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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245807, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285613

RESUMO

Abstract Linum usitatissimum L is a widely used traditionally for multiple ailments. The present research was carried out to explore the antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm activity of crude extract of Linum usitatissimum L (Lu. Cr). Phytochemical and proximate analyses were performed. The bandages of diabetic foot patients were collected from the various hospitals. The bandages were cultured to isolate the bacterial strains present on it. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial potential whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration of the Lu.Cr were also determined. Proximate analysis confirms moisture content 8.33%, ash content 4.33%, crude protein 21.20%, crude fat 49.2% and crude fiber 5.63%. It was revealed that Gram-positive bacteria are most prevalent among all study groups. Lu.Cr possess significant bactericidal potential against S. aureus among all other microbes. Owing to this potential, linseed coated bandages can be used alternatively for the treatment of diabetic foot.


Resumo Linum usitatissimum L é amplamente utilizado tradicionalmente para doenças múltiplas. O presente trabalho foi realizado para explorar a atividade antimicrobiana e antibiofilme do extrato bruto de Linum usitatissimum L (Lu.Cr). Foram realizadas análises fitoquímicas e aproximadas. As ataduras de pacientes diabéticos com pé foram recolhidas nos vários hospitais. As bandagens foram cultivadas para isolar as cepas bacterianas presentes nas mesmas. O método de difusão em disco foi utilizado para identificar o potencial antimicrobiano e a concentração inibitória mínima do Lu.Cr também foi determinada. A análise aproximada confirma o teor de umidade 8,33%, teor de cinzas 4,33%, proteína bruta 21,20%, gordura bruta 49,2% e fibra bruta 5,63%. Foi revelado que as bactérias Gram-positivas são mais prevalentes entre todos os grupos de estudo. Lu.Cr possui potencial bactericida significativo contra S. aureus entre todos os outros micróbios. Devido a esse potencial, as ligaduras revestidas com linhaça podem ser utilizadas alternativamente para o tratamento do pé diabético.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249159, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339415

RESUMO

Abstract There is a paucity of research conducted on microbial prevalence in pheasants. The microbiota of captive birds has zoonotic significance and must be characterize. Present study is therefore planned to assess the microbiota from oral, fecal and gut content of captive avian species. It will be helpful in characterization of harmful microbes. Different samples taken from oral, gut and feces of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Samples were collected, diluted, and inoculated onto different agar plates (MacConkey, SS agar, MSA and nutrient agar) for cultivation of bacterial species. Colonies of E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. Brachyspira spp. and Campylobacter spp were observed based on colony morphology. Colony forming unit showed E. coli as frequently found bacteria in fecal, oral and gut contents of all the above pheasants. The overall significance difference was found among bacterial species of golden pheasants, green pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, and silver pheasants. It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira.


Resumo Há uma escassez de pesquisas realizadas sobre a prevalência microbiana em faisões. A microbiota de aves em cativeiro tem significado zoonótico e deve ser caracterizada. O presente estudo está, portanto, planejado para avaliar a microbiota do conteúdo oral, fecal e intestinal de espécies aviárias em cativeiro. Será útil na caracterização de micróbios nocivos. Diferentes amostras retiradas da boca, intestino e fezes de faisões de pescoço redondo (Phasianus colchicus), faisões verdes (Phasianus versicolor), faisões dourados (Chrysolophus pictus) e faisão prateado (Lophura nycthemera). As amostras foram coletadas, diluídas e inoculadas em diferentes placas de ágar (MacConkey, ágar SS, MSA e ágar nutriente) para o cultivo de espécies bacterianas. Colônias de E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Brachyspira spp. e Campylobacter spp foram observados com base na morfologia da colônia. A unidade formadora de colônia mostrou E. coli como bactéria frequentemente encontrada no conteúdo fecal, oral e intestinal de todos os faisões acima. A diferença de significância geral foi encontrada entre as espécies bacterianas de faisões dourados, faisões verdes, faisões de pescoço anelado e faisões prateados. Verificou-se que a E.coli é predominantemente isolada de faisões saudáveis, seguida por Campylobacter, Staphylococcus e Brachyspira.

