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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248420, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339367

RESUMO

Abstract Very little is known about the malacofauna in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, situated in the Northern part of Pakistan. The Swat valley possesses a variety of suitable environmental conditions, providing different types of habitats for both flora and fauna. Taken into consideration these points, the present study was conducted to explore the terrestrial snails diversity in agricultural and non-agricultural fields in the lower Swat valley. A total of 417 shells were collected from three sites: Kokarai, Kanju Township, and Deolai. Based on conchological features, three families: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae, and Zonitidae were identified using different terrestrial snail keys. In Kokarai and Deolai, shells of members of all the above-mentioned families were found from agricultural fields. In Kanju Township, shells of members of the family Bradybaenidae and Zonitidae were found. From these findings, it was concluded that district Swat possesses a significant malacofauna which was unexplored before and aided more to the existing literature on malacofauna. It also supports the idea that the agroecosystem is rich in species diversity. Further in-depth and extensive study is recommended to be carried out for a detailed taxonomy of the described terrestrial gastropod families.


Resumo Muito pouco se sabe sobre a malacofauna no distrito de Swat, na província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, situada na parte norte do Paquistão. O vale do Swat possui uma variedade de condições ambientais adequadas, proporcionando diferentes tipos de habitats para a flora e a fauna. Levando em consideração esses pontos, o presente estudo foi conduzido para explorar a diversidade dos caracóis terrestres em campos agrícolas e não agrícolas no vale inferior de Swat. Um total de 417 conchas foram coletadas em três locais: Kokarai, Kanju Township e Deolai. Com base em características concológicas, três famílias: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae e Zonitidae foram identificadas usando diferentes chaves de caramujos terrestres. Em Kokarai e Deolai, conchas de membros de todas as famílias mencionadas acima foram encontradas em campos agrícolas. No município de Kanju, foram encontradas conchas de membros da família Bradybaenidae e Zonitidae. A partir dessas constatações, concluiu-se que o distrito de Swat possui uma malacofauna significativa que antes era inexplorada e ajudava mais a literatura existente sobre a malacofauna. Também apoia a ideia de que o agroecossistema é rico em diversidade de espécies. Recomenda-se a realização de um estudo mais aprofundado e extenso para uma taxonomia detalhada das famílias de gastrópodes terrestres descritas.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247562, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339410

RESUMO

Abstract To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T1 of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.


RESUMO Para investigar o papel do esterco de vaca na recuperação do solo e bioassimilação, juntamente com a bioacumulação de metais pesados ​​em minhocas (P. posthuma) (N = 900), minhocas foram usadas e grupos de tratamento de mistura CD-solo de diferentes proporções de esterco de vaca foram projetados. Doses não letais de acetato de chumbo e cloreto de cádmio foram adicionadas aos grupos de tratamento. P. posthuma maduros foram liberados em cada vaso experimental, mantendo as condições favoráveis. Foram avaliados o pH, carbono, nitrogênio, fósforo, cátions trocáveis ​​e nível de metais pesados ​​de cada mistura. Os resultados indicaram que a bioassimilação de Pb e Cd por P. posthuma foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,01) maior em diferentes tratamentos de solo-CD em relação ao controle. A maior bioassimilação de ambos os metais foi observada em T1 de ambos os grupos (Pb = 563,8 mg / kg e Cd = 42,95 mg / kg). O conteúdo de ambos os metais foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,05) reduzido na fundição. A concentração de nutrientes nas fundições finais de todos os tratamentos de solo-CD também foi igualmente transformada de menos ou insolúvel para mais solúvel e disponível para as plantas, exceto o nível de carbono que aumenta com a proporção de CD. Conclui-se que o esterco de vaca como matéria orgânica tem um efeito positivo na recuperação do solo e na bioassimilação de metais por P. posthuma.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249159, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339415

RESUMO

Abstract There is a paucity of research conducted on microbial prevalence in pheasants. The microbiota of captive birds has zoonotic significance and must be characterize. Present study is therefore planned to assess the microbiota from oral, fecal and gut content of captive avian species. It will be helpful in characterization of harmful microbes. Different samples taken from oral, gut and feces of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Samples were collected, diluted, and inoculated onto different agar plates (MacConkey, SS agar, MSA and nutrient agar) for cultivation of bacterial species. Colonies of E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. Brachyspira spp. and Campylobacter spp were observed based on colony morphology. Colony forming unit showed E. coli as frequently found bacteria in fecal, oral and gut contents of all the above pheasants. The overall significance difference was found among bacterial species of golden pheasants, green pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, and silver pheasants. It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira.


