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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253061, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364520

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is initial stage of any chronic liver disease and its end stage is develops into cirrhosis. Chronic liver diseases are a crucial global health issue and the cause of approximately 2 million deaths per year worldwide. Cirrhosis is currently the 11th most common cause of death globally. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) treatment is the best way to treat acute and chronic liver disease. The aim of this study is to improve the therapeutic potential of MSCs combined with melatonin (MLT) to overcome CCl4-induced liver fibrosis and also investigate the individual impact of melatonin and MSCs against CCl4-induced liver impairment in animal model. Female BALB/c mice were used as CCL4-induced liver fibrotic animal model. Five groups of animal model were made; negative control, Positive control, CCl4+MSCs treated group, CCl4+MLT treated group and CCl4+MSCs+MLT treated group. Cultured MSCs from mice bone marrow were transplanted to CCl4-induced liver injured mice model, individually as well as together with melatonin. Two weeks after MSCs and MLT administration, all groups of mice were sacrificed for examination. Morphological and Histopathological results showed that combined therapy of MSCs+MLT showed substantial beneficial impact on CCl4-induced liver injured model, compared with MSCs and MLT individually. Biochemically, considerable reduction was observed in serum bilirubin and ALT levels of MLT+MSC treated mice, compared to other groups. PCR results shown down-regulation of Bax and up-regulation of Bcl-xl and Albumin, confirm a significant therapeutic effect of MSCs+MLT on CCI4-induced liver fibrosis. From the results, it is concluded that combined therapy of MSCs and MLT show strong therapeutic effect on CCL4-induced liver fibrosis, compared with MSCs and MLT individually.


A fibrose hepática é a fase inicial de qualquer doença hepática crônica, e em sua fase final desenvolve-se para cirrose. As doenças hepáticas crônicas são uma questão de saúde global crucial e a causa de aproximadamente 2 milhões de mortes por ano em todo o mundo. A cirrose, hoje em dia, é a 11ª causa mais comum de morte globalmente. O tratamento da célula-tronco mesenquimal (MSCs) é uma maneira eletiva de tratar a doença hepática aguda e crônica. O objetivo deste estudo é melhorar o potencial terapêutico dos MSCs combinados com a melatonina (MLT) para superar a fibrose hepática induzida por CCl4 e também investigar o impacto individual da melatonina e MSCs contra o comprometimento do fígado induzido por CCl4 no modelo animal. Os ratos BALB / C fêmeas foram usados ​​como modelo de animal fibrótico de fígado induzido por CCl4. Cinco grupos de modelo animal foram feitos: Controle Negativo, Controle Positivo, CCl4 + MSCs Tratados Grupo, Grupo Tratado CCl4 + MLT e Grupo Tratado CCl4 + MSCs + MLT. MSCs cultivados da medula óssea dos ratos foram transplantados para o modelo de camundongos de fígado induzido por CCl4, individualmente, bem como em conjunto com a melatonina. Duas semanas após a administração MSCs e MLT, todos os grupos de camundongos foram sacrificados para o exame. Os resultados morfológicos e histopatológicos mostraram que a terapia combinada do MSCs + MLT mostrou impacto benéfico substancial no modelo ferido no fígado induzido pelo CCl4, em comparação com o MSCs e o MLT individualmente. A redução bioquimicamente considerável foi observada em bilirrubina sérica e níveis ALT de ratinhos tratados com MLT + MSCs, em comparação com outros grupos. Os resultados de PCR mostraram regulação negativa do BAX e regulação positiva do BCL-XL e da albumina, confirmando um efeito terapêutico significativo do MSCs + MLT na fibrose hepática induzida por CCl4. Dos resultados, conclui-se que a terapia combinada de MSCs e MLT mostram um forte efeito terapêutico na fibrose hepática induzida por CCl4, em comparação com MSCs e MLT individualmente.


Assuntos
Ratos , Células-Tronco , Fibrose , Fígado , Hepatopatias , Melatonina
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255916, 2024. tab, graf, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364509

RESUMO

This study aims at reporting the indigenous knowledge of the medicinal flora from the inhabitants of surroundings of the World's largest artificial planted forest "Changa Manga", Pakistan. Data were collected by direct interviews and group meetings from 81 inhabitants including 32 local healers having information regarding the use of indigenous medicinal plants over a period of one year. Different statistical tools were applied to analyze the data including Frequency citation (FC), Relative frequency citation (RFC), Use Value, Factor of informants consensus and fidelity level. This study reported 73 plant species belonging to 37 plant families and 46 genera. The majority of plant species belong to compositae family. The most commonly used medicinal plants were P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L, P. harmala L., P. emblica L., and A. indica A.Juss. The greatest number of species was used to cure gastrointestinal disorders. The highest fidelity level (68.18%) was of E. helioscopia to cure gastrointestinal disorders. Maximum fresh uses (17) were reported by C. dactylon (L.) Pars. While the highest number of species reporting fresh uses in similar number was 13. In this study, five novel plants are being reported for the first time in Pakistan for their ethnomedicinal worth. Our data reflect unique usage of the medicinal plants in the study area. The statistical tools used in the study proved useful in pointing the most important and disease category specific plants. High use value plant and the new reported medicinal plants might prove an important source of the isolation of pharmacologically active compounds.