3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249159, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586192

RESUMO

There is a paucity of research conducted on microbial prevalence in pheasants. The microbiota of captive birds has zoonotic significance and must be characterize. Present study is therefore planned to assess the microbiota from oral, fecal and gut content of captive avian species. It will be helpful in characterization of harmful microbes. Different samples taken from oral, gut and feces of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Samples were collected, diluted, and inoculated onto different agar plates (MacConkey, SS agar, MSA and nutrient agar) for cultivation of bacterial species. Colonies of E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. Brachyspira spp. and Campylobacter spp were observed based on colony morphology. Colony forming unit showed E. coli as frequently found bacteria in fecal, oral and gut contents of all the above pheasants. The overall significance difference was found among bacterial species of golden pheasants, green pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, and silver pheasants. It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira.


Assuntos
Galliformes , Animais , Escherichia coli , Fezes
4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248022, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468531

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that arsenic crosses the placenta and affects the fetus development. The study under consideration aims to show comparative ameliorative effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and flower extracts against sodium arsenate induced fetus toxicity of mice. Pregnant mice (N=44) were kept in lab and divided into eleven group from (A to K) and were orally administered the doses 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg for sodium arsenate, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera leaf extracts (MOLE) and 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera flower extracts (MOFE) comparing with control. The investigation revealed evident reduction in the fetuses weight, hind limb, fore limb, tail and snout length, crown rump and head circumferences well as malformations in tail, feet, arms, legs, skin and eyes in the negative control group (only administered with sodium arsenate). Co-administration of sodium arsenate with MOLE and MOFE ameliorate the reversed effect of sodium arsenate on the shape, length, body weight and DNA damage of fetus significantly at 95% confidence interval. However, Moringa oleifera leaf extract showed more significant results in comparison to Moringa oleifera flower extract. Hence concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorated the embryo toxic effects of sodium arsenate and can be used against environmental teratogens.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera , Animais , Arseniatos , Dano ao DNA , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245807, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378664

RESUMO

Linum usitatissimum L is a widely used traditionally for multiple ailments. The present research was carried out to explore the antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm activity of crude extract of Linum usitatissimum L (Lu. Cr). Phytochemical and proximate analyses were performed. The bandages of diabetic foot patients were collected from the various hospitals. The bandages were cultured to isolate the bacterial strains present on it. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial potential whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration of the Lu.Cr were also determined. Proximate analysis confirms moisture content 8.33%, ash content 4.33%, crude protein 21.20%, crude fat 49.2% and crude fiber 5.63%. It was revealed that Gram-positive bacteria are most prevalent among all study groups. Lu.Cr possess significant bactericidal potential against S. aureus among all other microbes. Owing to this potential, linseed coated bandages can be used alternatively for the treatment of diabetic foot.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Pé Diabético , Linho , Biofilmes , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Metanol , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus
6.
Food Funct ; 5(3): 545-56, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24473227

RESUMO

Natural products are currently gaining popularity to combat various physiological threats. Scientific evidence has been provided that dietary phytochemicals may play important roles as chemo-preventive or chemotherapeutic agents in the prevention of many diseases. Green tea has many biologically active moieties, like flavanols and polyphenols. Catechins are flavanols that constitute the majority of soluble solids of green tea; its major components are epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG) and epicatechin (EC). Among these, EGCG is the predominant component, contributing more than 50% of polyphenols. It has many health related characteristics, like hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, anticancer, antiviral and antihypertensive activities. Ethanolic extracts of green tea was subjected to in vivo modeling. An efficacy trial was carried out on normal, hyperglycemic and hypercholesterolemic rats for 8 weeks. Control, functional and nutraceutical diets were used for each study. Drink and feed intake and body weight increased during the study period. Serum analysis showed that maximum reduction of cholesterol level was noted in hypercholesterolemic rats, up to 15.45%, due to the nutraceutical diet. It was a 21.51% reduction in the case of LDL and 12.92% for triglycerides. The serum glucose level was most reduced in hyperglycemic rats, up to 13.39% as a result of the nutraceutical diet. The functional diet resulted in a bit less reduction in the respective traits compared to the nutraceutical diet. Hematological analysis revealed that administration of green tea did not adversely affect the red blood cell, white blood cell and platelet count of the rats. The current research work enables us to conclude that green tea is effective against hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia.