Resumo Há uma escassez de pesquisas realizadas sobre a prevalência microbiana em faisões. A microbiota de aves em cativeiro tem significado zoonótico e deve ser caracterizada. O presente estudo está, portanto, planejado para avaliar a microbiota do conteúdo oral, fecal e intestinal de espécies aviárias em cativeiro. Será útil na caracterização de micróbios nocivos. Diferentes amostras retiradas da boca, intestino e fezes de faisões de pescoço redondo (Phasianus colchicus), faisões verdes (Phasianus versicolor), faisões dourados (Chrysolophus pictus) e faisão prateado (Lophura nycthemera). As amostras foram coletadas, diluídas e inoculadas em diferentes placas de ágar (MacConkey, ágar SS, MSA e ágar nutriente) para o cultivo de espécies bacterianas. Colônias de E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Brachyspira spp. e Campylobacter spp foram observados com base na morfologia da colônia. A unidade formadora de colônia mostrou E. coli como bactéria frequentemente encontrada no conteúdo fecal, oral e intestinal de todos os faisões acima. A diferença de significância geral foi encontrada entre as espécies bacterianas de faisões dourados, faisões verdes, faisões de pescoço anelado e faisões prateados. Verificou-se que a E.coli é predominantemente isolada de faisões saudáveis, seguida por Campylobacter, Staphylococcus e Brachyspira.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245807, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285613

RESUMO

Abstract Linum usitatissimum L is a widely used traditionally for multiple ailments. The present research was carried out to explore the antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm activity of crude extract of Linum usitatissimum L (Lu. Cr). Phytochemical and proximate analyses were performed. The bandages of diabetic foot patients were collected from the various hospitals. The bandages were cultured to isolate the bacterial strains present on it. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial potential whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration of the Lu.Cr were also determined. Proximate analysis confirms moisture content 8.33%, ash content 4.33%, crude protein 21.20%, crude fat 49.2% and crude fiber 5.63%. It was revealed that Gram-positive bacteria are most prevalent among all study groups. Lu.Cr possess significant bactericidal potential against S. aureus among all other microbes. Owing to this potential, linseed coated bandages can be used alternatively for the treatment of diabetic foot.


Resumo Linum usitatissimum L é amplamente utilizado tradicionalmente para doenças múltiplas. O presente trabalho foi realizado para explorar a atividade antimicrobiana e antibiofilme do extrato bruto de Linum usitatissimum L (Lu.Cr). Foram realizadas análises fitoquímicas e aproximadas. As ataduras de pacientes diabéticos com pé foram recolhidas nos vários hospitais. As bandagens foram cultivadas para isolar as cepas bacterianas presentes nas mesmas. O método de difusão em disco foi utilizado para identificar o potencial antimicrobiano e a concentração inibitória mínima do Lu.Cr também foi determinada. A análise aproximada confirma o teor de umidade 8,33%, teor de cinzas 4,33%, proteína bruta 21,20%, gordura bruta 49,2% e fibra bruta 5,63%. Foi revelado que as bactérias Gram-positivas são mais prevalentes entre todos os grupos de estudo. Lu.Cr possui potencial bactericida significativo contra S. aureus entre todos os outros micróbios. Devido a esse potencial, as ligaduras revestidas com linhaça podem ser utilizadas alternativamente para o tratamento do pé diabético.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e235612, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153466

RESUMO

Abstract The experiment was carried out on mango cv. Dusehri to investigate the effect of N, P and K fertilizers on vegetative, reproductive growth, yield and fruit quality. Eight different fertilizer combinations such as T1 (control), T2 (N), T3 (P), T4 (K), T5 (NP), T6 (NK), T7 (PK) and T8 (NPK) were used. Individual or combine fertilizer application of N (1000 g), P (750 g) and K (750 g) were applied during growing season in February and August. All the treatments significantly influenced on vegetative growth, flowering, fruiting, yield and other physiochemical attributes of mango as compared to control. Least effect was observed with individual fertilizer application while combine fertilizer treatments enhanced most of the investigated parameters. Especially, qualitative traits showed non-significant differences between treated and untreated mango trees. However, among the different treatments T8 (NPK) showed significance for fruiting aspects such as maximum size of growth flushes (177.51 mm), total number of panicles/tree (845), total number of flowers/panicle (974), sex ratio (69.18%), fruit retention (13.85%), total number of fruits/tree (379), yield (82 kg/tree), fruit weight (197.5 g), pulp weight (135.5 g) and physiochemical parameters namely TSS (24.53), Vit. C (57.63 mg/100 mL) and total sugar (20.84%). In general, combine application of NPK (T8) were the most effective in enhancing fruiting aspects, yield, physiochemical characteristics as well as improved fruit quality of mango trees.