Este estudo tem como objetivo relatar o conhecimento indígena sobre a flora medicinal dos habitantes do entorno da maior floresta artificial plantada do mundo, a Changa Manga, no Paquistão. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas diretas e reuniões em grupo de 81 habitantes, incluindo 32 curandeiros locais, com informações sobre o uso de plantas medicinais indígenas durante o período de um ano. Diferentes ferramentas estatísticas foram aplicadas para analisar os dados, incluindo citação de frequência (FC), citação de frequência relativa (RFC), valor de uso, fator de consenso dos informantes e nível de fidelidade. Este estudo relatou 73 espécies de plantas pertencentes a 37 famílias de plantas e 46 gêneros. A maioria das espécies de plantas pertence à família Compositae. As plantas medicinais mais utilizadas foram P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L., P. harmala L., P. emblica L. e A. indica A. Juss. O maior número de espécies foi usado para curar distúrbios gastrointestinais. O maior nível de fidelidade (68,18%) foi de E. helioscopia para cura de distúrbios gastrointestinais. Os usos máximos em fresco (17) foram relatados por C. dactylon (L.) Pars. enquanto o maior número de espécies relatando usos frescos em número semelhante foi de 13. Neste estudo, cinco novas plantas estão sendo relatadas pela primeira vez no Paquistão por seu valor etnomedicinal. Nossos dados refletem o uso exclusivo das plantas medicinais na área de estudo. As ferramentas estatísticas utilizadas no estudo mostraram-se úteis para apontar as plantas mais importantes e específicas da categoria de doença. Plantas de alto valor de uso e as novas plantas medicinais relatadas podem ser uma importante fonte de isolamento de compostos farmacologicamente ativos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Plantas Medicinais , Florestas , Gastroenteropatias , Povos Indígenas , Medicina Tradicional , Paquistão
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256923, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360219

RESUMO

Naturally occurring mutations in morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are associated with decreased ovulation rate (OR), litter size (LS), and sterility. It is of a great interest to elucidate BMP15 gene in Cholistani sheep breed to uplift socio-economic status and the knowledge of Cholistani sheep breeding in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. In our study, a total of 50 infertile Cholistani sheep aged between 2-6 years and having no blood relation were screened for BMP15 mutations. For this purpose, a high-quality DNA was extracted from the blood of sheep followed by primer designing, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification, DNA sequencing, and in silico analyses. Out of total 50 samples, 9 samples including case 1 (T3), case 2 (T8), case 3 (T17), case 4 (T22), case 5 (T25), case 6 (T33), case 7 (T40), case 8 (T44), and case 9 (T47) were found positive for a variety of already reported and novel BMP15 mutations. Further in silico analyses of the observed mutations have shown the functional impact of these mutations on different characteristics (molecular weight, theoretical PI, estimated half-life, instability index, sub-cellular localization, and 3D confirmation) of the encoded proteins, possibly altering the normal functionality. In a nutshell, findings of this study have confirmed the possible essential role of the BMP15 mutations in the infertility of the Cholistani sheep.


Mutações de ocorrência natural na proteína morfogenética 15 (BMP15) estão associadas à diminuição da taxa de ovulação (TO), tamanho da ninhada (TN) e esterilidade. Estudar a BMP15 na raça Cholistani para elevar o status socioeconômico e o conhecimento da criação de ovinos Cholistani no sul de Punjab, Paquistão. Em nosso estudo, 50 ovelhas Cholistani inférteis sem parentesco sanguíneo foram rastreadas para mutações BMP15. Para tanto, um DNA de alta qualidade foi extraído do sangue dessas ovelhas, seguido de concepção do primer, amplificação da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR), sequenciamento de DNA e análises in silico. Do total de 50 amostras, 9, incluindo caso 1 (T3), caso 2 (T8), caso 3 (T17), caso 4 (T22), caso 5 (T25), caso 6 (T33), caso 7 (T40), caso 8 (T44) e caso 9 (T47), foram consideradas positivas para uma variedade de mutações BMP15 novas e já relatadas. Mais análises in silico das mutações observadas mostraram o impacto funcional dessas mutações em diferentes características (peso molecular, PI teórico, meia-vida estimada, índice de instabilidade, localização subcelular e confirmação 3D) das proteínas codificadas, possivelmente alterando a funcionalidade normal. Nossos achados confirmaram o possível papel essencial das mutações BMP15 na infertilidade de ovelhas Cholistani.


