Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 7 de 7
Filtrar
1.
Cureus ; 14(2): e21998, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35282522

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic brought about an unprecedented time. Multiple systemic complications have been recognized with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as it can do much more than affect the respiratory system. One of the intriguing neurological complications is Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). We reviewed three cases in which patients presented with GBS following COVID-19 infection. All three cases had positive lumbar puncture results with albumino-cytological dissociation. Each patient was treated with plasmapheresis and improved clinically. Although an exact causal relationship between COVID-19 and GBS cannot be drawn from this case series alone, it signifies the importance of this complication. It warrants further studies to establish the causal relationship. One should have a high suspicion for acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) in patients presenting with acute onset of ascending weakness following COVID-19 infection.

2.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 23(5): 810-822, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973959

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Motoric cognitive risk syndrome (MCR) is a recently proposed predementia syndrome characterized by subjective cognitive impairment and slow gait. We aim to assess the cardiovascular and noncardiovascular factors associated with MCR. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Studies comparing patients with MCR to those without MCR, and identifying the factors associated with MCR. METHODS: We used databases, including PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Embase, to identify studies evaluating the factors associated with MCR. Mean differences, odds ratios (ORs), risk ratios (RRs), and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs were calculated using Review Manager. RESULTS: Meta-analysis revealed that all cardiovascular factors, including diabetes (21 studies; OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.37, 1.64), hypertension (21 studies; OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.08, 1.33), stroke (16 studies; OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.70, 2.42), heart disease (7 studies; OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.13, 1.86), coronary artery disease (5 studies; OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.16, 1.91), smoking (13 studies; OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.04, 1.58), and obesity (12 studies; OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.13, 1.59) were significantly higher in the MCR than the non-MCR group. Noncardiovascular factors, including age (22 studies; MD = 1.08, 95% CI 0.55, 1.61), education (8 studies; OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.28, 3.25), depression (17 studies; OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.65, 2.91), prior falls (9 studies; OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.17, 1.80), arthritis (6 studies; OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.07, 1.70), polypharmacy (5 studies; OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.07, 2.54), and sedentary lifestyle (11 studies; OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.59, 2.52), were significantly higher in the MCR than in the non-MCR group. Alcohol consumption (6 studies; OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.72, 0.98), however, favored the MCR over the non-MCR group. Additionally, there was no significant association of MCR with gender (22 studies; OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.94, 1.15) and cancer (3 studies; OR 2.39, 95% CI 0.69, 8.28). MCR was also significantly associated with an increased likelihood of incident dementia (5 studies; HR 2.84, 95% CI 1.77, 4.56; P < .001), incident cognitive impairment [2 studies; adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.76, 95% CI 1.44, 2.15], incident falls (4 studies; RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.17, 1.60), and mortality (2 studies; aHR 1.58, 95% CI 1.35, 1.85). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: MCR syndrome was significantly associated with diabetes, hypertension, stroke, obesity, smoking, low education, sedentary lifestyle, and depression. Moreover, MCR significantly increased the risk of incident dementia, cognitive impairment, falls, and mortality.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Hipertensão , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Demência/psicologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Síndrome
3.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 29(1): 3-10, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634456

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current study has been conducted to identify the risk factors associated with blood transfusion in women undergoing cesarean section (C-section). A detailed account of the risk factors associated withblood transfusion will ultimately prevent unnecessary crossmatching in hospitals , leading to the conservation of declining blood supplies and resources without subjugating the quality of care. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a rigorous literature search using electronic databases, including PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Embase, for studies evaluating the risk factors for blood transfusion in C-section published until March 31, 2021. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale was deployed to assess the methodologic quality of the included studies. Mean differences (MD) and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Review Manager version 5.3. RESULTS: The search yielded 1563 records, 22 of which were eligible for inclusion, representing 426,094 women (10,959 in the transfused group and 415,135 in the non-transfused group). Participants in the transfused group had lower mean preoperative hematocrit (MD=-3.71 [-4.46, -2.96]; p<0.00001; I2=88%). Placenta previa (OR=9.54 [7.23, 12.59]; p<0.00001; I2=88%), placental abruption (OR=6.77 [5.25, 8.73]; p<0.00001; I2=72%), emergency C-section (OR=1.92 [1.42, 2.60]; p<0.0001; I2=75%), general anesthesia (OR=8.43 [7.90, 9.00]; p<0.00001; I2=72%), multiple gestations (OR=1.60 [1.24, 2.06]; p=0.0003; I2=85%), preterm labor (OR=3.34 [2.75, 4.06]; p<0.00001; I2=85%), prolonged labor (OR=1.68 [1.44, 1.96]; p<0.00001; I2=78%), unbooked cases (OR=2.42 [1.22, 4.80]; p=0.01; I2=80%), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (OR=1.81 [1.72, 1.90]; p<0.00001; I2=71%), and fibroids (OR=2.32 [1.55, 3.47]; p<0.0001; I2=72%) were significantly higher in the transfused group compared to the non-transfused group. Chronic hypertension (OR=0.67 [0.29, 1.55]; p=0.36; I2=90%), maternal age (MD=0.09 [-0.27, 0.45]; p=0.62; I2=50%), maternal body mass index (MD=-0.14 [-0.81, 0.53]; p=0.67, I2=86%), diabetes (OR=0.93 [0.75, 1.15]; p=0.51; I2=52%), and malpresentation (OR=0.65 [0.38, 1.11]; p=0.13; I2=64%) were not significantly associated with an increased risk of blood transfusion in C-section in the two groups. CONCLUSION: Placenta previa, placental abruption, emergency C-section, booking status, multiple gestations, and preoperative hematocrit were the risk factors most significantly associated with blood transfusion, while a prior C-section did not increase the risk of transfusion.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Placenta Prévia , Transfusão de Sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Placenta , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Cureus ; 13(4): e14428, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33996294