Resumo O experimento foi realizado em manga cv. Dusehri para investigar o efeito dos fertilizantes N, P e K no crescimento vegetativo, reprodutivo, produtividade e de qualidade do fruto. Foram utilizadas oito combinações diferentes de fertilizantes: T1 (controle), T2 (N), T3 (P), T4 (K), T5 (NP), T6 (NK), T7 (PK) e T8 (NPK). Cada tratamento de N (1.000 g), P (750 g) e K (750 g) foi aplicado duas vezes durante a estação de crescimento em fevereiro e agosto. Todos os tratamentos influenciaram significativamente o crescimento vegetativo, floração, frutificação, produtividade e outros atributos físico-químicos da manga em relação ao controle. Menos efeito foi observado com a aplicação individual de fertilizante, enquanto os tratamentos combinados aumentaram a maioria dos parâmetros investigados. Especialmente as características qualitativas mostraram diferenças não significativas entre mangueiras tratadas e não tratadas. No entanto, entre os diferentes tratamentos, T8 (NPK) apresentou significância para aspectos de frutificação, como tamanho máximo de folgas de crescimento (177,51 mm), número total de panículas/árvore (845), número total de flores/panícula (974), razão sexual (69,18%), retenção de frutos (13,85%), número total de frutos/árvore (379), produção (82 kg/árvore), peso do fruto (197,5 g) e peso da polpa (135,5 g), além de parâmetros físico-químicos, como TSS (24,53), vitamina C (57,63 mg/100 mL) e açúcar total (20,84%). Em geral, a aplicação combinada de NPK (T8) foi a mais eficaz no aprimoramento dos aspectos de frutificação, produtividade, características físico-químicas, além da melhoria da qualidade dos frutos das mangueiras.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242635, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278477

RESUMO

Abstract Indian crested porcupine is the largest rodent pest that damages a wide variety of crops, vegetables, and tree species which ultimately causes huge economic loss in Pakistan, which is an agricultural country. It prefers to live in hilly terrain but common in temperate and tropical forests, shrublands, and grasslands. This study focused on the identification and assessment of crops damaged along with the main precautionary measures used by the local farmers. The data was collected from twenty-four villages of two union councils i.e. Chamhad and Slahad of district Abbottabad. Two types of data (primary and secondary) were collected from the study area. Primary data was collected for identification and estimation calculation of total crop damaged through direct field observation by taking random quadrates in each village of the study area. The damage in the crop was assessed by randomly selecting a quadrate of 1x1 m2 for the wheat, pearl millet, and Sorghum fields. While 4x4 m2 quadrates were taken for maize and vegetables. At least three quadrate samples were taken from each field including one quadrate taken from the center of the field area. In union council Chamhad, damage to maize (11.31%) and wheat (0.73%) by the Indian crested porcupine while in union council Salhad, damage of maize (6.95%) and wheat (1.6%) was observed. In the entire study area, overall damage to maize crop (8.01%) and wheat (0.88%) was calculated. Based on information obtained from the farmers, the Indian porcupine inflicted damage to potato, tomato, cauliflower, chili pepper, turnip, radish, pea, and onion, etc. Secondary data obtained through a questionnaire survey to explore the human porcupine conflict and precautionary measures used by the farmers and landowners. Open and close-ended questionnaires (159) highlighted the presence of Indian crested porcupine in the study area and 96% of the respondents have seen porcupine directly. Many types of precautionary measures were used by the farmers such as fencing, night stay, night firing, and dogs to decrease the crop damage, respondents (63.91%) use guns for hunting. however, due to the largely agricultural area and nocturnal behavior of Indian crested porcupine majority of the respondents (51.57%) did not use any precautionary measure. Biological control of Indian porcupine is recommended in the study area. Farmers should be encouraged and provide incentives and killing through current should be banned while proper hunting license should be issued to overcome overhunting. Scientific studies are required to control the reproduction of porcupine specifically in the more damaged areas.


