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1.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151849, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822894

RESUMO

Black Carbon (BC) is an important component of household air pollution (HAP) in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs), but levels and drivers of exposure are poorly understood. As part of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study, we analyzed 48-hour BC measurements for 1187 individual and 2242 household samples from 88 communities in 8 LMICs (Bangladesh, Chile, China, Colombia, India, Pakistan, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe). Light absorbance (10-5 m-1) of collected PM2.5 filters, a proxy for BC concentrations, was calculated via an image-based reflectance method. Surveys of household/personal characteristics and behaviors were collected after monitoring. The geometric mean (GM) of personal and household BC measures was 2.4 (3.3) and 3.5 (3.9)·10-5 m-1, respectively. The correlation between BC and PM2.5 was r = 0.76 for personal and r = 0.82 for household measures. A gradient of increasing BC concentrations was observed for cooking fuels: BC increased 53% (95%CI: 30, 79) for coal, 142% (95%CI: 117, 169) for wood, and 190% (95%CI: 149, 238) for other biomass, compared to gas. Each hour of cooking was associated with an increase in household (5%, 95%CI: 3, 7) and personal (5%, 95%CI: 2, 8) BC; having a window in the kitchen was associated with a decrease in household (-38%, 95%CI: -45, -30) and personal (-31%, 95%CI: -44, -15) BC; and cooking on a mud stove, compared to a clean stove, was associated with an increase in household (125%, 95%CI: 96, 160) and personal (117%, 95%CI: 71, 117) BC. Male participants only had slightly lower personal BC (-0.6%, 95%CI: -1, 0.0) compared to females. In multivariate models, we were able to explain 46-60% of household BC variation and 33-54% of personal BC variation. These data and models provide new information on exposure to BC in LMICs, which can be incorporated into future exposure assessments, health research, and policy surrounding HAP and BC.

2.
Digit Health ; 7: 20552076211033425, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777849

RESUMO

Objective: Remote or mobile consulting is being promoted to strengthen health systems, deliver universal health coverage and facilitate safe clinical communication during coronavirus disease 2019 and beyond. We explored whether mobile consulting is a viable option for communities with minimal resources in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We reviewed evidence published since 2018 about mobile consulting in low- and middle-income countries and undertook a scoping study (pre-coronavirus disease) in two rural settings (Pakistan and Tanzania) and five urban slums (Kenya, Nigeria and Bangladesh), using policy/document review, secondary analysis of survey data (from the urban sites) and thematic analysis of interviews/workshops with community members, healthcare workers, digital/telecommunications experts, mobile consulting providers, and local and national decision-makers. Project advisory groups guided the study in each country. Results: We reviewed four empirical studies and seven reviews, analysed data from 5322 urban slum households and engaged with 424 stakeholders in rural and urban sites. Regulatory frameworks are available in each country. Mobile consulting services are operating through provider platforms (n = 5-17) and, at the community level, some direct experience of mobile consulting with healthcare workers using their own phones was reported - for emergencies, advice and care follow-up. Stakeholder willingness was high, provided challenges are addressed in technology, infrastructure, data security, confidentiality, acceptability and health system integration. Mobile consulting can reduce affordability barriers and facilitate care-seeking practices. Conclusions: There are indications of readiness for mobile consulting in communities with minimal resources. However, wider system strengthening is needed to bolster referrals, specialist services, laboratories and supply chains to fully realise the continuity of care and responsiveness that mobile consulting services offer, particularly during/beyond coronavirus disease 2019.

