting in graft loss and the need for a second transplant. Evidence of thymopoiesis developed from 5 to 6 months after transplantation in 10 patients. Median circulating naive CD4 counts were 44 × 106/L (range, 11-440 × 106/L) and 200 × 106/L (range, 5-310 × 106/L) at 12 and 24 months after transplantation and T-cell receptor excision circles were 2,238/106 T cells (range, 320-8,807/106 T cells) and 4,184/106 T cells (range, 1,582-24,596/106 T cells). Counts did not usually reach normal levels for age, but patients were able to clear pre-existing infections and those acquired later. At a median of 49 months (range, 22-80 months), 8 have ceased prophylactic antimicrobials, and 5 have ceased immunoglobulin replacement. Histologic confirmation of thymopoiesis was seen in 7 of 11 patients undergoing biopsy of transplanted tissue, including 5 showing full maturation through to the terminal stage of Hassall body formation. Autoimmune regulator expression was also demonstrated. Autoimmune complications were seen in 7 of 12 patients. In 2 patients early transient autoimmune hemolysis settled after treatment and did not recur. The other 5 experienced ongoing autoimmune problems, including thyroiditis (3), hemolysis (1), thrombocytopenia (4), and neutropenia (1). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the previous reports that thymus transplantation can reconstitute T cells in patients with cDGS but with frequent autoimmune complications in survivors.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/terapia , Transplante de Órgãos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Timo/transplante , Doenças Autoimunes/etiologia , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Síndrome de DiGeorge/imunologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Reconstituição Imune , Lactente , Masculino , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Cytotherapy ; 18(9): 1209-18, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27424147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AIMS: In pediatric patients, adenovirus (ADV) reactivation after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo HSCT) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. For patients who do not respond to antiviral drug therapy, a new treatment approach using ADV-specific T cells can present a promising alternative. Here we describe the clinical scale Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant manufacture and characterization of 40 ADV-specific T-cell products, Cytovir ADV, which are currently being tested in a multi-center phase I/IIa clinical trial. This process requires minimal intervention, is high yield, and results in a pure T-cell product that is functional. METHODS: Mononuclear cells (2 × 10(7)) were cultured in a closed system in the presence of GMP-grade ADV peptide pool and cytokines for 10 days. On day 10, the T-cell product was harvested, washed in a closed system, counted and assessed for purity and potency. Additional characterization was carried out where cell numbers allowed. RESULTS: Thirty-eight of 40 products (95%) met all release criteria. Median purity of the cell product was 88.3% CD3+ cells with a median yield of 2.9 × 10(7) CD3+ cells. Potency analyses showed a median ADV-specific interferon (IFN)γ response of 5.9% of CD3+ and 2345 IFNγ spot-forming cells/million. CD4 and CD8 T cells were capable of proliferating in response to ADV (63.3 and 56.3%, respectively). These virus-specific T cells (VST) were heterogenous, containing both effector memory and central memory T cells. In an exemplar patient with ADV viremia treated in the open ASPIRE trial, ADV-specific T-cell response was detected by IFNγ enzyme-linked immunospot from 13 days post-infusion. ADV DNA levels declined following cellular therapy and were below level of detection from day 64 post-infusion onward. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical-scale GMP-compliant One Touch manufacturing system is feasible and yields functional ADV-specific T cells at clinically relevant doses.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Linfócitos T/citologia , Adenoviridae/patogenicidade , Adenoviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/terapia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/normas , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Imunoterapia/métodos , Linfócitos T/virologia
8.
J Clin Immunol ; 35(2): 147-57, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25663137