Resumo O porco-espinho indiano é a maior praga de roedores que danifica uma grande variedade de culturas, vegetais e espécies de árvores, o que acaba por causar enormes perdas econômicas no Paquistão, que é um país agrícola. Prefere viver em terrenos montanhosos, mas comuns em florestas temperadas e tropicais, arbustos e pastagens. Este estudo concentrou-se na identificação e avaliação das lavouras danificadas, juntamente com as principais medidas de precaução utilizadas pelos agricultores locais. Os dados foram coletados de 24 aldeias de dois conselhos sindicais, ou seja, Chamhad e Slahad, do distrito de Abbottabad. Dois tipos de dados (primário e secundário) foram coletados da área de estudo. Foram coletados dados primários para identificação e cálculo de estimativa do total da cultura danificada por meio da observação direta do campo, tomando quadrantes aleatórios em cada aldeia da área de estudo. O dano na cultura foi avaliado pela seleção aleatória de um quadrante de 1x1 m2 para os campos de trigo, milheto pérola e sorgo, enquanto quadrantes de 4x4 m2 foram tomados para milho e legumes. Pelo menos três amostras de quadrante foram colhidas de cada campo, incluindo um quadrante retirado do centro da área do campo. No Conselho Sindical de Chamhad, houve danos ao milho (11,31%) e ao trigo (0,73%) pelo porco-espinho indiano, enquanto no Conselho Sindical de Salhad, danos ao milho (6,95%) e ao trigo (1,6%) foram observados. Em toda a área do estudo, danos gerais à cultura do milho (8,01%) e ao trigo (0,88%) foram calculados. Com base em informações obtidas dos agricultores, o porco-espinho indiano infligiu danos à batata, tomate, couve-flor, pimenta, nabo, rabanete, ervilha, cebola, etc. Dados secundários foram obtidos por meio de um questionário para explorar o conflito suíno humano e as medidas de precaução utilizadas pelos agricultores e proprietários de terras. Questionários abertos e fechados (159) destacaram a presença de porco-espinho indiano na área de estudo e 96% dos entrevistados viram o porco-espinho diretamente. Muitos tipos de medidas de precaução foram utilizados pelos agricultores, como esgrima, estadia noturna, fogo noturno e cães para diminuir os danos na lavoura. Dos entrevistados, 63,91% usaram armas para caçar. No entanto, devido à área ser em grande parte agrícola e ao comportamento noturno da maioria dos porcos-espinhos indianos, 51,57% não usaram nenhuma medida de precaução. O controle biológico do porco-espinho indiano é recomendado na área de estudo. Os agricultores devem ser encorajados e fornecer incentivos, e o uso da corrente para matar os animais deve ser banido, assim como deve ser emitida a licença de caça adequada para superar a caça excessiva. Estudos científicos são necessários para controlar a reprodução de porco-espinho, especificamente nas áreas mais danificadas.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243283, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278505

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Infectious agents cause serious diseases in humans worldwide and are responsible for the high rate of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence and epidemiology of infectious disease (HCV) in the hospital visited patients referred by the physicians through the initial findings and their associated risk factors were studied in Swat. The data of 174 infected patients were collected during the period of 2015 to 2017 from two clinical laboratories of Tehsil Matta Swat. Inform consent form was taken before blood collection. After taking informed consent blood samples were collected and ICT test was performed and then ICT positive cases were conform through PCR. A total of 174 ICT positive samples [106 male and 68 females] were included in this study. Age was considered from 10 to 72 years. Of the 174 ICT strip positive, 99 [63 males, 36 females] were confirmed through PCR. The prevalence rate was recorded 56.89%. I.V/I.M injection was recorded in 100% of the individuals. Visits to the barber shop was reported in (58%) of the individuals, married individuals were (81.0), surgical operation was reported in (44.8%), sharing toothbrush was observed in (29.9%), piercing was reported in (39.7%), family history was reported in (26.4%), dental treatment was observed in (21.8%), jaundice were (13.2%) and tattooing was (1.7%). Blood transfusion, surgical operations, Jaundice, family history and dental treatment were found significant risk factors for acquiring HCV infection. It was concluded that proper implementation of precautionary measures should be needed to control the spread of HCV in far near future.


RESUMO Agentes infecciosos causam doenças graves em humanos em todo o mundo, e são responsáveis pelo alto índice de morbimortalidade. A prevalência e a epidemiologia das doenças infecciosas no hospital que atendeu pacientes encaminhados pelos médicos por meio dos achados iniciais e seus fatores de risco associados foram estudadas em Peshawar. Os dados de 174 pacientes infectados foram coletados durante o período de 2015 a 2017 oriundos de dois laboratórios clínicos de Tehsil Matta Swat. O formulário de consentimento informado foi obtido antes da coleta de sangue. Após a obtenção do consentimento informado, foram coletadas amostras de sangue e foi realizado o teste ICT e, em seguida, os casos ICT positivos foram confirmados por PCR. Um total de 174 amostras ICT positivas [106 homens e 68 mulheres] foi incluído neste estudo. A idade considerada foi de 10 a 72 anos. Das 174 tiras de ICT positivas, 99 casos [63 homens, 36 mulheres] foram confirmados por PCR. A taxa de prevalência foi de 56,89%. A injeção IV / IM foi registrada em 100% dos indivíduos. A visita à barbearia foi relatada em (58%) dos indivíduos, os números de casados foram (81,0%), e a operação cirúrgica foi relatada em (44,8%), o compartilhamento de escova de dente foi observado em (29,9%), o piercing foi relatado em (39,7%), antecedentes familiares foram relatados em (26,4%), tratamento odontológico em (21,8%), icterícia (13,2%) e tatuagem em (1,7%). Transfusão de sangue, operações cirúrgicas, icterícia, histórico familiar e tratamento odontológico foram fatores de risco significativos para adquirir infecção por Vírus da Hepatite C (VHC). Concluiu-se que a implementação adequada de medidas de precaução deve ser necessária para controlar a propagação do VHC em um futuro próximo.

