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1.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247890, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468530

RESUMO

Asiatic black bear is present in variety of habitats like broad-leaves and coniferous forests, extending form sea level to 4300m elevation and change their habitat for food purpose seasonally. The present study was conducted at Kaghan and Siran Valleys, District Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan to assess habitat of black bear. Line transect method was used for observation of bear signs. Twelve meter circular radius plots were selected for the concern vegetation's i.e. (trees, shrubs and herbs) and three to six plots were placed in each transect. At the result of sign survey, thirteen different categories of bear signs were recorded and encounter rate was calculated for each sign. A total of 1858 signs were observed during field surveys. Total (81%) coniferous species were recoded among trees, with the highest appearance of Pinus wallichiana (34.22%) and Spruce spp (27.76%), similarly broad leaves trees (18.56%) were also recoded from habitat plots. Most of the signs were encountered in bushy areas, whereas high number of Viburnum Spp (60.29%) was present. It is indicated that black bear prefers blend of Coniferous Trees, Viburnum and Ferns Species; probably because these plants provide enough food, protection, and meticulous shelter because more than 80% of habitat composed of these three species. Currently habitat destruction and increase in human population are the up-growing issues for wild animals (especially Asiatic black bear), which is highly sensitive to such problems. High levels of conservation efforts are recommended for the protection of black bear habitat and to avoid human interference in their territory.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Acetilcisteína , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Paquistão , Árvores
2.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 55(1): 96-106, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566029

RESUMO

Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) is a ubiquitous betasatellite commonly found along with cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) associated begomoviruses in the Old World. It has a promiscuous replicative nature and trans-replicated by a diverse range of geminiviruses. CLCuMB encodes a single ORF, ßCl, in the complementary direction and has pathogenicity, symptoms determinant, suppressor of post-transcription and transcription gene silencing functions. After substituting the ßC1 gene with the target gene, it has been used successfully as a gene delivery vector. In the present study, the ßC1 gene of CLCuMB was substituted with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, and the resulting construct utilized as a reporter vector to decipher in planta localization of geminiviruses. The recombinant CLCuMB expressing GFP (CLCuMB-GFP) was co-inoculated to Nicotiana benthamiana plants either with Cotton leaf curl Kokharan virus (CLCuKoV) alone or in a combination with the wild type CLCuMB to investigate the objectives of the study. Results showed that CLCuKoV successfully supported the replication and systemic movement of CLCuMB-GFP either alone or in the presence of wild type CLCuMB. The presence of CLCuMB-GFP was readily detected with PCR and Southern blot hybridization. The modified CLCuMB may serve as a tool useful for in planta localization of geminiviruses.


Assuntos
Begomovirus , Geminiviridae , Begomovirus/genética , DNA Satélite/genética , Geminiviridae/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Tabaco/genética , Virulência
3.
Case Rep Surg ; 2020: 6410790, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133719

RESUMO

We report on a 59-year-old female with symptomatic cholelithiasis on a background of morbid obesity who underwent an elective LC with an uncomplicated intraoperative course; however, she experienced a refractory hypotension within one hour postoperatively with an acute haemoglobin drop requiring fluid resuscitation and blood transfusion. A triphasic computed tomography scan revealed a large intrahepatic subcapsular haematoma (ISH) measuring 21 cm × 3.1 cm × 17 cm surrounding the lateral surface of the right hepatic lobe without active bleeding. She was managed conservatively with serial monitoring of haemoglobin and haematoma size. A follow-up ultrasound scan after eight weeks confirmed complete resolution of the haematoma. Giant ISH is a fairly rare, but life-threatening complication following LC which merits special attention. This case demonstrates the necessity of close postoperative monitoring of patients undergoing LC and considering the possibility of ISH, although being rare event, in those who experience a refractory postoperative hypotension. It also highlights the decisive role of diagnostic imaging in securing a timely and accurate diagnosis of post LC-ISH.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174891