Assuntos
Animais , Ovinos , Infertilidade , Mutação/genética
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252735, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355873

RESUMO

Abstract Growth of plants is severely reduced due to water stress by affecting photosynthesis including photosystem II (PSII) activity and electron transport. This study emphasised on comparative and priority targeted changes in PSII activity due to progressive drought in seven populations of Panicum antidotale (P. antidotale) collected from Cholistan Desert and non-Cholistan regions. Tillers of equal growth of seven populations of P. antidotale grown in plastic pots filled with soil were subjected progressive drought by withholding water irrigation for three weeks. Progressive drought reduced the soil moisture content, leaf relative water content, photosynthetic pigments and fresh and dry biomass of shoots in all seven populations. Populations from Dingarh Fort, Dingarh Grassland and Haiderwali had higher growth than those of other populations. Cholistani populations especially in Dingarh Grassland and Haiderwali had greater ability of osmotic adjustment as reflected by osmotic potential and greater accumulation of total soluble proteins. Maximum H2O2 under water stress was observed in populations from Muzaffargarh and Khanewal but these were intermediate in MDA content. Under water stress, populations from Muzaffargarh and Dingarh Fort had greater K+ accumulation in their leaves. During progressive drought, non-Cholistani populations showed complete leaf rolling after 23 days of drought, and these populations could not withstand with more water stress condition while Cholistani populations tolerated more water stress condition for 31 days. Moreover, progressive drought caused PSII damages after 19 days and it became severe after 23 days in non-Cholistani populations of P. antidotale than in Cholistani populations.


Resumo O crescimento das plantas é severamente reduzido devido ao estresse hídrico, afetando a fotossíntese, incluindo a atividade do fotossistema II (PSII) e o transporte de elétrons. Este estudo enfatizou as mudanças comparativas e prioritárias na atividade do PSII devido à seca progressiva em sete populações de Panicum antidotale (P. antidotale) coletadas no Deserto do Cholistão e regiões fora do Cholistão. Perfilhos de igual crescimento de sete populações de P. antidotale cultivadas em vasos de plástico cheios de solo foram submetidos à seca progressiva, retendo a irrigação com água por três semanas. A seca progressiva reduziu o teor de umidade do solo, teor de água relativo nas folhas, pigmentos fotossintéticos e biomassa fresca e seca dos brotos em todas as sete populações. Populações de Dingarh Fort, Dingarh Grassland e Haiderwali tiveram maior crescimento do que as de outras populações. As populações de Cholistani, especialmente em Dingarh Grassland e Haiderwali, apresentaram maior capacidade de ajuste osmótico, refletido pelo potencial osmótico e maior acúmulo de proteínas solúveis totais. H2O2 máximo sob estresse hídrico foi observado em populações de Muzaffargarh e Khanewal, mas estas foram intermediárias no conteúdo de MDA. Sob estresse hídrico, as populações de Muzaffargarh e Dingarh Fort tiveram maior acúmulo de K+ em suas folhas. Durante a seca progressiva, as populações não cholistanesas mostraram rolagem completa das folhas após 23 dias de seca, e essas populações não conseguiram suportar mais condições de estresse hídrico, enquanto as populações cholistani toleraram mais condições de estresse hídrico por 31 dias. Além disso, a seca progressiva causou danos ao PSII após 19 dias e tornou-se severa após 23 dias em populações não cholistanesas de P. antidotale do que em populações cholistanesas.


Assuntos
Panicum , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Dessecação , Secas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio
5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246776, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629624

RESUMO

The study was aimed to identify different environmental factors (selected organochlorine pesticides) affecting the river water of Satluj. River Sutlej is about 1400 kilometers long and its water is extensively used for irrigation in Punjab, located both in India and Pakistan, which was also a reason of dispute between both countries for its water share. The study area was divided into four zones, Sulemanki Zone, Islam Zone, Mailsi Syphone Zone and Panjnad Zone. Liquid Liquid Extraction (LLE) technique was used for the collected water samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) UV-Visible detector The current finding revealed that aldrin was not detected during summer period in water samples of SZ-1 (Sulemanki Barrage), SZ-2 and SZ-3 (Maisli Siphon) of the study area. Lindane and DDE were found more in the samples of sediments from the study area at SZ-4 ranging from 2.238-8.226 ppb and 4.234-6.876 ppb, respectively. Heaptachlor (in sediments) was found to be0.032-234 ppb only at SZ-4.Endosulfan concentrations in water (winter) at SZ-3 was 0.06 ppb and at SZ-4,it was 0.05 ppb; dieldrin in water (winter) at SZ-4 was 0.0314 ppb and heptachlor was detected at SZ-1 (0.0315 ppb) and SZ-2 (0.0310 ppb) in water during winter season, were reaching to the Maximum Concentrations Limits (MCL), while all other residues investigated were found below the MCLin all the compartments of the study area set by various agencies like WHO/FAO- Codex Alimenterious. Present findings revealed that although the organochlorine pesticides are banned for agricultural use in many countries, including Pakistan, their presence in various samples might be due to illegal use of these pesticides in the study area and its neighboring regions. The overall study area comprises of mainly urban, suburban and agricultural land being the largest cotton growing area of the country. There is a need to take serious steps to minimize water pollution caused by pesticides to achieve a healthy lifestyle.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Rios/química , Paquistão , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249159, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339415