8.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242636, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285595

RESUMO

Abstract Cranes are the large and attractive Creatures of nature with long necks, legs, and life-span. Adults of both sexes are the same with similar color patterns. Demoiselle cranes spend most of their lifespan on dry grasses. They are also found around the stream, rivers, shallow lakes, natural wetlands, and depressions. To evaluate the current status of habitat use and major threats a study was conducted in tehsil Domel district Bannu. Line transect method and water quality tests (temperature, PH, contamination of E-coli bacteria) were used. To determine the major threats questionnaire method was used. The whole data was analyzed by using SPSS 21 version. Based on the distribution four study sites were selected and four water samples from each study site were taken. Most sites were moderate to highly degraded except Kashoo and kurram river mixing point which was low degraded with livestock grazing and human activities. Water quality tests showed PH ranges from 7-9, temperature 6.5-8.5, and contamination of E-coli in all samples. The social survey revealed that hunting, habitat degradation, and pollution as major threats. Effective long-term conservation and management in the study area are needed to focus on the protection of disturbance-free habitat.


Resumo Guindastes são a grande e atraente criatura da natureza com um pescoço longo, pernas e vida útil. Adultos de ambos os sexos são os mesmos com padrões de cores semelhantes. Guindastes Demoiselle passam a maior parte da vida em gramíneas secas. Também se encontram ao redor do córrego, rios, lagos rasos, pântanos naturais e depressões. Para avaliar o estado atual do uso do hábitat e as principais ameaças, um estudo foi realizado no distrito de Tehsil Domel, em Bannu. Foram utilizados o método transect e testes de qualidade da água (temperatura, pH, contaminação da bactéria E. coli). Para determinar as principais ameaçasfoi utilizado o método de questionário. Todos os dados foram analisados por meio da versão SPSS 21. Com base na distribuição, foram selecionados quatro locais de estudo e quatro amostras de água de cada local de estudo. A maioria dos locais estava moderada a altamente degradada, exceto no ponto de encontro dos rios Kashoo e Kurram, que teve baixa degradação com pastagem de gado e atividades humanas. Os testes de qualidade da água mostraram variação de pH de 7-9, temperatura 6,5-8,5 e contaminação de E. coli em todas as amostras. A pesquisa do questionário revelou que a caça, a degradação do hábitat e a poluição são as principais ameaças. Efetiva conservação e gestão a longo prazo na área de estudo são necessárias para se concentrar na proteção de um hábitat livre de distúrbios.

9.
Chemosphere ; : 133092, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856239

RESUMO

In order to enhance the photocatalytic performance and stability, the various proportions of the size controlled cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles were dispersed at the pre-synthesized ZnO. Although, the expected dual absorption onsets, probably due to the diminutive difference between the bandgaps of CeO2 (∼2.9 eV) and ZnO (∼3.1 eV), were not observed however, a blue shift in the bandgap energy of ZnO was witnessed with the increasing surface density of CeO2 particles. The delayed excitons recombination process with the increasing concentration of CeO2 nanoparticles was verified by the PL spectra. The structural investigation by Raman and XRD analysis revealed the surface attachment of CeO2 particles without altering the rock-salt lattice of ZnO. The morphological and fine microstructural analysis established the uniform distribution of evenly sized CeO2 particles at the surface of ZnO with the discrete fringe patterns of both the entities whereas the XPS analysis confirmed the majority of Ce4+ in dispersed CeO2. In comparison to pure ZnO, cyclic voltammetric (CV) analysis, under illumination, exposed the supportive role of surface residing CeO2 particles in eradicating the photo-corrosion of ZnO whereas the chronopotentiometry (CP) predicted the prolonged life-span of the excitons. Compared to pure ZnO, an appreciably high activity was revealed for 10% CeO2 loading as compared to pure ZnO for the removal of mono and di-nitrophenol derivatives and their mixtures under natural sunlight exposure. The variations in the removal rates in the mixture as compared to individual nitrophenol exposed the structure-based priority of ROS for the respective phenol. The significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity of the composite catalysts revealed the incremental role of surface-mounted CeO2 entities in boosting the generation of ROS under sunlight irradiation. The experimental observations were correlated and compiled to establish the mechanism of the removal process.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34857411