RESUMO

Introduction A systematic review and meta-analysis of the available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of dotinurad in hyperuricemic patients with or without gout. Dotinurad is a novel selective urate reabsorption inhibitor (SURI) that increases uric acid excretion by selectively inhibiting urate transporter 1 (URAT1). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis conducted to gauge the efficacy and safety of dotinurad.  Methods Electronic databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov) were searched from inception till March 2, 2021, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis statement. Randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy and safety of dotinurad with placebo- or active (febuxostat or benzbromarone) control were included. The eligible studies were analyzed with RevMan 5.3 Software (The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen). Results Four eligible studies, consisting of 684 hyperuricemic patients were included. The number of patients who achieved serum uric acid (sUA) levels ≤ 6.0 mg/dl favoured dotinurad 1 mg group as compared to placebo group (risk ratio {RR} = 39.27, 95% onfidence interval {CI}, 5.59 to 275.65; p = 0.0002), dotinurad 2 mg group compared with placebo group (RR = 45.36, 95% CI, 6.48 to 317.38; p= 0.0001), and dotinurad 4 mg group compared with placebo group (RR = 54.16, 95% CI, 7.76 to 377.77; p < 0.0001). Conversely, there was no significant difference in the number of patients who achieved the target sUA levels between dotinurad 2 mg and active control (RR = 1.00, 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.08; p = 0.91). Moreover, the percentage change in sUA levels from baseline to final visit favoured dotinurad 1 mg vs. placebo ((RR = 36.51, 95% CI, 33.00 to 40.02; p < 0.00001), dotinurad 2 mg vs. placebo (RR = 46.70, 95% CI, 42.53 to 50.87; p < 0.00001), and dotinurad 4 mg vs. placebo (RR = 63.84, 95% CI, 60.51 to 67.16; p < 0.00001), while no significant difference was seen in dotinurad 2 mg vs. active control (RR = -0.08, 95% CI, -4.27 to 4.11; p= 0.97). Compared with active or placebo control, dotinurad 2 mg showed no significant difference in the number of events of gouty arthritis (RR= 1.31, 95% CI, 0.47 to 3.71; p = 0.60), the number patients with adverse events (RR = 1.09, 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.30; p = 0.36), and the number of patients who experienced adverse drug reactions (RR = 1.00, 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.47; p = 0.99). Conclusion Dotinurad shows significant improvement in serum uric acid levels in hyperuricemic individuals with or without gout. Its urate-lowering effect is comparable to the commonly available anti-hyperuricemic agents. Moreover, it is effective at doses 1 mg, 2 mg, and 4 mg and well-tolerated at a dose of 2 mg.