RESUMO

Abstract There is a paucity of research conducted on microbial prevalence in pheasants. The microbiota of captive birds has zoonotic significance and must be characterize. Present study is therefore planned to assess the microbiota from oral, fecal and gut content of captive avian species. It will be helpful in characterization of harmful microbes. Different samples taken from oral, gut and feces of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Samples were collected, diluted, and inoculated onto different agar plates (MacConkey, SS agar, MSA and nutrient agar) for cultivation of bacterial species. Colonies of E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. Brachyspira spp. and Campylobacter spp were observed based on colony morphology. Colony forming unit showed E. coli as frequently found bacteria in fecal, oral and gut contents of all the above pheasants. The overall significance difference was found among bacterial species of golden pheasants, green pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, and silver pheasants. It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira.


Resumo Há uma escassez de pesquisas realizadas sobre a prevalência microbiana em faisões. A microbiota de aves em cativeiro tem significado zoonótico e deve ser caracterizada. O presente estudo está, portanto, planejado para avaliar a microbiota do conteúdo oral, fecal e intestinal de espécies aviárias em cativeiro. Será útil na caracterização de micróbios nocivos. Diferentes amostras retiradas da boca, intestino e fezes de faisões de pescoço redondo (Phasianus colchicus), faisões verdes (Phasianus versicolor), faisões dourados (Chrysolophus pictus) e faisão prateado (Lophura nycthemera). As amostras foram coletadas, diluídas e inoculadas em diferentes placas de ágar (MacConkey, ágar SS, MSA e ágar nutriente) para o cultivo de espécies bacterianas. Colônias de E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Brachyspira spp. e Campylobacter spp foram observados com base na morfologia da colônia. A unidade formadora de colônia mostrou E. coli como bactéria frequentemente encontrada no conteúdo fecal, oral e intestinal de todos os faisões acima. A diferença de significância geral foi encontrada entre as espécies bacterianas de faisões dourados, faisões verdes, faisões de pescoço anelado e faisões prateados. Verificou-se que a E.coli é predominantemente isolada de faisões saudáveis, seguida por Campylobacter, Staphylococcus e Brachyspira.


Assuntos
Animais , Galliformes , Escherichia coli , Fezes
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247562, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339410

RESUMO

Abstract To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T1 of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.


RESUMO Para investigar o papel do esterco de vaca na recuperação do solo e bioassimilação, juntamente com a bioacumulação de metais pesados ​​em minhocas (P. posthuma) (N = 900), minhocas foram usadas e grupos de tratamento de mistura CD-solo de diferentes proporções de esterco de vaca foram projetados. Doses não letais de acetato de chumbo e cloreto de cádmio foram adicionadas aos grupos de tratamento. P. posthuma maduros foram liberados em cada vaso experimental, mantendo as condições favoráveis. Foram avaliados o pH, carbono, nitrogênio, fósforo, cátions trocáveis ​​e nível de metais pesados ​​de cada mistura. Os resultados indicaram que a bioassimilação de Pb e Cd por P. posthuma foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,01) maior em diferentes tratamentos de solo-CD em relação ao controle. A maior bioassimilação de ambos os metais foi observada em T1 de ambos os grupos (Pb = 563,8 mg / kg e Cd = 42,95 mg / kg). O conteúdo de ambos os metais foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,05) reduzido na fundição. A concentração de nutrientes nas fundições finais de todos os tratamentos de solo-CD também foi igualmente transformada de menos ou insolúvel para mais solúvel e disponível para as plantas, exceto o nível de carbono que aumenta com a proporção de CD. Conclui-se que o esterco de vaca como matéria orgânica tem um efeito positivo na recuperação do solo e na bioassimilação de metais por P. posthuma.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Cádmio , Bovinos , Bioacumulação
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248420, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339367