Assuntos
Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Camellia sinensis/química , Catequina/administração & dosagem , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Colesterol/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Pós/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
7.
Nature ; 501(7465): 79-83, 2013 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23995683

RESUMO

A quantum point contact (QPC) is a basic nanometre-scale electronic device: a short and narrow transport channel between two electron reservoirs. In clean channels, electron transport is ballistic and the conductance is then quantized as a function of channel width with plateaux at integer multiples of 2e(2)/h (where e is the electron charge and h is Planck's constant). This can be understood in a picture where the electron states are propagating waves, without the need to account for electron-electron interactions. Quantized conductance could thus be the signature of ultimate control over nanoscale electron transport. However, even studies with the cleanest QPCs generically show significant anomalies in the quantized conductance traces, and there is consensus that these result from electron many-body effects. Despite extensive experimental and theoretical studies, understanding these anomalies is an open problem. Here we report that the many-body effects have their origin in one or more spontaneously localized states that emerge from Friedel oscillations in the electron charge density within the QPC channel. These localized states will have electron spins associated with them, and the Kondo effect--related to electron transport through such localized electron spins--contributes to the formation of the many-body state. We present evidence for such localization, with Kondo effects of odd or even character, directly reflecting the parity of the number of localized states; the evidence is obtained from experiments with length-tunable QPCs that show a periodic modulation of the many-body properties with Kondo signatures that alternate between odd and even Kondo effects. Our results are of importance for assessing the role of QPCs in more complex hybrid devices and for proposals for spintronic and quantum information applications. In addition, our results show that tunable QPCs offer a versatile platform for investigating many-body effects in nanoscale systems, with the ability to probe such physics at the level of a single site.

8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 42(1): 22-29, Jan.-Mar. 2011. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-571370

RESUMO

Kinetics of a lipase isolated from Bacillus sp. was studied. The enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 9 and temperature 60ºC. The Michaelis constant (K M 0.31 µM) obtained from three different plots i.e., Lineweaver-Burk, Hanes-Wolf and Hofstee, was found to be lower than already reported lipases that confirmed higher affinity of the enzyme for its substrate p-NPL (p-nitrophenyl laurate). Vmax of the enzyme was found to be 7.6 µM/mL/min. Energy of activation calculated from Arrhenius plot was found to be 20.607 kJmol-1. Activation enthalpy (ΔH*) had negative trend and the value for the hydrolysis of p-NPL by the enzyme at optimum temperature was -2.748 kJmol-1 . Activation entropy (ΔS*) and free energy of activation (ΔG*) of the enzyme were found to be 1.468 Jmol-1K-1 and -3.237 kJmol-1, respectively at optimum temperature. Low value of Q10 (0.04788) shows high catalytic activity of the enzyme. Mn2+, Fe2+ and Mg2+ enhanced the lipase activity whereas Cu2+, Na+ and Co2+ inhibited the enzyme activity. However, the enzyme activity was not affected significantly by K+ ions. EDTA and SDS also significantly inhibited the lipase activity. Activity of the enzyme was increased in n-hexane while decreased with increase in concentration of acetone, chloroform, ethanol and isopropanol.


Assuntos
Acetona/análise , Bacillus/enzimologia , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Catalase/análise , Microbiologia Ambiental , Reativadores Enzimáticos , Indústria do Couro , Lipase/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Orgânicos , Solventes , Ativação Enzimática , Cinética , Métodos , Métodos , Resíduos
9.
Braz J Microbiol ; 42(1): 22-9, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24031600

RESUMO

Kinetics of a lipase isolated from Bacillus sp. was studied. The enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 9 and temperature 60°C. The Michaelis constant (KM 0.31 mM) obtained from three different plots i.e., Lineweaver-Burk, Hanes-Wolf and Hofstee, was found to be lower than already reported lipases that confirmed higher affinity of the enzyme for its substrate p-NPL (p-nitrophenyl laurate). Vmax of the enzyme was found to be 7.6 µM/mL/min. Energy of activation calculated from Arrhenius plot was found to be 20.607 kJmol(-1). Activation enthalpy (ΔH*) had negative trend and the value for the hydrolysis of p-NPL by the enzyme at optimum temperature was -2.748 kJmol(-1). Activation entropy (ΔS*) and free energy of activation (ΔG*) of the enzyme were found to be 1.468 Jmol(-1)K(-1) and -3.237 kJmol(-1), respectively at optimum temperature. Low value of Q10 (0.04788) shows high catalytic activity of the enzyme. Mn(2+), Fe(2+) and Mg(2+) enhanced the lipase activity whereas Cu(2+), Na(+) and Co(2+) inhibited the enzyme activity. However, the enzyme activity was not affected significantly by K(+) ions. EDTA and SDS also significantly inhibited the lipase activity. Activity of the enzyme was increased in n-hexane while decreased with increase in concentration of acetone, chloroform, ethanol and isopropanol.