3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(10)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635553

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diet and nutrition are leading causes of global morbidity and mortality. Our study aimed to identify and synthesise evidence on the association between food environment characteristics and diet, nutrition and health outcomes in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), relevant to urban settings, to support development and implementation of appropriate interventions. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search of 9 databases from 1 January 2000 to 16 September 2020 with no language restrictions. We included original peer-reviewed observational studies, intervention studies or natural experiments conducted in at least one urban LMIC setting and reporting a quantitative association between a characteristic of the food environment and a diet, nutrition or health outcome. Study selection was done independently in duplicate. Data extraction and quality appraisal using the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute checklists were completed based on published reports using a prepiloted form on Covidence. Data were synthesised narratively. RESULTS: 74 studies met eligibility criteria. Consistent evidence reported an association between availability characteristics in the neighbourhood food environment and dietary behaviour (14 studies, 10 rated as good quality), while the balance of evidence suggested an association with health or nutrition outcomes (17 of 24 relevant studies). We also found a balance of evidence that accessibility to food in the neighbourhood environment was associated with diet (10 of 11 studies) although evidence of an association with health outcomes was contradictory. Evidence on other neighbourhood food environment characteristics was sparse and mixed. Availability in the school food environment was also found to be associated with relevant outcomes. Studies investigating our other primary outcomes in observational studies of the school food environment were sparse, but most interventional studies were situated in schools. We found very little evidence on how workplace and home food environments are associated with relevant outcomes. This is a substantial evidence gap. CONCLUSION: 'Zoning' or 'healthy food cart' interventions to alter food availability may be appropriate in urban LMIC. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020207475.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Dieta , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pobreza
4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445025

RESUMO

The health and nutrition of the global adolescent population have been under-researched, in spite of its significant size (1.2 billion). This study investigates the prevalence and associated factors of malnutrition (stunting, thinness and overweight) among adolescents living in South Asia. The sample analysed was 24,053 South Asian schooled adolescents aged 12-15 years that participated in the cross-sectional Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2009 and 2016. The prevalence of stunting, thinness and overweight was calculated using the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Reference 2007. Associations between the three forms of malnutrition and their possible associated factors were assessed with binary logistic regression analysis using bootstrapping as a resampling method. The overall prevalence of stunting in South Asia was 13%, thinness was 10.8% and overweight was 10.8%. In the logistic regression model of the overall pooled sample, the factors associated with adolescent malnutrition were: age, hygiene behaviours, social support, sedentary behaviour, and tobacco use. A substantial proportion of stunting, thinness and overweight was found among school-going South Asian adolescents, indicating that the double burden of malnutrition is present in this population. Future research should seek to further understand the relationship between all forms of malnutrition and its associated factors in the adolescent population.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Ásia/epidemiologia , Criança , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Magreza/diagnóstico , Magreza/fisiopatologia
5.
BMJ ; 374: n1554, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261638

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation between intake of ultra-processed food and risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: 21 low, middle, and high income countries across seven geographical regions (Europe and North America, South America, Africa, Middle East, south Asia, South East Asia, and China). PARTICIPANTS: 116 087 adults aged 35-70 years with at least one cycle of follow-up and complete baseline food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data (country specific validated FFQs were used to document baseline dietary intake). Participants were followed prospectively at least every three years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was development of IBD, including Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Associations between ultra-processed food intake and risk of IBD were assessed using Cox proportional hazard multivariable models. Results are presented as hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Participants were enrolled in the study between 2003 and 2016. During the median follow-up of 9.7 years (interquartile range 8.9-11.2 years), 467 participants developed incident IBD (90 with Crohn's disease and 377 with ulcerative colitis). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, higher intake of ultra-processed food was associated with a higher risk of incident IBD (hazard ratio 1.82, 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 2.72 for ≥5 servings/day and 1.67, 1.18 to 2.37 for 1-4 servings/day compared with <1 serving/day, P=0.006 for trend). Different subgroups of ultra-processed food, including soft drinks, refined sweetened foods, salty snacks, and processed meat, each were associated with higher hazard ratios for IBD. Results were consistent for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis with low heterogeneity. Intakes of white meat, red meat, dairy, starch, and fruit, vegetables, and legumes were not associated with incident IBD. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of ultra-processed food was positively associated with risk of IBD. Further studies are needed to identify the contributory factors within ultra-processed foods. STUDY REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03225586.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Causalidade , Dieta Ocidental/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Tob Control ; 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concerns about the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade have prevented the Government of Pakistan from increasing tobacco taxes. We estimated the proportion of illicit cigarettes sold in Pakistani cities. Moreover, we compared two methods for collecting cigarette packs and investigated if the illicit cigarette trade equates to tax evasion. METHOD: We analysed cigarette packs collected from 10 cities of Pakistan using two methods: consumer survey based on a two-stage random sampling strategy to recruit adult smokers and photograph their cigarette packs and waste recycle store survey to purchase used cigarette packs. Cigarettes were considered illicit if any one of the following was absent from their packs: text and pictorial health warning, underage sale prohibition warning, retail price and manufacturer's name. From the consumer survey, we also estimated the proportion of smokers who purchased loose cigarettes (illegal) and packs below the minimum retail price. Taxation officers (n=4) were consulted to assess their level of confidence in judging tax evasion using the above criteria. RESULTS: Out of 2416 cigarette packs in the consumer survey, 454 (17.8%; 95% CI 15.4% to 20.2%) were illicit. Similarly, out of 6213 packs from waste recycle shops, 1046 (16.8%; 95% CI 15.9% to 17.7%) were illicit; the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.473). Among consumers, 29.5% bought loose cigarettes and 13.8% paid less than the minimum retail price. The taxation officers considered the manufacturer's name and retail price on cigarette packs as the most relevant criteria to detect tax evasion. CONCLUSIONS: One in six cigarette packs consumed in Pakistan could be illicit. These figures are far less than those propagated by the tobacco industry. Collecting packs from waste recycle stores is an efficient and valid method to estimate illicit cigarette trade.