RESUMO

Abstract Very little is known about the malacofauna in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, situated in the Northern part of Pakistan. The Swat valley possesses a variety of suitable environmental conditions, providing different types of habitats for both flora and fauna. Taken into consideration these points, the present study was conducted to explore the terrestrial snails diversity in agricultural and non-agricultural fields in the lower Swat valley. A total of 417 shells were collected from three sites: Kokarai, Kanju Township, and Deolai. Based on conchological features, three families: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae, and Zonitidae were identified using different terrestrial snail keys. In Kokarai and Deolai, shells of members of all the above-mentioned families were found from agricultural fields. In Kanju Township, shells of members of the family Bradybaenidae and Zonitidae were found. From these findings, it was concluded that district Swat possesses a significant malacofauna which was unexplored before and aided more to the existing literature on malacofauna. It also supports the idea that the agroecosystem is rich in species diversity. Further in-depth and extensive study is recommended to be carried out for a detailed taxonomy of the described terrestrial gastropod families.


Resumo Muito pouco se sabe sobre a malacofauna no distrito de Swat, na província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, situada na parte norte do Paquistão. O vale do Swat possui uma variedade de condições ambientais adequadas, proporcionando diferentes tipos de habitats para a flora e a fauna. Levando em consideração esses pontos, o presente estudo foi conduzido para explorar a diversidade dos caracóis terrestres em campos agrícolas e não agrícolas no vale inferior de Swat. Um total de 417 conchas foram coletadas em três locais: Kokarai, Kanju Township e Deolai. Com base em características concológicas, três famílias: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae e Zonitidae foram identificadas usando diferentes chaves de caramujos terrestres. Em Kokarai e Deolai, conchas de membros de todas as famílias mencionadas acima foram encontradas em campos agrícolas. No município de Kanju, foram encontradas conchas de membros da família Bradybaenidae e Zonitidae. A partir dessas constatações, concluiu-se que o distrito de Swat possui uma malacofauna significativa que antes era inexplorada e ajudava mais a literatura existente sobre a malacofauna. Também apoia a ideia de que o agroecossistema é rico em diversidade de espécies. Recomenda-se a realização de um estudo mais aprofundado e extenso para uma taxonomia detalhada das famílias de gastrópodes terrestres descritas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Ecossistema , Agricultura , Paquistão , Caramujos
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245807, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285613

RESUMO

Abstract Linum usitatissimum L is a widely used traditionally for multiple ailments. The present research was carried out to explore the antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm activity of crude extract of Linum usitatissimum L (Lu. Cr). Phytochemical and proximate analyses were performed. The bandages of diabetic foot patients were collected from the various hospitals. The bandages were cultured to isolate the bacterial strains present on it. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial potential whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration of the Lu.Cr were also determined. Proximate analysis confirms moisture content 8.33%, ash content 4.33%, crude protein 21.20%, crude fat 49.2% and crude fiber 5.63%. It was revealed that Gram-positive bacteria are most prevalent among all study groups. Lu.Cr possess significant bactericidal potential against S. aureus among all other microbes. Owing to this potential, linseed coated bandages can be used alternatively for the treatment of diabetic foot.


Resumo Linum usitatissimum L é amplamente utilizado tradicionalmente para doenças múltiplas. O presente trabalho foi realizado para explorar a atividade antimicrobiana e antibiofilme do extrato bruto de Linum usitatissimum L (Lu.Cr). Foram realizadas análises fitoquímicas e aproximadas. As ataduras de pacientes diabéticos com pé foram recolhidas nos vários hospitais. As bandagens foram cultivadas para isolar as cepas bacterianas presentes nas mesmas. O método de difusão em disco foi utilizado para identificar o potencial antimicrobiano e a concentração inibitória mínima do Lu.Cr também foi determinada. A análise aproximada confirma o teor de umidade 8,33%, teor de cinzas 4,33%, proteína bruta 21,20%, gordura bruta 49,2% e fibra bruta 5,63%. Foi revelado que as bactérias Gram-positivas são mais prevalentes entre todos os grupos de estudo. Lu.Cr possui potencial bactericida significativo contra S. aureus entre todos os outros micróbios. Devido a esse potencial, as ligaduras revestidas com linhaça podem ser utilizadas alternativamente para o tratamento do pé diabético.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Linho , Diabetes Mellitus , Staphylococcus aureus , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Biofilmes , Metanol
10.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e243905, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383902