RESUMO

Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the association between components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) at first trimester and development of Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in 498 Saudi pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Biochemical and anthropometric parameters were determined at the first trimester and MetS components were defined. Participants were screened for GDM at follow up according to International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) criteria. The main outcome measures were development of GDM and GDM risk vs. MetS components at first trimester. Results: One hundred twenty three (24.7%) were diagnosed with GDM according to IADPSG criteria. GDM risk was significantly higher for participants with hypertriglyceridemia at 1st trimester even after adjusting for age, BMI and parity (OR: 1.82; CI: 1.1-3.7, p = 0.04). Furthermore, the odds of hyperglycemia at 1st trimester was significantly higher in GDM than in non-GDM participants even after adjustments (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.1 to 4.3, p = 0.038). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) for predicting GDM revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.64 to 0.74, p < 0.001) and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.77, p < 0.001) for first-trimester hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia respectively. Conclusions: The incidence of GDM in Saudi pregnant women was strongly associated with hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia at first trimester. These findings are of clinical importance, as an assessment of MetS in early pregnancy can identify women at higher risk of developing GDM.


Assuntos
Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Diabetes Gestacional/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
5.
Ir J Med Sci ; 189(3): 1027-1031, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Good clinical record-keeping is central in ensuring patient safety and effective communication between healthcare professionals. Poor communication is the root cause of many adverse events in medicine. AIMS: To assess the standard of notation for surgical inpatients, to create and pilot an educational tool to improve the quality of documentation, and to assess the adequacy of intern training in this area. METHODS: Healthcare records were retrospectively assessed during the first audit cycle for inclusion of basic criteria as per the current guidelines from the Health Service Executive. The intervention comprised a teaching session and an educational tool which was designed utilising the mnemonic DATA (date and time, addressograph, team, author details). A second audit cycle was carried out prospectively. Irish interns were also surveyed to assess the level of training they had received with regard to clinical record-keeping. Comparative analyses of quantitative data were performed using chi-squared test for categorical variables. RESULTS: A total of 200 notes were analysed. Those written after the intervention were significantly more likely to contain patient details, time seen, author name, job title, bleep number, and medical council registration number. Of the 59 interns who responded to the survey, 78% had not received training on how to properly write a clinical note and many had simply copied the format of notes written by the previous team. Very few had been made aware of the national guidelines available for record-keeping. CONCLUSION: The use of the educational tool and a formal training session significantly improved the quality of notes written for surgical inpatients. Junior doctors do not feel adequately trained in this area. The authors recommend that formal training in record-keeping be included in all hospital induction programmes.


Assuntos
Documentação/normas , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Redação/normas , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
J Appl Microbiol ; 128(1): 65-73, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562676

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare antigen extraction efficiency of chemical methods such as benzyl alcohol, chloroform, sodium citrate, extraction buffer with Tween-20 (EBT) and isopropyl myristate for determination of 146S content in the fresh and stored FMD oil-adjuvanted vaccines. METHODS AND RESULTS: Standard vaccine with antigen payload of 10, 5 and 5 µg per cattle dose (2 ml) for serotypes O, A and Asia1, respectively, was used to compare the antigen extraction efficiency of five chemical methods: benzyl alcohol, chloroform, sodium citrate, EBT buffer and isopropyl myristate. The purity of the extracted 146S antigen was quantified by caesium chloride (CsCl) ultracentrifugation. Serotype-specific sandwich ELISA (sELISA) was developed to identify the serotype and to compare the 146S in aqueous phase and ultrafractions. The antigen recovery was also tested in stored trivalent vaccine. Coefficient of regression was calculated to assess the predictive power of the benzyl alcohol extraction method. Of the five methods, benzyl alcohol showed consistent antigen recovery of >90% in monovalent as well as trivalent vaccines. Ultrafraction showed a 1·4 ratio at A259/239 nm in UV spectrophotometry indicating the presence of 146S. sELISA revealed that the antigen recovery was significantly less in ultrafractions than that of aqueous phase. Further, there was no significant difference in antigen recovery from stored trivalent vaccine for 12 months, indicating the usefulness of the benzyl alcohol method. Linear regression model revealed R2  = 0·99 with a narrow band of predictive interval. CONCLUSIONS: The benzyl alcohol method was efficient in extracting 146S from the monovalent and trivalent fresh and stored FMD vaccines. CsCl density gradient precisely quantified the 146S, while sELISA identified the serotype of the vaccine. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: When the benzyl alcohol method is coupled with CsCl density gradient and sELISA, it has the potential to determine the 146S content of FMD vaccine.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Bovinos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Sorogrupo , Potência de Vacina , Vacinas Virais/análise
8.
Br Poult Sci ; 61(2): 97-106, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661978