7.
Nutr Res Rev ; : 1-11, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858530

RESUMO

Undernutrition is a growing public health challenge affecting growth and development during adolescence in many low- and middle-income countries. This scoping review maps the evidence on adolescent undernutrition (stunting, thinness and micronutrient deficiencies) in South Asia and highlights gaps in knowledge. Using Arksey and O'Malley's framework and the Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers' Manual, the search included electronic bibliographic databases (Medline (OVID), Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and Scopus) as well as various grey literature sources published up to March 2019. In total, 131 publications met the inclusion criteria of this review. All the included evidence used quantitative data and 115 publications used a cross-sectional design. Nearly 70% (n = 86) of the included publications were conducted in India. Prevalence of undernutrition was reported based on different growth references and cut-offs. Evidence is divided into publications that included an intervention component (n = 12) and publications that did not include an intervention component (n = 116), and presented in a narrative synthesis. This scoping review provides a wide range of publications on adolescent undernutrition in South Asia and identifies future research priorities in the field.

8.
JAMA Intern Med ; 181(5): 631-649, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683310

RESUMO

Importance: Cohort studies report inconsistent associations between fish consumption, a major source of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids, and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Whether the associations vary between those with and those without vascular disease is unknown. Objective: To examine whether the associations of fish consumption with risk of CVD or of mortality differ between individuals with and individuals without vascular disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled analysis of individual participant data involved 191 558 individuals from 4 cohort studies-147 645 individuals (139 827 without CVD and 7818 with CVD) from 21 countries in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study and 43 413 patients with vascular disease in 3 prospective studies from 40 countries. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated by multilevel Cox regression separately within each study and then pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. This analysis was conducted from January to June 2020. Exposures: Fish consumption was recorded using validated food frequency questionnaires. In 1 of the cohorts with vascular disease, a separate qualitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess intake of individual types of fish. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mortality and major CVD events (including myocardial infarction, stroke, congestive heart failure, or sudden death). Results: Overall, 191 558 participants with a mean (SD) age of 54.1 (8.0) years (91 666 [47.9%] male) were included in the present analysis. During 9.1 years of follow-up in PURE, compared with little or no fish intake (≤50 g/mo), an intake of 350 g/wk or more was not associated with risk of major CVD (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.86-1.04) or total mortality (HR, 0.96; 0.88-1.05). By contrast, in the 3 cohorts of patients with vascular disease, the HR for risk of major CVD (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.96) and total mortality (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.74-0.91) was lowest with intakes of at least 175 g/wk (or approximately 2 servings/wk) compared with 50 g/mo or lower, with no further apparent decrease in HR with consumption of 350 g/wk or higher. Fish with higher amounts of ω-3 fatty acids were strongly associated with a lower risk of CVD (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97 per 5-g increment of intake), whereas other fish were neutral (collected in 1 cohort of patients with vascular disease). The association between fish intake and each outcome varied by CVD status, with a lower risk found among patients with vascular disease but not in general populations (for major CVD, I2 = 82.6 [P = .02]; for death, I2 = 90.8 [P = .001]). Conclusions and Relevance: Findings of this pooled analysis of 4 cohort studies indicated that a minimal fish intake of 175 g (approximately 2 servings) weekly is associated with lower risk of major CVD and mortality among patients with prior CVD but not in general populations. The consumption of fish (especially oily fish) should be evaluated in randomized trials of clinical outcomes among people with vascular disease.