11.
Curr Issues Mol Biol ; 11 Suppl 1: i11-19, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19193960

RESUMO

Multigeneic QTL present significant problems to analysis. Resistance to soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) sudden death syndrome (SDS) caused by Fusarium virguliforme was partly underlain by QRfs2 that was clustered with, or pleiotropic to, the multigeneic rhg1 locus providing resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines). A group of five genes were found between the two markers that delimited the Rfs2/rhg1 locus. One of the five genes was predicted to encode an unusual diphenol oxidase (laccase; EC 1.10.3.2). The aim of this study was to characterize this member of the soybean laccase gene-family and explore its involvement in SDS resistance. A genomic clone and a full length cDNA was isolated from resistant cultivar 'Forrest' that were different among susceptible cultivars 'Asgrow 3244' and 'Williams 82' at four residues R/H168, I/M271, R/H330, E/K470. Additional differences were found in six of the seven introns and the promoter region. Transcript abundance (TA) among genotypes that varied for resistance to SDS or SCN did not differ significantly. Therefore the protein activity was inferred to underlie resistance. Protein expressed in yeast pYES2/NTB had weak enzyme activity with common substrates but good activity with root phenolics. The Forrest isoform may underlie both QRfs2 and rhg1.


Assuntos
Lacase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Soja/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , DNA Complementar/metabolismo , Fusarium/metabolismo , Lacase/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Nematoides/fisiologia , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/enzimologia , Soja/microbiologia , Soja/parasitologia , Síndrome
12.
Horm Metab Res ; 40(4): 262-8, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18548385

RESUMO

A number of human and animal studies using conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) or diacylglycerol (DAG) oil have shown positive physiological effects on abdominal adiposity, plasma triglycerides, plasma glucose, and insulin sensitivity. A novel DAG composition containing CLA called CLA diacylglyceride (CLA-DAG) may offer potential as a therapeutic agent in reducing some of the symptoms associated with the diabetic phenotype and metabolic syndrome. This study was designed to investigate the effect of CLA-DAG oil on the diabetic phenotype in male Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Animals were assigned to one of four groups: control (C), rosiglitazone (ROS), CLA-DAG, or CLA as free fatty acid (CLA-FFA). After 11 weeks, body weight was higher and kidney weight was lower in the CLA-DAG and ROS groups compared with the C group. The ROS treatment increased the percentage of body fat as compared with all other groups. Final fasting blood glucose was lower in the CLA-DAG and ROS groups than in the C group. Plasma cholesterol was lower in the CLA-DAG group, and plasma triglycerides were lower in the ROS group compared with the C group. We also observed changes in transcript abundance of PPAR-gamma, PPAR-alpha, FAS, LPL, UCP2, UCP3, CPT1, RxR, ObRb, ApoAII, ApoD, and IRS1 in liver, muscle, and adipose tissue, suggesting treatment-induced effects on these genes. Collectively, these data suggest the need for further research on the therapeutic relevance of CLA-DAG oil in obesity and diabetes. Future research should also differentiate between CLA alone and DAG alone compared with the combination.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Diglicerídeos/farmacologia , Ácido Linoleico/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , DNA Complementar/biossíntese , DNA Complementar/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diglicerídeos/sangue , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Rim/metabolismo , Ácido Linoleico/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Ratos , Ratos Zucker , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Rosiglitazona , Tiazolidinedionas/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
13.
Phytomedicine ; 14(10): 681-9, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17689944