RESUMO

In the developed countries, the use of OCPs (organochlorine pesticides) has been banned. However, in South Asia several of them are still in use. In Pakistan and India a constant addition of OCPs into the atmosphere has been indicated by various researchers. In this study levels of selected organochlorine pesticide residues were assessed in sediment and biota collected from four (4) water reservoirs (3 Barrages & 1 Siphon) on the River Satluj Pakistan, along 231 miles (372 km) of River stretch which was further divided into 12 sampling sites. It was aimed to find out the levels of organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) residues in sediments and from selected fish species (Labeo rohita, Wallagu attu, Cyprinus carpio) of the River Satluj Pakistan. The Organochlorine residues (seven pesticides) present in samples of sediments and biota were investigated through multi residue method, using Gas Chromatograph (GC-ECD).In the current study, the concentration of DDT, was investigated in Wallago attu (0.786-3.987 ppb), Labeo rohita (0.779-4.355 ppb) and Cyprinus carpio (1.234-5.654 ppb). DDE was also found in Cyprinus carpio (1.244-6.322 ppb), Wallag attu (0.877-4.221 ppb) and Labeo rohita (2.112-5.897 ppb). Aldrin was not observed in Labeo rohita and Wallago attu. Currently, lindane and DDE was found predominately high in the sediments of study area at SZ-4 (Panjnad Barrage) ranging (2.238-8.226 ppb) and (4.234-6.876 ppb), respectively. Heaptachlor was found only at SZ-4 (Panjnad Barrage) from the sediments with concentration ranging (0.032-234 ppb). In short all other residues investigated were found below the MCL (maximum concentration level) in all the compartments of the study area set by various agencies like WHO/FAO- Codex Alimenterious.


Assuntos
Carpas , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Rios/química , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/análise , Paquistão , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Biota
12.
SLAS Technol ; 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328181

RESUMO

It is meaningful to find suitable in vitro models for preclinical toxicology and efficacy evaluation of nanodrugs and nanocarriers or drug screening and promoting clinical transformation of nanocarriers. The emergence and development of organoids technology provide a great possibility to achieve this goal. Herein, we constructed an in vitro 3D organoid model to study the inhibitory effect of nanocarriers on colorectal cancer. And designed hydroxyapatite nanoclusters (c-HAP) mediated by polydopamine (PDA) formed under alkaline conditions (pH 9.0), then used c-HAP to load DOX (c-HAP/DOX) as nanocarrier for improved chemotherapy. In vitro, drug release experiments show that c-HAP/DOX has suitable responsive to pH, can be triggered to the facile release of DOX in a slightly acidic environment (pH 6.0), and maintain specific stability in a neutral pH value (7.4) environment. c-HAP/DOX showed an excellent antitumor effect in the two-dimensional (2D) cell model and three-dimensional (3D) patient-derived colon cancer organoids (PDCCOs) model. In addition, c-HAP/DOX can release a sufficient amount of DOX to produce cytotoxicity in a slightly acidic environment, entering efficiently into the colorectal cancer cells caused endocytosis and induced apoptosis. Therefore, organoids can serve as an effective in vitro model to present the structure and function of colorectal cancer tissues and be used to evaluate the efficacy of nanocarriers for tumors.

13.
Exp Gerontol ; 171: 112034, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36423404

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The long-term complications of COVID-19 appear as significant health problems. However, the long-term muscle decline in these patients is poorly characterized. METHODS: We investigated the age-related muscle decline, termed sarcopenia, before and following the COVID-19 infection in older male patients (n = 87). We evaluated handgrip strength (HGS) and functional capacity (short physical performance battery; SPPB) in COVID-19 patients 7-42 days before and one week and 6-month after COVID-19 infection. We used ELISA tests to measure plasma c-terminal agrin fragment-22 (CAF22), c-reactive protein (CRP), and 8-isoprostanes as markers of degraded neuromuscular junctions, inflammation, and oxidative stress, respectively. RESULTS: Before the COVID-19 infection, 54 patients were non-sarcopenic, and 25 patients were sarcopenic, while eight patients subsequently developed sarcopenia. All patients exhibited reduced HGS and SPPB, while elevated CAF22, CRP, and 8-isoprostane levels one week post-COVID-19 infection (all p < 0.05). At six months post-COVID-19 infection, the HGS, SPPB, CAF22, CRP, and 8-isoprostanes were partly restored to baseline levels (all p < 0.05). Correlation analysis revealed that the plasma CAF22 had a significant correlation with HGS, SPPB, and COVID-19 disease severity. CAF22 also demonstrated significant areas under the curves in diagnosing sarcopenia at all three time-points. CONCLUSION: Altogether, the muscle detriment due to COVID-19 persists six months post-infection, and plasma CAF22 may be helpful to detect muscle and functional decline in these patients. Timely evaluation and intervention of sarcopenia may be critical in COVID-19 treatment.