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mutations in RMRP primarily give rise to Cartilage Hair Hypoplasia (CHH), a highly diverse skeletal disorder which can be associated with severe immunodeficiency. Increased availability of RMRP mutation screening has uncovered a number of infants with significant immunodeficiency but only mild or absent skeletal features. We surveyed the clinical and immunological phenotype of children who have undergone allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for this condition in the UK. METHODS: Thirteen patients with confirmed RMRP mutations underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) at two nationally commissioned centres using a variety of donors and conditioning regimens. Records were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Median time from clinical presentation to diagnosis was 12 months (range 1 to 276 months), with three infants diagnosed with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) without radiographical manifestations of CHH. A total of 17 allogeneic procedures were performed on 13 patients including two stem-cell top-ups. The median age at transplant was 32.4 months (range 1.5 to 125 months). Of the eleven surviving patients, median follow-up was 50 months (range 21.6 to 168 months). CONCLUSIONS: RMRP mutations can cause short stature and significant immunodeficiency which can be corrected by allogeneic SCT and the diagnosis should be considered even in the absence of skeletal manifestations.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Cabelo/anormalidades , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Doença de Hirschsprung/diagnóstico , Doença de Hirschsprung/genética , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Imunofenotipagem , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Osteocondrodisplasias/congênito , Osteocondrodisplasias/diagnóstico , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Irmãos , Quimeras de Transplante , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 60(6): 881-8, 2015 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25572899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An 18-month-old boy developed encephalopathy, for which extensive investigation failed to identify an etiology, 6 weeks after stem cell transplant. To exclude a potential infectious cause, we performed high-throughput RNA sequencing on brain biopsy. METHODS: RNA-Seq was performed on an Illumina Miseq, generating 20 million paired-end reads. Nonhost data were checked for similarity to known organisms using BLASTx. The full viral genome was sequenced by primer walking. RESULTS: We identified an astrovirus, HAstV-VA1/HMO-C-UK1(a), which was highly divergent from human astrovirus (HAstV 1-8) genotypes, but closely related to VA1/HMO-C astroviruses, including one recovered from a case of fatal encephalitis in an immunosuppressed child. The virus was detected in stool and serum, with highest levels in brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Immunohistochemistry of the brain biopsy showed positive neuronal staining. A survey of 680 stool and 349 CSF samples identified a related virus in the stool of another immunosuppressed child. CONCLUSIONS: The discovery of HAstV-VA1/HMO-C-UK1(a) as the cause of encephalitis in this case provides further evidence that VA1/HMO-C viruses, unlike HAstV 1-8, are neuropathic, particularly in immunocompromised patients, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of encephalopathy. With a turnaround from sample receipt to result of <1 week, we confirm that RNA-Seq presents a valuable diagnostic tool in unexplained encephalitis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Encefalite Viral/diagnóstico , Encefalite Viral/patologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Mamastrovirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Astroviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Astroviridae/patologia , Sequência de Bases , Biópsia , Encéfalo/ultraestrutura , Encefalite Viral/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mamastrovirus/genética , Mamastrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transplante de Células-Tronco
10.
Adv Hematol ; 2013: 176418, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24288536

RESUMO

Adenovirus (ADV) can cause significant morbidity and mortality in children following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with an incidence of up to 27% and notable associated morbidity and mortality. T-cell depleted grafts and severe lymphopenia are major risk factors for the development of adenovirus disease after HSCT. Current antiviral treatments are at best virostatic and may have significant side effects. Adoptive transfer of donor-derived virus-specific T cells has been shown to be an effective strategy for the prevention and treatment of ADV infection after HSCT. Here we review progress in the field and present a pathway for the management of adenovirus in the posttransplant setting.

11.
J Pediatr ; 163(3): 908-10, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23660376

RESUMO

Adenovirus causes significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised children. We report how an infusion of HLA-matched sibling donor T lymphocytes rapidly eradicated life-threatening, high-level adenoviremia in a child with complete DiGeorge syndrome (22q11.2 deletion) who went on to reconstitute a diverse, donor-derived, postthymic T-cell repertoire.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/cirurgia , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Síndrome de DiGeorge/complicações , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Linfócitos T/transplante , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/diagnóstico , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/imunologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente
12.
Br J Haematol ; 161(3): 449-52, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23432400
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