5.
Cureus ; 13(2): e13080, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33680620

RESUMO

Background  As of January 19, 2021, around two million fatalities and 68 million recoveries from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported around the globe. The past pandemics of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) hint toward a risk of occurrence of "Long-COVID" syndrome, i.e., the persistence of post-discharge symptoms among COVID-19 survivors. With the scarcity of literature addressing post-COVID-19 manifestations and little regard for the stigma associated with this disease, survivors' rehabilitation remains widely neglected. The current study aims to assess the prevalence and characteristics of post-COVID-19 manifestations and their effect on the quality of life (QoL) of COVID-19 recovered individuals. We have also analyzed the relationship of time since the recovery of COVID-19 and its severity with the post-discharge symptoms. The stigma affiliated with the infection of SARS coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has also been highlighted. Methodology A descriptive, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted from September 2020 to December 2020 among 158 COVID-19 recovered patients, whose information was obtained from Dow Diagnostic Laboratory, Ojha Campus, Karachi, Pakistan. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: sociodemographic data, post-COVID-19 manifestations, questions relating to the stigma, and the QoL of the recovered COVID-19 patients. We used the EuroQol five-dimension five-level questionnaire to assess the QoL, while the modified BG Prasad Socioeconomic Classification updated for 2019 was employed to determine the socioeconomic status of the participants. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 24.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Data were presented in the form of frequencies and percentages. Results An overwhelming majority (94.9%) experienced at least one post-COVID-19 symptom, with fatigue (82.9%) being the most prevalent post-discharge manifestation. We observed a significant correlation of post-COVID-19 symptoms with gender, age, and time since recovery. COVID-19 severity was found to be significantly related to the five dimensions of the QoL. A significant difference in EuroQol Visual Analog Scale health score was observed between the participants with mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 infection (p < 0.001). Besides, the associated stigma with SARS-CoV-2 infection was found to be more prevalent in the participants belonging to the upper class as compared to the other classes (p < 0.05). Nonetheless, we also observed a significant association of disease severity with post-COVID-19 manifestations and pre-existing comorbidities. Conclusions The long-COVID syndrome is similar to the post-discharge manifestations of the survivors of prior pandemics of SARS and MERS. Multi-disciplinary rehabilitation teams, healthcare workers, and the general population should recognize the need for systematic assessment of their recovery and further rehabilitation.

6.
Cureus ; 12(8): e9894, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968560

RESUMO

Background Menstruation is a natural physiological phenomenon, yet considered a stigmatized subject, particularly in low- and middle-income countries like Pakistan. It is seldom discussed openly, leading to flow of incorrect and incomplete knowledge. The resultant unhealthy practices not only affect the health of the menstruator but can also contribute to considerable psychosocial stress. Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) is an important facet, which is associated with a variety of practices and beliefs in different parts of the world, some of which may not be correct. Identifying these poor methods is necessary in order to rectify them. Hence, our study aimed at determining the level of knowledge, beliefs, and practices pertaining to menstruation in the general female populace of Karachi. Healthcare workers have a potential role in the dissemination of authentic knowledge and practices. Therefore, we assessed and compared the accuracy and reliability of the aforementioned parameters in them and the need for an educational intervention. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on females visiting the Gynecologic and Obstetrics Outpatient Department (OPD), and healthcare workers employed at Dr. Ruth K. M. Pfau Civil Hospital Karachi and Dow University Hospital Ojha. Using non-probability convenience sampling, a self-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 353 respondents over a duration of three months from October 2019 to January 2020. Data was tabulated in Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, US). In accordance with the objectives of the study, descriptive analysis was performed, and data was presented in the form of frequencies and percentages.  Results Of the 353 participants, 176 were from the general population and 177 were healthcare workers. At menarche, only 28.4% of the general population and 29.4% of healthcare workers had an idea of menses and proper placement of absorbent. Significantly lower number of females from the general population were found to be aware of tampons and menstrual cups (15.9% and 11.4% respectively) as compared to healthcare workers. For both groups, the source of knowledge was mostly their mother. The study showed that 77.8% of the general population and 66.1% of healthcare workers avoided bathing on certain days during menses, with the most common reason being that "it causes irregular flow". As compared to healthcare workers, a significantly higher number of women from the general population had restrictions of activity (53.4%) and avoided washing of groin area during menstruation (31.2%). Majority of women from the general population mentioned that they were scared when they menstruated for the first time. The most common absorbent used by respondents was pads, followed by cloth. The data showed 64.2% of females from the general population and 28.8% of healthcare workers abstained from eating certain foods. Seeking treatment for gynecological issues was not widespread among respondents. Conclusion Our study demonstrated insufficient menstrual knowledge, and consequent incorrect practices in the female population of Karachi. Destigmatizing menstruation and educating women and young girls is indispensable to overcoming this gap. At the same time, reinforcing the availability of MHM products is long overdue and is a crucial milestone towards facilitation of MHM for the women of Pakistan.

7.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(4): 644-646, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199792

RESUMO

The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) causing novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia (NCIP), has affected the lives of 71,429 people globally. Originating in China, the disease has a rapid progression to other countries. Research suggests remarkable genomic resemblance of 2019-nCoV with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) which has a history of a pandemic in 2002. With evidence of nosocomial spread, a number of diligent measures are being employed to constrain its propagation. Hence, the Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) has been established by the World Health Organization (WHO) with strategic objectives for public health to curtail its impact on global health and economy.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , COVID-19 , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vírus da SARS , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...