10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(3): 1049-1058, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary guidelines recommend limiting red meat intake because it is a major source of medium- and long-chain SFAs and is presumed to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Evidence of an association between unprocessed red meat intake and CVD is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess the association of unprocessed red meat, poultry, and processed meat intake with mortality and major CVD. METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) Study is a cohort of 134,297 individuals enrolled from 21 low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Food intake was recorded using country-specific validated FFQs. The primary outcomes were total mortality and major CVD. HRs were estimated using multivariable Cox frailty models with random intercepts. RESULTS: In the PURE study, during 9.5 y of follow-up, we recorded 7789 deaths and 6976 CVD events. Higher unprocessed red meat intake (≥250 g/wk vs. <50 g/wk) was not significantly associated with total mortality (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.02; P-trend = 0.14) or major CVD (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.11; P-trend = 0.72). Similarly, no association was observed between poultry intake and health outcomes. Higher intake of processed meat (≥150 g/wk vs. 0 g/wk) was associated with higher risk of total mortality (HR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.10; P-trend = 0.009) and major CVD (HR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.98; P-trend = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: In a large multinational prospective study, we did not find significant associations between unprocessed red meat and poultry intake and mortality or major CVD. Conversely, a higher intake of processed meat was associated with a higher risk of mortality and major CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Manipulação de Alimentos , Carne , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , População Rural
11.
N Engl J Med ; 384(14): 1312-1322, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most data regarding the association between the glycemic index and cardiovascular disease come from high-income Western populations, with little information from non-Western countries with low or middle incomes. To fill this gap, data are needed from a large, geographically diverse population. METHODS: This analysis includes 137,851 participants between the ages of 35 and 70 years living on five continents, with a median follow-up of 9.5 years. We used country-specific food-frequency questionnaires to determine dietary intake and estimated the glycemic index and glycemic load on the basis of the consumption of seven categories of carbohydrate foods. We calculated hazard ratios using multivariable Cox frailty models. The primary outcome was a composite of a major cardiovascular event (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure) or death from any cause. RESULTS: In the study population, 8780 deaths and 8252 major cardiovascular events occurred during the follow-up period. After performing extensive adjustments comparing the lowest and highest glycemic-index quintiles, we found that a diet with a high glycemic index was associated with an increased risk of a major cardiovascular event or death, both among participants with preexisting cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 1.82) and among those without such disease (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.34). Among the components of the primary outcome, a high glycemic index was also associated with an increased risk of death from cardiovascular causes. The results with respect to glycemic load were similar to the findings regarding the glycemic index among the participants with cardiovascular disease at baseline, but the association was not significant among those without preexisting cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, a diet with a high glycemic index was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. (Funded by the Population Health Research Institute and others.).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Índice Glicêmico , Carga Glicêmica , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
BMJ ; 372: m4948, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536317