RESUMO

In head and cancer (HNC), osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is one of the most significant complications of radiotherapy (RT). With an absence of effective non-surgical treatment, prevention of the development of ORN is the best approach. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for the development of ORN in HNC. Records of 1,118 patients with HNC treated with radical RT (≥55Gy) from January 2010 to December 2019 were reviewed. After applying the exclusion criteria, 935 patients were included in the final analysis. In patients with confirmed ORN, exact RT doses were mapped. In total, 91 patients were found (9.7%) with a median (range) time of eight (3-89) months to the development of ORN. Smoking, having a primary site in the oropharynx, bone surgery before adjuvant RT, the addition of concurrent chemotherapy, the presence of xerostomia, dental extraction pre-RT, the time ≤20 days between dental extraction and start of RT, and receiving >55Gy RT dose were significant factors for its development. This comprehensive analysis including the precise RT dose mapping has shown the risk factors for the development of ORN. In practice, every effort should be made to avoid these risk factors without compromising the oncology treatment. The findings of this analysis may provide a basis for future prospective research on this topic.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773497

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy surgery continues to be profoundly underutilized despite its safety and effectiveness. We sought to investigate factors that may contribute to this phenomenon, with a particular focus on the antecedent underutilization of appropriate preoperative studies. METHODS: We reviewed patient data from a pediatric epilepsy clinic over an 18-month period. Patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) were categorized according to brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings (lesional, MRI-negative, or multifocal abnormalities) and type of epilepsy diagnosis based on semiology and electroencephalography (EEG) (focal or generalized). We then analyzed the rates of diagnostic test utilization, surgical referral, and subsequent epilepsy surgery as well as vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). RESULTS: Of the 249 patients with a diagnosis of epilepsy, 138 (55.4%) were found to have DRE. Excluding the 10 patients with DRE who did not undergo MRI, 76 patients (59.4%) were found to be MRI-negative (non-lesional epilepsy), 37 patients (28.9%) were found to have multifocal abnormalities, and 15 patients (11.7%) were found to have a single epileptogenic lesion on MRI (lesional epilepsy). Positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were each completed in nine patients (7.0%) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) in four patients (3.1%). Despite the low utilization rate of adjunctive studies, over half (56.3%) ultimately underwent VNS alone, and 8.6% ultimately underwent definitive intracranial resection or disconnection surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The underutilization of appropriate non-invasive, presurgical testing in patients with focal DRE may in part explain the continued underutilization of definitive, resective/disconnective surgery. For patients without access to a high-volume, multidisciplinary surgical epilepsy center, adjunctive presurgical studies [e.g., PET, SPECT, MEG, electrical source imaging (ESI), EEG-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)], even when available, are rarely ordered, and this may contribute to excessive rates of VNS in lieu of definitive intracranial surgery.

12.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783146

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) are important gaseous signalling molecules that regulate key physiochemical mechanisms of plants under environmental stresses. A number of attempts have been made to improve waterlogging tolerance in plants, but with limited success. Having said that, NO and H2 S are vital signalling molecules, but their role in mitigating waterlogging effects on crop plants is not well established. We investigated the efficacy of exogenous NO and H2 S to alleviate waterlogging effects in two wheat cultivars (Galaxy-2013 and FSD-2008). Waterlogging produced a noticeable reduction in plant growth, yield, chlorophyll, soluble sugars and free amino acids. Besides, waterlogging induced severe oxidative damage seen as higher cellular TBARS and H2 O2 content. Antioxidant enzyme activity increased together with a notable rise in Fe2+ and Mn2+ content. Proline content was higher in waterlogged plants compared with non-waterlogged plants. In contrast, waterlogging caused a substantial decline in endogenous levels of essential nutrients (K+ , Ca2+ and Mg2+ ). Waterlogged conditions led to Fe2+ and Mn2+ toxicity due to rapid reduction of Fe3+ and Mn3+ in the soil. Exogenous NO and H2 S significantly protected plants from waterlogging effects by enhancing the oxidative defence and regulating nutritional status. Besides, the protective effects of exogenous NO were more prominent as compared with effects of H2 S. Further, we did not study the effect of H2 S and NO on photosynthetic attributes and expression of stress-related genes. Therefore, future studies should examine the effects of H2 S and NO on wheat physiology and gene expression under waterlogging.

13.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724784

RESUMO

Guided bone regeneration (GBR) technology is a commonly used surgical procedure for the repair of damaged periodontal tissues. Poor mechanical property and rapid degradation rate are the major reasons for GBR membrane failure in clinical applications. Herein, we applied a green papermaking method to fabricate silk fibroin (SF) membranes blended with collagen and tested their performance. The results showed that the blended SF75 (SF and collagen in a weight ratio of 75:25) membranes are biocompatible with good mechanical properties in the wet condition and appropriate biodegradation rate. MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cell adhesion and proliferation on the membranes were improved by the hybrid biological functions of SF and collagen. Subcutaneous implantation in rats for 9 weeks demonstrated that the membranes induced a less severe inflammatory response. The biodegradation time of the SF75 membranes was appropriate for tissue regeneration. This research, for the first time, reports a blended membrane prepared from silk fibroin and collagen with an ecofriendly method, which shows promise for application in guided bone regeneration.

