Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 20
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Phytother Res ; 38(7): 3736-3762, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776136

RESUMO

Recently, malignant neoplasms have growingly caused human morbidity and mortality. Head and neck cancer (HNC) constitutes a substantial group of malignancies occurring in various anatomical regions of the head and neck, including lips, mouth, throat, larynx, nose, sinuses, oropharynx, hypopharynx, nasopharynx, and salivary glands. The present study addresses the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway as a possible therapeutic target in cancer therapy. Finding new multitargeting agents capable of modulating PI3K/Akt/mTOR and cross-linked mediators could be viewed as an effective strategy in combating HNC. Recent studies have introduced phytochemicals as multitargeting agents and rich sources for finding and developing new therapeutic agents. Phytochemicals have exhibited immense anticancer effects, including targeting different stages of HNC through the modulation of several signaling pathways. Moreover, phenolic/polyphenolic compounds, alkaloids, terpenes/terpenoids, and other secondary metabolites have demonstrated promising anticancer activities because of their diverse pharmacological and biological properties like antiproliferative, antineoplastic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. The current review is mainly focused on new therapeutic strategies for HNC passing through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway as new strategies in combating HNC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR , Humanos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 323: 117708, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38181932

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Fraxinus excelsior L. (FE), commonly known as the ash, belongs to the Oleaceae family and has shown several pharmacological and biological properties, such as antioxidant, immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory effects. It has also attracted the most attention toward neuroinflammation. Moreover, FE bark and leaves have been used to treat neurological disorders, aging, neuropathic pain, urinary complaints, and articular pain in traditional and ethnomedicine. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the involvement of amyloid-beta, metal-induced oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the current study was to assess the neuroprotective effects of hydromethanolic extract from FE bark in an AlCl3-induced rat model of AD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The maceration process was utilized to prepare the hydromethanolic extract of FE bark, and characterized by LC-MS/MS. To assess the anti-AD effects of the FE extract, rats were categorized into five different groups, AlCl3; normal control; FE-treated groups at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg. Passive avoidance learning test, Y-maze, open field, and elevated plus maze behavioral tests were evaluated on days 7 and 14 to analyze the cognitive impairments. Zymography analysis, biochemical tests, and histopathological changes were also followed in different groups. RESULTS: LC-MS/MS analysis indicated the presence of coumarins, including isofraxidin7-O-diglucoside in the methanolic extract of FE as a new isofraxidin derivative in this genus. FE significantly improved memory and cognitive function, maintained weight, prevented neuronal damages, and preserved the hippocampus's histological features, as demonstrated by behavioral tests and histopathological analysis. FE increased anti-inflammatory MMP-2 activity, whereas it decreased that of inflammatory MMP-9. Moreover, FE increased plasma antioxidant capacity by enhancing CAT and GSH while decreasing nitrite levels in the serum of treated groups. In comparison between the treated groups, the rats that received high doses of the FE extract (200 mg/kg) showed the highest therapeutic effect. CONCLUSION: FE rich in coumarins could be an effective anti-AD adjunct agent, passing through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways. These results encourage further studies for the development of this extract as a promising agent in preventing, managing, or treating AD and related diseases.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Fraxinus , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Ratos , Animais , Cloreto de Alumínio/farmacologia , Cloreto de Alumínio/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Fraxinus/metabolismo , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Casca de Planta/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Ratos Wistar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Estresse Oxidativo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico
3.
Cancer Metastasis Rev ; 42(3): 959-1020, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37505336