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between intakes of refined grains, whole grains, and white rice with cardiovascular disease, total mortality, blood lipids, and blood pressure in the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: PURE study in 21 countries. PARTICIPANTS: 148 858 participants with median follow-up of 9.5 years. EXPOSURES: Country specific validated food frequency questionnaires were used to assess intakes of refined grains, whole grains, and white rice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Composite of mortality or major cardiovascular events (defined as death from cardiovascular causes, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure). Hazard ratios were estimated for associations of grain intakes with mortality, major cardiovascular events, and their composite by using multivariable Cox frailty models with random intercepts to account for clustering by centre. RESULTS: Analyses were based on 137 130 participants after exclusion of those with baseline cardiovascular disease. During follow-up, 9.2% (n=12 668) of these participants had a composite outcome event. The highest category of intake of refined grains (≥350 g/day or about 7 servings/day) was associated with higher risk of total mortality (hazard ratio 1.27, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.46; P for trend=0.004), major cardiovascular disease events (1.33, 1.16 to 1.52; P for trend<0.001), and their composite (1.28, 1.15 to 1.42; P for trend<0.001) compared with the lowest category of intake (<50 g/day). Higher intakes of refined grains were associated with higher systolic blood pressure. No significant associations were found between intakes of whole grains or white rice and health outcomes. CONCLUSION: High intake of refined grains was associated with higher risk of mortality and major cardiovascular disease events. Globally, lower consumption of refined grains should be considered.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Grãos Integrais , Adulto , Idoso , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oryza/efeitos adversos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Sleep Med ; 80: 265-272, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610073

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the association of bedtime with mortality and major cardiovascular events. METHODS: Bedtime was recorded based on self-reported habitual time of going to bed in 112,198 participants from 21 countries in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Participants were prospectively followed for 9.2 years. We examined the association between bedtime and the composite outcome of all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure. Participants with a usual bedtime earlier than 10PM were categorized as 'earlier' sleepers and those who reported a bedtime after midnight as 'later' sleepers. Cox frailty models were applied with random intercepts to account for the clustering within centers. RESULTS: A total of 5633 deaths and 5346 major cardiovascular events were reported. A U-shaped association was observed between bedtime and the composite outcome. Using those going to bed between 10PM and midnight as the reference group, after adjustment for age and sex, both earlier and later sleepers had a higher risk of the composite outcome (HR of 1.29 [1.22, 1.35] and 1.11 [1.03, 1.20], respectively). In the fully adjusted model where demographic factors, lifestyle behaviors (including total sleep duration) and history of diseases were included, results were greatly attenuated, but the estimates indicated modestly higher risks in both earlier (HR of 1.09 [1.03-1.16]) and later sleepers (HR of 1.10 [1.02-1.20]). CONCLUSION: Early (10 PM or earlier) or late (Midnight or later) bedtimes may be an indicator or risk factor of adverse health outcomes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Estilo de Vida , Humanos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Lancet Planet Health ; 4(10): e451-e462, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 2·8 billion people are exposed to household air pollution from cooking with polluting fuels. Few monitoring studies have systematically measured health-damaging air pollutant (ie, fine particulate matter [PM2·5] and black carbon) concentrations from a wide range of cooking fuels across diverse populations. This multinational study aimed to assess the magnitude of kitchen concentrations and personal exposures to PM2·5 and black carbon in rural communities with a wide range of cooking environments. METHODS: As part of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) cohort, the PURE-AIR study was done in 120 rural communities in eight countries (Bangladesh, Chile, China, Colombia, India, Pakistan, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe). Data were collected from 2541 households and from 998 individuals (442 men and 556 women). Gravimetric (or filter-based) 48 h kitchen and personal PM2·5 measurements were collected. Light absorbance (10-5m-1) of the PM2·5 filters, a proxy for black carbon concentrations, was calculated via an image-based reflectance method. Surveys of household characteristics and cooking patterns were collected before and after the 48 h monitoring period. FINDINGS: Monitoring of household air pollution for the PURE-AIR study was done from June, 2017, to September, 2019. A mean PM2·5 kitchen concentration gradient emerged across primary cooking fuels: gas (45 µg/m3 [95% CI 43-48]), electricity (53 µg/m3 [47-60]), coal (68 µg/m3 [61-77]), charcoal (92 µg/m3 [58-146]), agricultural or crop waste (106 µg/m3 [91-125]), wood (109 µg/m3 [102-118]), animal dung (224 µg/m3 [197-254]), and shrubs or grass (276 µg/m3 [223-342]). Among households cooking primarily with wood, average PM2·5 concentrations varied ten-fold (range: 40-380 µg/m3). Fuel stacking was prevalent (981 [39%] of 2541 households); using wood as a primary cooking fuel with clean secondary cooking fuels (eg, gas) was associated with 50% lower PM2·5 and black carbon concentrations than using only wood as a primary cooking fuel. Similar average PM2·5 personal exposures between women (67 µg/m3 [95% CI 62-72]) and men (62 [58-67]) were observed. Nearly equivalent average personal exposure to kitchen exposure ratios were observed for PM2·5 (0·79 [95% 0·71-0·88] for men and 0·82 [0·74-0·91] for women) and black carbon (0·64 [0·45-0·92] for men and 0·68 [0·46-1·02] for women). INTERPRETATION: Using clean primary fuels substantially lowers kitchen PM2·5 concentrations. Importantly, average kitchen and personal PM2·5 measurements for all primary fuel types exceeded WHO's Interim Target-1 (35 µg/m3 annual average), highlighting the need for comprehensive pollution mitigation strategies. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes for Health Research, National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/normas , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Culinária/métodos , Culinária/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/normas , Masculino , Material Particulado/normas , População Rural , Fuligem/análise , Fuligem/normas
15.
Diabetes Care ; 43(12): 3094-3101, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060076