14.
Entropy (Basel) ; 23(11)2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34828214

RESUMO

The Selkov system, which is typically employed to model glycolysis phenomena, unveils some rich dynamics and some other complex formations in biochemical reactions. In the present work, the synchronization problem of the glycolysis reaction-diffusion model is handled and examined. In addition, a novel convenient control law is designed in a linear form and, on the other hand, the stability of the associated error system is demonstrated through utilizing a suitable Lyapunov function. To illustrate the applicability of the proposed schemes, several numerical simulations are performed in one- and two-spatial dimensions.

15.
Mol Cytogenet ; 14(1): 48, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620209

RESUMO

Nance-Horan syndrome (NHS) is a rare X-linked dominant disorder caused by mutation in the NHS gene on chromosome Xp22.13. (OMIM 302350). Classic NHS manifested in males is characterized by congenital cataracts, dental anomalies, dysmorphic facial features and occasionally intellectual disability. Females typically have a milder presentation. The majority of reported cases of NHS are the result of nonsense mutations and small deletions. Isolated X-linked congenital cataract is caused by non-recurrent rearrangement-associated aberrant NHS transcription. Classic NHS in females associated with gene disruption by balanced X-autosome translocation has been infrequently reported. We present a familial NHS associated with translocation t(X;19) (Xp22.13;q13.1). The proband, a 28-year-old female, presented with intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, short stature, primary amenorrhea, cleft palate, and horseshoe kidney, but no NHS phenotype. A karyotype and chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) revealed partial monosomy Xp/partial trisomy 19q with the breakpoint at Xp22.13 disrupting the NHS gene. Family history revealed congenital cataracts and glaucoma in the patient's mother, and congenital cataracts in maternal half-sister and maternal grandmother. The same balanced translocation t(X;19) was subsequently identified in both the mother and maternal half-sister, and further clinical evaluation of the maternal half-sister made a diagnosis of NHS. This study describes the clinical implication of NHS gene disruption due to balanced X-autosome translocations as a unique mechanism causing Nance-Horan syndrome, refines dose effects of NHS on disease presentation and phenotype expressivity, and justifies consideration of karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for female patients with familial NHS if single-gene analysis of NHS is negative.

16.
Clin Transl Oncol ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609675

RESUMO

Natural products, especially polyphenols (phenolic acids, lignans, and stilbenes) are suggested to be more potent anticancer drugs because of their no or less adverse effects, excess availability, high accuracy, and secure mode of action. In the present review, potential anticancer mechanisms of action of some polyphenols including phenolic acids, lignans, and stilbenes are discussed based on clinical, epidemiological, in vivo, and in vitro studies. The emerging evidence revealed that phenolic acids, lignans, and stilbenes induced apoptosis in the treatment of breast (MCF-7), colon (Caco-2), lung (SKLU-1), prostate (DU-145 and LNCaP), hepatocellular (hepG-2), and cervical (A-431) cancer cells, cell cycle arrest (S/G2/M/G1-phases) in gastric (MKN-45 and MKN-74), colorectal (HCT-116), bladder (T-24 and 5637), oral (H-400), leukemic (HL-60 and MOLT-4) and colon (Caco-2) cancer cells, and inhibit cell proliferation against the prostate (PC-3), liver (LI-90), breast (T47D and MDA-MB-231), colon (HT-29 and Caco-2), cervical (HTB-35), and MIC-1 cancer cells through caspase-3, MAPK, AMPK, Akt, NF-κB, Wnt, CD95, and SIRT1 pathways. Based on accumulated data, we suggested that polyphenols could be considered as a viable therapeutic option in the treatment of cancer cells in the near future.