RESUMO

Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) and its close relative North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) are perennial aromatic herbs that are widely used in Oriental medicine and have been acclaimed to have various health benefits including diabetes treatment. In this study, we compared the effects of a diet containing rosiglitazone to a diet containing ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Animals were assigned to one of three diets: control, rosiglitazone (0.1 g/1 kg diet), or ginseng (10 g/1 kg diet). During the 11-week study, body weight, food intake, organ weight, blood glucose, plasma cholesterol, and plasma triglyceride levels were evaluated. Animals treated with rosiglitazone or ginseng exhibited increased body weight (p<0.05) and decreased kidney weight (p<0.05) compared to control animals. The rosiglitazone group demonstrated decreased food intake and plasma triglyceride levels versus the other groups (p<0.05). The ginseng group revealed decreased cholesterol levels relative to the control group (p<0.05). Furthermore, ginseng and rosiglitazone had marked effects on the expression of genes involved in PPAR actions and triglyceride metabolism compared to controls. In conclusion, ginseng modified the diabetic phenotype and genes associated with diabetes in the male ZDF rat. These data are encouraging, and warrant further research to determine the therapeutic value of this medicinal herb in treating human diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Panax , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , Primers do DNA , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Dieta , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , PPAR gama/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR gama/genética , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ratos , Ratos Zucker , Rosiglitazona , Tiazolidinedionas/administração & dosagem , Tiazolidinedionas/farmacologia , Tiazolidinedionas/uso terapêutico , Triglicerídeos/sangue
14.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 276(6): 503-16, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17024428

RESUMO

The rhg1 gene or genes lie at a recessive or co-dominant locus, necessary for resistance to all Hg types of the soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines I.). The aim here was to identify nucleotide changes within a candidate gene found at the rhg1 locus that were capable of altering resistance to Hg types 0 (race 3). A 1.5 +/- 0.25 cM region of chromosome 18 (linkage group G) was shown to encompass rhg1 using recombination events from four near isogenic line populations and nine DNA markers. The DNA markers anchored two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones 21d9 and 73p6. A single receptor like kinase (RLK; leucine rich repeat-transmembrane-protein kinase) candidate resistance gene was amplified from both BACs using redundant primers. The DNA sequence showed nine alleles of the RLK at Rhg1 in the soybean germplasm. Markers designed to detect alleles showed perfect association between allele 1 and resistance to soybean cyst nematode Hg types 0 in three segregating populations, fifteen additional selected recombination events and twenty-two Plant Introductions. A quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN) [corrected] in the RLK at rhg1 was inferred that alters A87 to V87 in the context of H274 rather than N274. [corrected] Contiguous DNA sequence of 315 kbp of chromosome 18 (about 2 cM) contained additional gene candidates that may modulate resistance to other Hg-types including a variant laccase, a hydrogen-sodium ion antiport and two proteins of unknown function. A molecular basis for recessive and co-dominant resistance that involves interactions among paralagous disease-resistance genes was inferred that would improve methods for developing new nematode-resistant soybean cultivars.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genes de Plantas/genética , Imunidade Inata/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Soja/genética , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Southern Blotting , Cromossomos Artificiais Bacterianos , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Genômica , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Theor Appl Genet ; 113(6): 1015-26, 2006 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16953420

RESUMO

DNA marker maps based on single populations are the basis for gene, loci and genomic analyses. Individual maps can be integrated to produce composite maps with higher marker densities if shared marker orders are consistent. However, estimates of marker order in composite maps must include sets of markers that were not polymorphic in multiple populations. Often some of the pooled markers were not codominant, or were not correctly scored. The soybean composite map was composed of data from five separate populations based on northern US germplasm but does not yet include 'Essex' by 'Forrest' recombinant inbred line (RIL) population (E x F) or any southern US soybean cultivars. The objectives were, to update the E x F map with codominant markers, to compare marker orders among this map, the Forrest physical map and the composite soybean map and to compare QTL identified by composite interval maps to the earlier interval maps. Two hundred and thirty seven markers were used to construct the core of the E x F map. The majority of marker orders were consistent between the maps. However, 19 putative marker inversions were detected on 12 of 20 linkage groups (LG). Eleven marker distance compressions were also found. The number of inverted markers ranged from 1 to 2 per LG. Thus, marker order inversions may be common in southern compared to northern US germplasm. A total of 61 QTL among 37 measures of six traits were detected by composite interval maps, interval maps and single point analysis. Seventeen of the QTL found in composite intervals had previously been detected among the 29 QTL found in simple interval maps. The genomic locations of the known QTL were more closely delimited. A genome sequencing project to compare Southern and Northern US soybean cultivars would catalog and delimit inverted regions and the associated QTL. Gene introgression in cultivar development programs would be accelerated.