RESUMO

1. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of using a multi-tier aviary system and access to range on flock uniformity in free-range laying hens, and to determine whether the extent of range use or flock uniformity can be predicted from the use of different levels of the aviary system.2. A total of 13,716 Lohmann Brown hens from five commercial free-range flocks housed in identical houses on the same farm were individually weighed at 16 weeks of age and allocated to five replicate areas within each house. Hen movement in the multi-tier aviary system and on the range was individually monitored using radio frequency identification (RFID). All hens had access to the range from 18 to 22 weeks of age and were exposed to the same management conditions.3. Whilst only one flock significantly changed its flock uniformity with time, they differed from each other in uniformity and body weight (P = 0.001).4. Hens spent most of their available time on the lower aviary tier (7.29 ± 0.029 h/hen/day) and on the upper aviary tier (4.29 ± 0.024 h/hen/day) while the least amount of time was spent on the range and in the nest boxes (0.93 ± 0.005 h/hen/day and 1.48 ± 0.007 h, respectively, P = 0.001).5. Range use was negatively correlated (r = -0.30) to the time spent on the upper aviary tier and positively correlated (r = 0.46) to the time spent on the lower aviary tier (P = 0.001). Bivariate analysis revealed that range and upper aviary resp. lower aviary tier usage had a significant curvilinear association.6. In conclusion, the study showed that range use was associated to the time hens spent on the different tiers of the aviary system. Flock uniformity varied between flocks but was not associated with either range and aviary system usage.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Abrigo para Animais , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Galinhas , Feminino
10.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 60: 87-90, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207533

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Undiagnosed gastrointestinal bleeding may originate in the small bowel. This presents a diagnostic challenge despite the advancement in contemporary imaging. We report two cases which highlight the limitations of routine investigation for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. PRESENTATION OF CASE: Patient A presented with a history of rectal bleeding, treated with interventional embolisation of caecal angiodysplasia. A diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumour (NET) was reached two years after presentation following intraoperative right hemicolectomy resection of a presumed recurrent angiodysplastic bleed. Patient B presented with recurrent melaena labelled as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) induced gastritis. After multiple endoscopic and radiological investigations, a 4.5 cm mass was visualised on imaging after three years, which was histologically proven as gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) of the small bowel. Both patients experienced a delayed diagnosis despite multiple investigations and careful follow-up. DISCUSSION: Our case series discusses the benefits and limitations of investigation for gastrointestinal bleeding and suggests a need for continued multidisciplinary input in situations where the patient presumed diagnosis remains in question. CONCLUSION: OGIB remains a diagnostic challenge and is attributable to small bowel pathology in 75% of cases. This suggests a need for continued investigation in situations where the patient presents multiple times despite adequate treatment for the presumed underlying condition.