17.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677551

RESUMO

In this study, polyacrylonitrile (PAN_P) nanofibers (NFs) were fabricated by electrospinning. The PAN_P NFs membrane was functionalized with diethylenetriamine to prepare a functionalized polyacrylonitrile (PAN_F) NFs membrane. TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized in the laboratory were anchored to the surface of the PAN_F NFs membrane by electrospray to prepare a TiO2 NPs coated NFs membrane (PAN_Coa). A second TiO2/PAN_P composite membrane (PAN_Co) was prepared by embedding TiO2 NPs into the PAN_P NFs by electrospinning. The membranes were characterized by microscopic, spectroscopic and X-ray techniques. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) revealed smooth morphologies for PAN_P and PAN_F NFs membranes and a dense cloud of TiO2 NPs on the surface of PAN_Coa NFs membrane. The attenuated total reflectance in the infrared (ATR-IR) proved the addition of the new amine functionality to the chemical structure of PAN. Transmission electron microscope images (TEM) revealed spherical TiO2 NPs with sizes between 18 and 32 nm. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) confirmed the existence of the anatase phase of TiO2. Surface profilometry da-ta showed increased surface roughness for the PAN_F and PAN_Coa NFs membranes. The adsorption-desorption isotherms and hysteresis loops for all NFs membranes followed the IV -isotherm and the H3 -hysteresis loop, corresponding to mesoporous and slit pores, respectively. The photocatalytic activities of PAN_Coa and PAN_Co NFs membranes against methyl orange dye degradation were evaluated and compared with those of bare TiO2 NPs.The higher photocatalytic activity of PAN_Coa membrane (92%, 20 ppm) compared to (PAN_Co) NFs membrane (41.64%, 20 ppm) and bare TiO2 (49.60%, 20 ppm) was attributed to the synergy between adsorption, lower band gap, high surface roughness and surface area.

18.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246243, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468516

RESUMO

The present study reports the existence of cliff racer, Platyceps rhodorachis from the plains of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 10 specimens were captured during the field surveys from June to September, 2018 from different sites of Punjab. Platyceps rhodorachis was identify on the basis of morphology and confirmed through COI gene sequences. The obtained DNA sequences have shown reliable and exact species identification. Newly produced DNA sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis were submitted to GenBank and accession numbers were obtained (MK936174.1, MK941839.1 and MT790210.1). N-J tree based on COI sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis clearly separated as out-group with other members of family Colubridae based on p-distance. The intra-specific genetic variation ranges from 12% to 18%. The DNA sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis kashmirensis, Platyceps rhodorachis ladacensis, Platyceps ventromaculatus, Platyceps ventromaculatus bengalensis and Platyceps ventromaculatus indusai are not available at NCBI to validate their taxonomic positions. In our recommendations, a large scale molecular based identification of Pakistan's herpetofauna is required to report more new or subspecies from country.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Animais , Paquistão , Filogenia , Filogeografia
19.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248022, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468531

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that arsenic crosses the placenta and affects the fetus development. The study under consideration aims to show comparative ameliorative effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and flower extracts against sodium arsenate induced fetus toxicity of mice. Pregnant mice (N=44) were kept in lab and divided into eleven group from (A to K) and were orally administered the doses 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg for sodium arsenate, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera leaf extracts (MOLE) and 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera flower extracts (MOFE) comparing with control. The investigation revealed evident reduction in the fetuses weight, hind limb, fore limb, tail and snout length, crown rump and head circumferences well as malformations in tail, feet, arms, legs, skin and eyes in the negative control group (only administered with sodium arsenate). Co-administration of sodium arsenate with MOLE and MOFE ameliorate the reversed effect of sodium arsenate on the shape, length, body weight and DNA damage of fetus significantly at 95% confidence interval. However, Moringa oleifera leaf extract showed more significant results in comparison to Moringa oleifera flower extract. Hence concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorated the embryo toxic effects of sodium arsenate and can be used against environmental teratogens.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera , Animais , Arseniatos , Dano ao DNA , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
20.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(9)2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575504

RESUMO

Pancreatic carcinoma (PC) is greatly induced by the KRAS gene mutation, but effective targeted delivery for gene therapy has not existed. Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) serves as an advanced therapeutic modality and holds great promise for cancer treatment. However, the development of a non-toxic and high-efficiency carrier system to accurately deliver siRNA into cells for siRNA-targeted gene silencing is still a prodigious challenge. Herein, polyethylenimine (PEI)-modified hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles (HAp-PEI) were fabricated. The siRNA of the KRAS gene (siKras) was loaded onto the surface of HAp-PEI via electrostatic interaction between siRNA and PEI to design the functionalized HAp-PEI nanoparticle (HAp-PEI/siKras). The HAp-PEI/siKras was internalized into the human PC cells PANC-1 to achieve the maximum transfection efficiency for active tumor targeting. HAp-PEI/siKras effectively knocked down the expression of the KRAS gene and downregulated the expression of the Kras protein in vitro. Furthermore, the treatment with HAp-PEI/siKras resulted in greater anti-PC cells' (PANC-1, BXPC-3, and CFPAC-1) efficacy in vitro. Additionally, the HAp-PEI exhibited no obvious in vitro cytotoxicity in normal pancreatic HPDE6-C7 cells. These findings provided a promising alternative for the therapeutic route of siRNA-targeted gene engineering for anti-pancreatic cancer therapy.

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