Assuntos
Ligação Genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Soja/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma de Planta , Polimorfismo Genético
16.
J Anim Sci ; 84(3): 597-607, 2006 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16478951

RESUMO

Corn containing genetically engineered plasmid DNA encoding an Escherichia coli glutamate dehydrogenase (gdhA) was fed to 19-d-old weanling swine to trace the digestive fate of the transgenic DNA. Eight pens of 8 pigs were fed a commercial (nongdhA) starter for 2 wk. One pig was randomly selected from each pen for 0-h control samples. The remaining 56 pigs were transitioned onto a corn-soybean meal diet and fed a diet containing 58% gdhA corn for approximately 1 wk; immediately thereafter, liver, 10th rib muscle, white blood cells, and plasma from the hepatic portal vein and ingesta from the stomach, distal ileum, and large intestine were collected. The DNA was extracted and the concentration determined via spectrophotometry. Polymerase chain reaction and gel electrophoresis were performed with primers designed to amplify 490 bp that included the plasmid's ligation site between the maize ubiquitin and the gdhA genes. The gdhA corn-derived DNA and diet served as positive assay controls, and conventional corn DNA and distilled water acted as negative assay controls. Detection limits were 0.99 fg of target DNA confounded with 500 ng of conventional corn DNA per each 20 &L reaction. Transgenic DNA was detected in 71.43% of the stomach and 1.79% of the ileal ingesta samples from treatment animals but was not detected in the large intestine, white blood cells, plasma, liver, or muscle samples. Transgenic DNA was not detected in any sample from 0-h control animals. Stomach and ileal ingesta samples were further analyzed using real-time PCR. With an estimated limit of detection of 1.049 ag/microL, 89.29% of the stomach ingesta samples were positive (average 1.56 fg target DNA). The proportion of transgenic DNA to total DNA differed between diet and stomach ingesta samples (P < 0.001). Despite the greater sensitivity of real-time PCR, target DNA was detected in only 1.79% of ileal ingesta. These data suggest that the gdhA transgene began degradation in the stomach and was nondetectable in the large intestine.


Assuntos
DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Glutamato Desidrogenase/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Suínos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Primers do DNA/química , DNA de Plantas/análise , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Ílio/metabolismo , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrofotometria/veterinária , Desmame , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo
17.
Horm Metab Res ; 37(5): 316-25, 2005 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15971156

RESUMO

Previous investigations have demonstrated a marked effect of soy protein on the metabolic syndrome (MS). The purpose of this preliminary study was to identify the effects of soy-based diets on male obese ZDFxSHHF (fa/ fa-cp/?) rats. Animals were randomly assigned to one of four diets: control, casein (C); low-isoflavone (LIS) soy protein; high-isoflavone (HIS) soy protein; or casein + rosiglitazone (CR). Physiological, biochemical, and molecular parameters were determined at sacrifice. Body weight (p < 0.01) and food intake (p < 0.05) were lower in LIS-fed rodents. Rosiglitazone-treated animals had higher body weight and adiposity (p < 0.05). LIS and CR groups exhibited better glycemic control (p < 0.05), but with a limited effect in rosiglitazone-treated animals. HIS fed rats had higher glucose and triacylglyceride levels (p < 0.01), and lower plasma insulin (p < 0.01). Renal function parameters with the exception of an increase in systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05) were all suppressed in the LIS group (p < 0.01). The CR group had twofold PPARalpha and PPARgamma mRNA abundance (p < 0.01). LIS-fed animals also exhibited greater abundance of PPARgamma mRNA (p < 0.001), and nearly threefold FAS and CPT-1 mRNA levels (p < 0.05). HIS-fed rats also had higher abundance of CPT-1 mRNA, as well as a lower abundance of ACC mRNA (p < 0.05). Soy-based diets, influenced by isoflavone content and distinct from rosiglitazone, improved several metabolic parameters in obese ZDFxSHHF rats.