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare cardiovascular (CV) events, all-cause mortality, and CV mortality rates among adults with and without diabetes in countries with differing levels of income. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study enrolled 143,567 adults aged 35-70 years from 4 high-income countries (HIC), 12 middle-income countries (MIC), and 5 low-income countries (LIC). The mean follow-up was 9.0 ± 3.0 years. RESULTS: Among those with diabetes, CVD rates (LIC 10.3, MIC 9.2, HIC 8.3 per 1,000 person-years, P < 0.001), all-cause mortality (LIC 13.8, MIC 7.2, HIC 4.2 per 1,000 person-years, P < 0.001), and CV mortality (LIC 5.7, MIC 2.2, HIC 1.0 per 1,000 person-years, P < 0.001) were considerably higher in LIC compared with MIC and HIC. Within LIC, mortality was higher in those in the lowest tertile of wealth index (low 14.7%, middle 10.8%, and high 6.5%). In contrast to HIC and MIC, the increased CV mortality in those with diabetes in LIC remained unchanged even after adjustment for behavioral risk factors and treatments (hazard ratio [95% CI] 1.89 [1.58-2.27] to 1.78 [1.36-2.34]). CONCLUSIONS: CVD rates, all-cause mortality, and CV mortality were markedly higher among those with diabetes in LIC compared with MIC and HIC with mortality risk remaining unchanged even after adjustment for risk factors and treatments. There is an urgent need to improve access to care to those with diabetes in LIC to reduce the excess mortality rates, particularly among those in the poorer strata of society.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Diabetes Care ; 43(11): 2643-2650, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous prospective studies on the association of white rice intake with incident diabetes have shown contradictory results but were conducted in single countries and predominantly in Asia. We report on the association of white rice with risk of diabetes in the multinational Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data on 132,373 individuals aged 35-70 years from 21 countries were analyzed. White rice consumption (cooked) was categorized as <150, ≥150 to <300, ≥300 to <450, and ≥450 g/day, based on one cup of cooked rice = 150 g. The primary outcome was incident diabetes. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a multivariable Cox frailty model. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 9.5 years, 6,129 individuals without baseline diabetes developed incident diabetes. In the overall cohort, higher intake of white rice (≥450 g/day compared with <150 g/day) was associated with increased risk of diabetes (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.02-1.40; P for trend = 0.003). However, the highest risk was seen in South Asia (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.13-2.30; P for trend = 0.02), followed by other regions of the world (which included South East Asia, Middle East, South America, North America, Europe, and Africa) (HR 1.41; 95% CI 1.08-1.86; P for trend = 0.01), while in China there was no significant association (HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.77-1.40; P for trend = 0.38). CONCLUSIONS: Higher consumption of white rice is associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes with the strongest association being observed in South Asia, while in other regions, a modest, nonsignificant association was seen.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Oryza/efeitos adversos , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Idoso , Ásia/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , América do Sul/epidemiologia
17.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(8)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819917