12.
Acta Virol ; 63(1): 26-35, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879310

RESUMO

Whitefly-transmitted viruses of the genus Begomovirus (the family Geminiviridae) have become a limiting factor for agricultural productivity in many warmer parts of the world. The economies of Pakistan and India have, since the early 1990s, suffered losses due to cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD). The disease is caused by begomoviruses, the most important of which at this time is cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus strain Burewala (CLCuKoV-Bu), and a disease-specific betasatellite, cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB). Efforts to minimize losses due to CLCuD rely mainly on the use of insecticides to kill the whitefly vector; no resistant cotton varieties are currently commercially available. The study described here has investigated RNA interference technology for its potential to yield resistance against CLCuKoV-Bu and three other begomoviruses; CLCuKoV, tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) and Pedilanthus leaf curl virus (PeLCV). Three fragments of the virion-sense V2 gene of CLCuKoV-Bu were transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana in antisense orientation and transgenic lines expressing virus-specific short RNAs were assessed for their ability to yield resistance. Only CLCuKoV-Bu with the V2 sequence closest to the promoter was resistant. Inoculation of CLCuKoV-Bu with CLCuMuB into transgenic plants did not significantly affect the outcome, although viral DNA was detected in number of plants, suggesting that the betasatellite may impair RNAi resistance. Overall the results indicate that targeting the 5' end of V2 gene using antisense-RNA has the potential to deliver resistance against begomoviruses and that RNAi-based resistance imparts some degree of resistance to heterologous viruses. Keywords: geminivirus; begomovirus; RNAi; resistance; CLCuKoV-Burewala; CLCuMuB.


Assuntos
Begomovirus , Resistência à Doença , Tabaco , Begomovirus/genética , Begomovirus/fisiologia , DNA Viral/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Interferência de RNA , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/virologia
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20182018 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391927

RESUMO

Acquired abdominal intercostal hernia (AAIH) is an infrequent occurrence whereby intra-abdominal contents herniate into intercostal space directly from the peritoneal cavity through an acquired defect in the abdominal wall musculature and fascia. These hernias are difficult to diagnose and should always be suspected when a chest wall swelling occur after major or minor trauma. Surgical repair is warranted in symptomatic patients. The majority of AAIHs are repaired through an open approach using tension-free mesh, with significant recurrence risk. Recently, laparoscopic and robot-assisted repairs have been proposed. We discuss a 49-year-old man presented through outpatient setting with a 5-year history of ongoing left subcostal discomfort and a reducible lump. His history included a workplace accident 5 years ago. Contrast-enhanced abdominal CT confirmed AAIH with omentum herniation into the sac. A successful laparoscopic repair with intraperitoneal onlay mesh technique using composite mesh was performed.


Assuntos
Parede Abdominal/cirurgia , Hérnia Abdominal/cirurgia , Músculos Intercostais/cirurgia , Parede Torácica/cirurgia , Músculos Abdominais/anormalidades , Músculos Abdominais/patologia , Parede Abdominal/anormalidades , Parede Abdominal/patologia , Hérnia Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Hérnia Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Herniorrafia/métodos , Humanos , Músculos Intercostais/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculos Intercostais/patologia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Telas Cirúrgicas/normas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Acta Trop ; 187: 229-239, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30118698

RESUMO

Ticks (Acari:Ixodoidea) are important ectoparasites infesting livestock and human populations around the globe. Ticks can cause damage directly by affecting the site of infestation, or indirectly as vectors of a wide range of protozoa, bacteria and viruses which ultimately lead to lowered productivity of livestock populations. Hyalomma is a genus of hard ticks, having more than 30 species well-adapted to hot, humid and cold climates. Habitat diversity, vector ability, and emerging problem of acaricidal resistance in enzootic regions typify this genus in various countries around the world. This paper reviews the epidemiology, associated risk factors (temperature, climate, age, sex, breed etc.), vector role, vector-pathogen association, and reported control strategies of genus Hyalomma. The various proteins in saliva of Hyalomma secreted into the blood stream of host and the prolonged attachment are responsible for the successful engorgement of female ticks in spite of host immune defense system. The various immunological approaches that have been tried by researchers in order to cause tick rejection are also discussed. In addition, the novel biological control approaches involving the use of entomo-pathogenic nematodes and Bacillus thuringiensis (B. thuringiensis) serovar thuringiensis H14; an endotoxin, for their acaricidal effect on different species and life cycle stages of Hyalomma are also presented.