Assuntos
Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Proteínas de Soja/administração & dosagem , Animais , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/dietoterapia , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Ratos
18.
Theor Appl Genet ; 110(8): 1429-38, 2005 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15815926

RESUMO

Sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean is a complex of root rot disease caused by the semi-biotrophic fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines (Fsg) and a leaf scorch disease caused by toxins produced by the pathogen in the roots. Development of partial rate-reducing resistance in roots to SDS was studied. The recombinant inbred line 23 (RIL23) that carried resistance conferred by six quantitative trait loci (QTL) derived from cultivars 'Essex' x 'Forrest' was compared to the susceptible cultivar Essex. Roots of RIL23 and its susceptible parent Essex were inoculated with Fsg. Transcript abundance (TA) of 191 ESTs was studied at five time points after inoculation. For most of the genes, there was an initial decrease in TA in the inoculated roots of both genotypes. By days 7 and 10 the inoculated roots of Essex failed to increase expression of the transcripts of defense-related genes. In RIL23 inoculated roots, the TA of 81 genes was increased by at least two-fold at day 3 (P=0.004), 88 genes at day 7 (P=0.0023) and 129 genes at day 10 (P=0.0026). A set of 35 genes maintained at least a two-fold higher abundance at all three time points. The increase in TA in RIL23 was in contrast to that observed in Essex where most of the ESTs showed either no change or a decreased TA. The ESTs with an increased TA had homology to the genes involved in resistance (analogs), signal transduction, plant defense, cell wall synthesis and transport of metabolites. Pathways that responded included the protein phosphorylation cascade, the phospholipase cascade and the phenolic natural products pathways, including isoflavone and cell wall synthesis.


Assuntos
Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas/metabolismo , Fusarium , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Imunidade Inata/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Soja/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Eletroforese , Análise em Microsséries , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Soja/microbiologia , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
19.
Genome ; 48(1): 125-38, 2005 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15729404

RESUMO

Candidate genes were identified for two loci, QRfs2 providing resistance to the leaf scorch called soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) sudden death syndrome (SDS) and QRfs1 providing resistance to root infection by the causal pathogen Fusarium solani f.sp. glycines. The 7.5 +/- 0.5 cM region of chromosome 18 (linkage group G) was shown to encompass a cluster of resistance loci using recombination events from 4 near-isogenic line populations and 9 DNA markers. The DNA markers anchored 9 physical map contigs (7 are shown on the soybean Gbrowse, 2 are unpublished), 45 BAC end sequences (41 in Gbrowse), and contiguous DNA sequences of 315, 127, and 110 kbp. Gene density was high at 1 gene per 7 kbp only around the already sequenced regions. Three to 4 gene-rich islands were inferred to be distributed across the entire 7.5 cM or 3.5 Mbp showing that genes are clustered in the soybean genome. Candidate resistance genes were identified and a molecular basis for interactions among the disease resistance genes in the cluster inferred.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Soja/genética , Soja/microbiologia , Mapeamento de Sequências Contíguas , Fusarium/fisiologia , Genômica , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo
20.
J Biomed Biotechnol ; 2004(1): 52-60, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15123888

RESUMO

Soybean seeds contain large amounts of isoflavones or phytoestrogens such as genistein, daidzein, and glycitein that display biological effects when ingested by humans and animals. In seeds, the total amount, and amount of each type, of isoflavone varies by 5 fold between cultivars and locations. Isoflavone content and quality are one key to the biological effects of soy foods, dietary supplements, and nutraceuticals. Previously we had identified 6 loci (QTL) controlling isoflavone content using 150 DNA markers. This study aimed to identify and delimit loci underlying heritable variation in isoflavone content with additional DNA markers. We used a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population ( $n=100$ ) derived from the cross of “Essex” by “Forrest,” two cultivars that contrast for isoflavone content. Seed isoflavone content of each RIL was determined by HPLC and compared against 240 polymorphic microsatellite markers by one-way analysis of variance. Two QTL that underlie seed isoflavone content were newly discovered. The additional markers confirmed and refined the positions of the six QTL already reported. The first new region anchored by the marker BARC-Satt063 was significantly associated with genistein ( $P=0.009$, $Rcirc;2=29.5\%$ ) and daidzein ( $P=0.007$, $Rcirc;2=17.0\%$ ). The region is located on linkage group B2 and derived the beneficial allele from Essex. The second new region defined by the marker BARC-Satt129 was significantly associated with total glycitein ( $P=0.0005$, $Rcirc;2=32.0\%$ ). The region is located on linkage group D1a+Q and also derived the beneficial allele from Essex. Jointly the eight loci can explain the heritable variation in isoflavone content. The loci may be used to stabilize seed isoflavone content by selection and to isolate the underlying genes.

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