14.
Environ Pollut ; 315: 120447, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270566

RESUMO

The abundance of plastic debris (PDs) and its correlation with phthalic acid esters (PAEs), a class of pollutants associated with plastics, is not well understood, although PDs have been reported in relation to the release and distribution of aquatic pollutants such as PAEs. Few studies have linked the distribution of these pollutants in seawater. The current study examined the abundance and relationship of PDs and PAEs in seawater from Sharm Obhur and the Red Sea. Estimates were also made of their ecological impacts. Sharm Obhur is a semi-enclosed bay on the eastern shore of the Red Sea, near Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and is heavily impacted by human activities. Contaminants from Sharm Obhur may be transported into the deep waters of the Red Sea by the subsurface outflow. The PAEs concentrations in the study area ranged from 0.8 to 1224 ng/L. Among the six PAEs studied, diethyl phthalate (DEP) (22-1124 ng/L), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) (9-346 ng/L) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) (62-640 ng/L) were the predominant additives detected across all the sampling sits. Whereas the other PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP) (5-76 ng/L), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) (4-25 ng/L) and di-n-octyl phthalate DnOp (0.5-80 ng/L) were generally lower in most samples. The sum of the six analyzed PAEs (∑6 PAEs) was lower at Sharm Obhur (587 ± 82 ng/L) and in the Red Sea shelf (677 ± 182 ng/L) compared to the Red Sea shelf break (1266 ± 354 ng/L). This suggests that degradation and adsorption of PAEs were higher in Sharm Obhur and on the shelf than on the shelf break. In contrast, there was no difference in the abundance of PDs between Sharm Obhur (0.04 ± 0.02 PDs/m3), Red Sea shelf (0.05 ± 0.02 PDs/m3) and in the Red Sea shelf break (0.03 ± 0.1 PDs/m3). Polyethylene (32%) and polypropylene (8%) were dominant, mostly smaller than 5 mm2 (78%), with the majority consisting of white (52%) and black (24%) fragments (39%), fibers (35%) and films (24%). A positive correlation between PAE concentration and abundance of PDs, suggests either a common source or a causal link through leaching. The ecological risk of ∑4PAEs (DMP, DEP, DBP and DEHP) ranged from (0.20-0.78), indicating a low to moderate risk for the Red Sea. The pollution index of PDs ranged from (0.14-0.36), showing that the Sharm Obhur and both sites of Red Sea suffered relatively low pollution.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Ácidos Ftálicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Ésteres/análise , Plásticos , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Oceano Índico , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Dibutilftalato/análise , China
15.
Mater Today Bio ; 16: 100450, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36267139

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most violent class of tumor and accounts for 20-24% of total breast carcinoma, in which frequently rare mutation occurs in high frequency. The poor prognosis, recurrence, and metastasis in the brain, heart, liver and lungs decline the lifespan of patients by about 21 months, emphasizing the need for advanced treatment. Recently, the adaptive immunity mechanism of archaea and bacteria, called clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) combined with nanotechnology, has been utilized as a potent gene manipulating tool with an extensive clinical application in cancer genomics due to its easeful usage and cost-effectiveness. However, CRISPR/Cas are arguably the efficient technology that can be made efficient via organic material-assisted approaches. Despite the efficacy of the CRISPR/Cas@nano complex, problems regarding successful delivery, biodegradability, and toxicity remain to render its medical implications. Therefore, this review is different in focus from past reviews by (i) detailing all possible genetic mechanisms of TNBC occurrence; (ii) available treatments and gene therapies for TNBC; (iii) overview of the delivery system and utilization of CRISPR-nano complex in TNBC, and (iv) recent advances and related toxicity of CRISPR-nano complex towards clinical trials for TNBC.

16.
Indian J Orthop ; 56(11): 1871-1881, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36092280

RESUMO

Purpose: The timing of treatment for Gartland type III supracondylar fractures has been an area of contention as it was previously thought to be a surgical emergency. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to clarify whether there is a difference in perioperative outcomes between early and delayed treatment for Gartland type III supracondylar humeral fractures in children. Methods: Literature search and study selection were performed according to the PRISMA process. The early surgery (ES) and delayed surgery (DS) groups were defined by the authors of each study included, based on the time to surgery. The primary outcome was the risk of conversion to open reduction. The secondary outcome was perioperative complication risks. Results: A total of 14 studies met the eligibility criteria (n = 1263 patients), of which 665 (52.7%) patients had undergone early surgery, while 598 (47.3%) had delayed surgery. On meta-analysis, there was no significant difference between ES and DS for the outcome of open reduction conversion risk. There was also no significant difference for the secondary outcomes of post-operative compartment syndrome, iatrogenic nerve injury, vascular injury, and surgical site infection. Conclusion: Despite the limitations in the literature, evidence exists to support the notion that a delayed approach to the surgical treatment of Gartland type III supracondylar humeral fractures in children does not result in an increased risk of converting to open reduction and perioperative complications.