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: With COVID-19, there is urgency for policymakers to understand and respond to the health needs of slum communities. Lockdowns for pandemic control have health, social and economic consequences. We consider access to healthcare before and during COVID-19 with those working and living in slum communities. METHODS: In seven slums in Bangladesh, Kenya, Nigeria and Pakistan, we explored stakeholder perspectives and experiences of healthcare access for non-COVID-19 conditions in two periods: pre-COVID-19 and during COVID-19 lockdowns. RESULTS: Between March 2018 and May 2020, we engaged with 860 community leaders, residents, health workers and local authority representatives. Perceived common illnesses in all sites included respiratory, gastric, waterborne and mosquitoborne illnesses and hypertension. Pre-COVID, stakeholders described various preventive, diagnostic and treatment services, including well-used antenatal and immunisation programmes and some screening for hypertension, tuberculosis, HIV and vectorborne disease. In all sites, pharmacists and patent medicine vendors were key providers of treatment and advice for minor illnesses. Mental health services and those addressing gender-based violence were perceived to be limited or unavailable. With COVID-19, a reduction in access to healthcare services was reported in all sites, including preventive services. Cost of healthcare increased while household income reduced. Residents had difficulty reaching healthcare facilities. Fear of being diagnosed with COVID-19 discouraged healthcare seeking. Alleviators included provision of healthcare by phone, pharmacists/drug vendors extending credit and residents receiving philanthropic or government support; these were inconsistent and inadequate. CONCLUSION: Slum residents' ability to seek healthcare for non-COVID-19 conditions has been reduced during lockdowns. To encourage healthcare seeking, clear communication is needed about what is available and whether infection control is in place. Policymakers need to ensure that costs do not escalate and unfairly disadvantage slum communities. Remote consulting to reduce face-to-face contact and provision of mental health and gender-based violence services should be considered.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Áreas de Pobreza , África ao Sul do Saara , Ásia Ocidental , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humanos , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Participação dos Interessados
18.
Lancet Planet Health ; 4(6): e235-e245, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most studies of long-term exposure to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2·5) and cardiovascular disease are from high-income countries with relatively low PM2·5 concentrations. It is unclear whether risks are similar in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) and how outdoor PM2·5 contributes to the global burden of cardiovascular disease. In our analysis of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, we aimed to investigate the association between long-term exposure to PM2·5 concentrations and cardiovascular disease in a large cohort of adults from 21 high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries. METHODS: In this multinational, prospective cohort study, we studied 157 436 adults aged 35-70 years who were enrolled in the PURE study in countries with ambient PM2·5 estimates, for whom follow-up data were available. Cox proportional hazard frailty models were used to estimate the associations between long-term mean community outdoor PM2·5 concentrations and cardiovascular disease events (fatal and non-fatal), cardiovascular disease mortality, and other non-accidental mortality. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2003, and July 14, 2018, 157 436 adults from 747 communities in 21 high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries were enrolled and followed up, of whom 140 020 participants resided in LMICs. During a median follow-up period of 9·3 years (IQR 7·8-10·8; corresponding to 1·4 million person-years), we documented 9996 non-accidental deaths, of which 3219 were attributed to cardiovascular disease. 9152 (5·8%) of 157 436 participants had cardiovascular disease events (fatal and non-fatal incident cardiovascular disease), including 4083 myocardial infarctions and 4139 strokes. Mean 3-year PM2·5 at cohort baseline was 47·5 µg/m3 (range 6-140). In models adjusted for individual, household, and geographical factors, a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2·5 was associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease events (hazard ratio 1·05 [95% CI 1·03-1·07]), myocardial infarction (1·03 [1·00-1·05]), stroke (1·07 [1·04-1·10]), and cardiovascular disease mortality (1·03 [1·00-1·05]). Results were similar for LMICs and communities with high PM2·5 concentrations (>35 µg/m3). The population attributable fraction for PM2·5 in the PURE cohort was 13·9% (95% CI 8·8-18·6) for cardiovascular disease events, 8·4% (0·0-15·4) for myocardial infarction, 19·6% (13·0-25·8) for stroke, and 8·3% (0·0-15·2) for cardiovascular disease mortality. We identified no consistent associations between PM2·5 and risk for non-cardiovascular disease deaths. INTERPRETATION: Long-term outdoor PM2·5 concentrations were associated with increased risks of cardiovascular disease in adults aged 35-70 years. Air pollution is an important global risk factor for cardiovascular disease and a need exists to reduce air pollution concentrations, especially in LMICs, where air pollution levels are highest. FUNDING: Full funding sources are listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
BMJ Open ; 10(6): e036468, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554728