Assuntos
Vetores Aracnídeos/microbiologia , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/métodos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Animais , Vetores Aracnídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus thuringiensis , Toxinas Bacterianas/farmacologia , Clima , Feminino , Ixodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Gado , Masculino , Glândulas Salivares , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Carrapatos
15.
Nutrients ; 10(4)2018 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29662044

RESUMO

Data regarding the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency during early pregnancy are limited. This study aims to fill this gap. A total of 578 Saudi women in their 1st trimester of pregnancy were recruited between January 2014 and December 2015 from three tertiary care antenatal clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Information collected includes socio-economic, anthropometric, and biochemical data, including serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and sun exposure indices. Pregnant women with 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L were considered vitamin D deficient. The majority of participants (n = 468 (81%)) were vitamin D deficient. High levels of indoor activity, whole body clothing, multiparity, total cholesterol/HDL ratio(>3.5), low HDL-cholesterol, and living in West Riyadh were significant independent predictors for vitamin D deficiency, with odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval) of 25.4 (5.5–117.3), 17.8 (2.3–138.5), 4.0 (1.7–9.5), 3.3 (1.4–7.9), 2.8 (1.2–6.4), and 2.0 (1.1–3.5), respectively. Factors like increased physical activity, sun exposure at noon, sunrise or sunset, high educational status, and residence in North Riyadh were protective against vitamin D deficiency with ORs 0.2 (0.1–0.5); 0.2 (0.1–0.6); 0.3 (0.1–0.9); and 0.4 (0.2–0.8), respectively. All ORs were adjusted for age, BMI, sun exposure, parity, summer season, vitamin D intake, multivitamin intake, physical activity, education, employment, living in the north, and coverage with clothing. In conclusion, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Saudi women during early pregnancy was high (81%). Timely detection and appropriate supplementation with adequate amounts of vitamin D should reduce the risks of vitamin D deficiency and its complications during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropometria , Feminino , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
16.
Ir J Med Sci ; 187(4): 1029-1038, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29423825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appendectomy has for many years been the accepted treatment of appendicitis. In recent years, non-operative management of appendicitis (NOTA) has been reported as an effective treatment option. AIMS: We aimed to assess the perspectives of public hospital attendees regarding the diagnosis and treatment options for appendicitis. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of outpatients over a 10-week period (December 2016-March 2017). The questionnaire contained an information sheet and consent form and included open, closed and multiple-choice questions. RESULTS: Two hundred forty-four participants (159 female, 85 male) were surveyed. A high level of awareness of appendicitis as a surgical emergency existed amongst the participants. The primary reason participants were reluctant to receive non-operative treatment was a fear of their appendix "bursting" if not removed. CONCLUSIONS: Participant knowledge levels were variable with many concerned that non-operated appendicitis would always perforate. Perceptions of treatment were variable with some believing surgery was an absolute requirement and others preferring antibiotics due to the belief that NOTA is complication-free.


Assuntos
Apendicite/terapia , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Apendicite/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Poult Sci ; 97(2): 494-502, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29253271