17.
World Neurosurg ; 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided laser interstitial therapy (MrLITT) presents a new valuable treatment alternative when the in-field recurrence (IFR) of metastatic brain tumors is difficult to safely access with open surgery or maximum radiation therapy has already been completed. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of MrLITT on longevity outcomes based on volume of ablation. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out of 35 patients treated with MrLITT for IFR after radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumors at a single institution from 2010 to 2016. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses according to ablation volume. Univariate and multivariate analyses further assessed risk factors based on ablation volume. RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier analyses showed no significant differences between total and subtotal ablation groups in OS (61.1 vs. 49.7 weeks) and PFS (45.1 and 42.7 weeks), respectively (P > 0.05). In the subtotal ablation group, independent risk factors included preoperative tumor volume (hazard ratio [HR], 1.24; P = 0.05) for OS and residual tumor volume (HR, 2.62; P = 0.01) for PFS. Multivariate Cox regressions suggested no significant differences in OS (HR, 1.03; P = 0.19) and PFS (HR, 1.02; P = 0.24) between total and subtotal ablation groups, whereas preoperative tumor volume remained a risk factor for decreased OS (HR, 1.23; P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: MrLITT is an effective treatment option for IFR after radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumors. The benefits of more aggressive gross total ablations of deep targets near eloquent cortices are limited compared with effective subtotal ablations, but the amount of residual tumor volume left must be appropriately balanced.

18.
J Mater Chem B ; 10(34): 6532-6545, 2022 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36000458

RESUMO

Nanotheranostic agents based on plasmonic nanostructures with their resonance wavelengths located in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II) have gained significant attention in profound tumor photothermal therapy. However, the modulation of localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanomaterials from the first near-infrared (NIR-I) window to the NIR-II window is still challenging. The structures and compositions of the plasmonic nanomaterials have demonstrated promising characteristics in controlling the optical properties of plasmonic nanostructures. Here, gold nanorod (Au NR) coated with an ultrathin palladium (Pd) shell was developed for tumor-targeted NIR-II photothermal-augmented nanocatalytic therapy through the combination of compositional manipulation and structural evolution strategies. These Au@Pd core-shell hybrid NRs (HNRs) were functionalized with biocompatible chitosan (CS) to acquire lower toxicity and higher stability in physiological systems. Further, Au@Pd-CS HNRs were endowed with an excellent targeting ability by conjugating with folic acid (FA). The as-synthesized Au@Pd-CS-FA HNRs show efficient and complete photothermal ablation of tumor cells upon 1064 nm laser irradiation. The remarkable photothermal conversion efficiency of 69.0% was achieved, which is superior to many reported photothermal agents activated in the NIR-II region. Excitingly, Au@Pd-CS-FA HNRs have peroxidase and catalase activities, simultaneously producing ˙OH for catalytic therapy and O2 for relieving tumor hypoxia and photodynamic therapy. Additionally, in vivo tumor photothermal therapy was carried out, where the biocompatible Au@Pd-CS-FA HNRs penetrate intensely into the tumor cells and consequently show remarkable therapeutic effects. The idea about plasmonic modulation behind the bimetallic core-shell nanostructure in this report can be extended to construct new classes of metal-based nanotheranostic agents with dual-modal combined therapy as an alternative to traditional chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Nanotubos , Neoplasias , Ouro/química , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nanotubos/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Paládio/farmacologia , Terapia Fototérmica
19.
Neurosci Res ; 184: 47-53, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35940439

RESUMO

Age-related muscle decline, termed sarcopenia, is closely linked to dementia; however, its causative factors in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are poorly characterized. We investigated the plasma biomarkers of increased intestinal permeability (zonulin) and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) disruption (c-terminal agrin fragment-22; CAF22), in healthy controls (n = 53) and patients with early, mild, and moderate AD (n = 46-56/group). We also evaluated the body composition, handgrip strength (HGS), and short physical performance battery (SPPB) as markers of sarcopenia and functional capacity, respectively. Patients with AD had elevated plasma zonulin and CAF22, along with reduced HGS, gait speed, and SPPB scores than controls (all p < 0.05). Plasma zonulin and CAF22 exhibited robust negative associations with HGS and relatively weak but statistically significant associations with gait speed and ASMI (all p < 0.05). Lower SPPB scores were associated with elevated plasma zonulin and CAF22 levels. Patients with moderate AD had higher plasma zonulin, CAF22, prevalence of sarcopenia, and lower HGS and SPPB scores than patients with early AD. These patients also presented with upregulation of markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Altogether, AD was associated with an advanced sarcopenia phenotype, and plasma zonulin and CAF22 may be useful in assessing sarcopenia and functional dependency in AD patients.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Sarcopenia , Biomarcadores , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Haptoglobinas , Humanos , Precursores de Proteínas , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia
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