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: South Asia is home to more than 300 million smokeless tobacco (ST) users. Bangladesh, India and Pakistan as signatories to the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) have developed policies aimed at curbing the use of tobacco. The objective of this study is to assess the compliance of ST point-of-sale (POS) vendors and the supply chain with the articles of the FCTC and specifically with national tobacco control laws. We also aim to assess disparities in compliance with tobacco control laws between ST and smoked tobacco products. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study will be carried out at two sites each in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. We will conduct a sequential mixed-methods study with five components: (1) mapping of ST POS, (2) analyses of ST samples packaging, (3) observation, (4) survey interviews of POS and (5) in-depth interviews with wholesale dealers/suppliers/manufacturers of ST. We aim to conduct at least 300 POS survey interviews and observations, and 6-10 in-depth interviews in each of the three countries. Data collection will be done by trained data collectors. The main statistical analysis will report the frequencies and proportions of shops that comply with the FCTC and local tobacco control policies, and provide a 95% CI of these estimates. The qualitative in-depth interview data will be analysed using the framework approach. The findings will be connected, each component informing the focus and/or design of the next component. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approvals for the study have been received from the Health Sciences Research Governance Committee at the University of York, UK. In-country approvals were taken from the National Bioethics Committee in Pakistan, the Bangladesh Medical Research Council and the Indian Medical Research Council. Our results will be disseminated via scientific conferences, peer-reviewed research publications and press releases.


Assuntos
Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Tabaco sem Fumaça/legislação & jurisprudência , Bangladesh , Humanos , Índia , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Paquistão , Projetos de Pesquisa
20.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 6: 873-883, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579484

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with breast cancer in Pakistan commonly present with advanced disease. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the frequency and length of delays in seeking medical consultation and to assess the factors associated with them. METHODS: Four hundred ninety-nine patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer were enrolled and interviewed over the period from February 2015 to August 2017. Information on sociodemographic factors, delay to medical consultation, stage of breast cancer at presentation, and tumor characteristics of the breast cancer were collected through face-to-face interviews and medical file review. RESULTS: The mean (standard deviation) age of patients with breast cancer was 48.0 (12.3) years. The mean (standard deviation) patient delay was 15.7 (25.9) months, with 55.2% of women detecting a breast lump but not seeking a medical consultation because of a lack of awareness about the significance of the lump. A total of 9.4% of the women decided to seek treatment initially using complementary and alternative medicine and traditional treatment; 9.4% of the women presented to a health care provider with a breast lump but no action was taken, and they were wrongly reassured about the lump without mammography or biopsy. For 26% of the women, the delay in presentation was caused by anxiety, fears and misconceptions regarding diagnosis and treatment, and other social factors including possible adverse effects on their relationship with their husband. Multivariable analysis showed a strong association of lower socioeconomic status (odds ratio [OR], 8.11 [95% CI, 2.46 to 26.69]) and late stage of breast cancer (OR, 4.83 [95% CI, 1.74 to 13.39]) with a patient delay of ≥ 3 months. CONCLUSION: Patient delay is a serious problem in Pakistan. There is an urgent need for intensive and comprehensive breast cancer education that addresses the myths and misconceptions related to breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Tardio , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Fatores de Tempo
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