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the effect of Ascaridia galli infection on free-range laying hens. Lohmann Brown laying hens (n = 200) at 17 wk of age were allocated to 4 treatment groups (n = 50 per group), each with 5 replicate pens of 10 hens. Hens in 3 treatment groups were orally inoculated with different doses of embryonated A. galli eggs: low (250 eggs), medium (1,000 eggs), and high (2,500 eggs) levels, whereas hens of the control group were not infected. Infection levels were monitored using excreta egg counts and mature A. galli worm counts in the intestine. Anti A. galli antibody titers (IgY) in the serum were measured prior to infection, and at 6, 11, 15, and 20 wk post infection (PI) and in egg yolk at 11 and 20 wk PI. Parameters evaluated included feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, FCR, liver weight, liver fat, and intra epithelial immune cell infiltration. The results showed no difference in feed intake, body weight, or FCR among any treatment groups (P > 0.05). Egg production was lower in the low infection group compared to other groups at 20 wk of age (P < 0.01). Serum IgY was higher in the infected groups' hens at 20 wk PI compared to control group hens (P < 0.01). Yolk IgY increased significantly over time and was higher in infected hens compared to hens of the control group at 11 and 20 wk PI (P < 0.001). No differences were observed in liver lipid content or intraepithelial lymphocytes infiltration among treatment groups. Ascaridia galli eggs in the coprodeum content and adult A. galli worm count were higher in infected hens compared to hens of the control group (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the effects of artificial infection with A. galli on the parameters investigated were minor, and egg yolk antibody may be a more reliable indicator of A. galli infection than serum antibody or excreta egg count.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/metabolismo , Ascaridíase/veterinária , Galinhas , Imunidade Inata , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Reprodução , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Ascaridia/fisiologia , Ascaridíase/imunologia , Ascaridíase/parasitologia , Ascaridíase/fisiopatologia , Peso Corporal , Gema de Ovo/química , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Linfócitos/fisiologia , Óvulo/parasitologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/fisiopatologia , Distribuição Aleatória
19.
Physiotherapy ; 104(1): 18-24, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28947078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of local vibration on muscle strength in healthy adults. DATA SOURCES: The electronic databases PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Science were searched using a combination of the following keywords: vibration, vibration therapy, power, maximal voluntary contraction, performance, rate of force development and vibratory exercise. In addition, the Medical Subject Headings 'vibration', 'strength' and 'exercise' were used. The bibliographical search was limited to articles published in English. STUDY SELECTION: Trials that evaluated the effect of localised vibration on muscle strength in healthy humans were included. DATA EXTRACTION: Two independent evaluators verified the quality of the selected studies using the PEDro Scale and the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias. Muscle strength was calculated for each intervention. RESULTS: In total, 29 full-text studies were assessed for eligibility. Eighteen studies did not match the inclusion criteria, and were excluded. The 11 studies included in this review had an average PEDro score of 5.36/10. Most of the studies reported significant improvements in muscle strength after the application of local vibration. There was considerable variation in the vibration training parameters and target muscle location. CONCLUSIONS: The use of local vibration on the target muscle can enhance muscle strength in healthy adults. Further well-designed controlled studies are required to confirm the effect of local vibration training on muscle strength.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Vibração/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Contração Isotônica/fisiologia
20.
Br Poult Sci ; 59(2): 180-189, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29130331

RESUMO

1. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of range type, multi-enzyme applications, and a combination of benzoic acid (BA) and essential oils (EO) on the productive performance, organ weight and egg quality of free-range laying hens. 2. Three hundred laying hens were evaluated for the short-term (6 weeks) and long-term (12 weeks) effects of range type (G = no pasture, P = pasture) and feed additives (T1 = control; T2 = betaglucanase/pectinase/protease; T3 = BA/EO). Body weight, feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg production (EP), digestive organ weight, and egg quality (EQ) were evaluated. Data were analysed using SPSS 2.2 in a 2×2×3 factorial arrangement. 3. Hens that ranged on pasture were significantly heavier (2043 g vs. 1996 g; p < 0.001), laid heavier eggs (61.9 g vs. 60.3 g; p < 0.001) and produced darker yolk colour (4.3 vs. 7.0; p < 0.001) compared to hens ranged on gravel. Hens fed T2 were significantly heavier (2050 g) compared to hens fed T1 (2005 g) or T3 (2008 g). Organ weights (gizzard, liver and pancreas) were significantly heavier in hens ranged on pasture (16.8 g/kg BW, 22.3 g/kg BW and 1.89 g/kg BW, respectively) compared to hens ranged on gravel (14.2 g/kg BW, 21.7 g/kg BW and 1.83 g/kg BW, respectively). Over time, body weight (1970-2070 g; p < 0.001) and egg weight (59.5-62.8 g; p < 0.001) increased, FI (123-120 g; p = 0.024) was reduced and FCR (2.36-2.10; p = 0.002) improved 4. In conclusion, hens housed on pasture and fed multi-enzyme supplemented diets had significantly heavier body weight and produced heavier eggs with darker yolk colour. Pasture intake and enzyme supplementation increased digestive organ weight significantly.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Ácido Benzoico/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ácido Benzoico/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos Multienzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
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