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a pivotal role in cancer development and progression. In this line, revealing the precise mechanisms of the TME and associated signaling pathways of tumor resistance could pave the road for cancer prevention and efficient treatment. The use of nanomedicine could be a step forward in overcoming the barriers in tumor-targeted therapy. Novel delivery systems benefit from enhanced permeability and retention effect, decreasing tumor resistance, reducing tumor hypoxia, and targeting tumor-associated factors, including immune cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. Emerging evidence also indicates the engagement of multiple dysregulated mediators in the TME, such as matrix metalloproteinase, vascular endothelial growth factor, cytokines/chemokines, Wnt/ß-catenin, Notch, Hedgehog, and related inflammatory and apoptotic pathways. Hence, investigating novel multitargeted agents using a novel delivery system could be a promising strategy for regulating TME and drug resistance. In recent years, small molecules from natural sources have shown favorable anticancer responses by targeting TME components. Nanoformulations of natural compounds are promising therapeutic agents in simultaneously targeting multiple dysregulated factors and mediators of TME, reducing tumor resistance mechanisms, overcoming interstitial fluid pressure and pericyte coverage, and involvement of basement membrane. The novel nanoformulations employ a vascular normalization strategy, stromal/matrix normalization, and stress alleviation mechanisms to exert higher efficacy and lower side effects. Accordingly, the nanoformulations of anticancer monoclonal antibodies and conventional chemotherapeutic agents also improved their efficacy and lessened the pharmacokinetic limitations. Additionally, the coadministration of nanoformulations of natural compounds along with conventional chemotherapeutic agents, monoclonal antibodies, and nanomedicine-based radiotherapy exhibits encouraging results. This critical review evaluates the current body of knowledge in targeting TME components by nanoformulation-based delivery systems of natural small molecules, monoclonal antibodies, conventional chemotherapeutic agents, and combination therapies in both preclinical and clinical settings. Current challenges, pitfalls, limitations, and future perspectives are also discussed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias , Humanos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Microambiente Tumoral , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/farmacologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/patologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos
4.
Phytomedicine ; 115: 154821, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37119761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple dysregulated pathways are behind the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs); however, the crucial targets are still unknown. Oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, and inflammation are the most dominant pathways that strongly influence neurodegeneration. In this way, targeting the Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway appears to be a developing strategy for combating NDDs like Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, aging, and other NDDs. Accordingly, plant secondary metabolites have shown promising potentials for the simultaneous modulation of the Ras/Raf/MAPKs pathway and play an essential role in NDDs. MAPKs include p38 MAPK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which are important molecular players in neurodegeneration. Ras/Raf, which is located the upstream of MAPK pathway influences the initiation and progression of neurodegeneration and is regulated by natural products. PURPOSE: Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective roles of plant- and marine-derived secondary metabolites against several NDDs through the modulation of the Ras/Raf/MAPK signaling pathway. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A systematic and comprehensive review was performed to highlight the modulatory roles of natural products on the Ras/Raf/MAPK signaling pathway in NDDs, according to the PRISMA guideline, using scholarly electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Sciences. Associated reference lists were also searched for the literature review. RESULTS: From a total of 1495 results, finally 107 articles were included in the present study. The results show that several natural compounds such as alkaloid, phenolic, terpenoids, and nanoformulation were shown to have modulatory effects on the Ras/Raf/MAPKs pathway. CONCLUSION: Natural products are promising multi-targeted agents with on NDDs through Ras/Raf/MAPKs pathway. Nevertheless, additional and complementary studies are necessary to check its efficacy and potential side effects.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Fosforilação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia
5.
Metabolites ; 13(3)2023 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36984763

RESUMO

Saponins are one of the broadest classes of high-molecular-weight natural compounds, consisting mainly of a non-polar moiety with 27 to 30 carbons and a polar moiety containing sugars attached to the sapogenin structure. Saponins are found in more than 100 plant families as well as found in marine organisms. Saponins have several therapeutic effects, including their administration in the treatment of various cancers. These compounds also reveal noteworthy anti-angiogenesis effects as one of the critical strategies for inhibiting cancer growth and metastasis. In this study, a comprehensive review is performed on electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and ProQuest. Accordingly, the structural characteristics of triterpenoid/steroid saponins and their anti-cancer effects were highlighted, focusing on their anti-angiogenic effects and related mechanisms. Consequently, the anti-angiogenic effects of saponins, inhibiting the expression of genes related to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF-1α) are two main anti-angiogenic mechanisms of triterpenoid and steroidal saponins. The inhibition of inflammatory signaling pathways that stimulate angiogenesis, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), and phosphoinositide 3-kinases/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt), are other anti-angiogenic mechanisms of saponins. Furthermore, the anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer activity of saponins was closely related to the binding site of the sugar moiety, the type and number of their monosaccharide units, as well as the presence of some functional groups in their aglycone structure. Therefore, saponins are suitable candidates for cancer treatment by inhibiting angiogenesis, for which extensive pre-clinical and comprehensive clinical trial studies are recommended.

6.
Pharmaceutics ; 15(3)2023 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36986865

RESUMO

As major public health concerns associated with a rapidly growing aging population, neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) and neurological diseases are important causes of disability and mortality. Neurological diseases affect millions of people worldwide. Recent studies have indicated that apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress are the main players of NDDs and have critical roles in neurodegenerative processes. During the aforementioned inflammatory/apoptotic/oxidative stress procedures, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway plays a crucial role. Considering the functional and structural aspects of the blood-brain barrier, drug delivery to the central nervous system is relatively challenging. Exosomes are nanoscale membrane-bound carriers that can be secreted by cells and carry several cargoes, including proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and metabolites. Exosomes significantly take part in the intercellular communications due to their specific features including low immunogenicity, flexibility, and great tissue/cell penetration capabilities. Due to their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, these nano-sized structures have been introduced as proper vehicles for central nervous system drug delivery by multiple studies. In the present systematic review, we highlight the potential therapeutic effects of exosomes in the context of NDDs and neurological diseases by targeting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

7.
ACS Omega ; 8(1): 771-781, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36643496

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke accompanies oxidative stress and cell death in the cerebral tissue. The microRNA miR-34a plays a pivotal role in this molecular pathology. This study presents the rational repositioning of aminoglycosidic antibiotics as miR-34a antagonists in order to assess their efficiency in protecting the PC12 stroke model cells from oxidative stress occurring under cerebral ischemic conditions. A library of 29 amino-sugar compounds were screened against anticipated structural models of miR-34a through molecular docking. MiR-ligand interactions were mechanistically studied by molecular dynamics simulations and free-energy calculations. Cultured PC12 cells were treated by H2O2 alone or in combination with gentamycin and neomycin as selected drugs. Cell viability and apoptosis were detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and annexin V-FITC/propidium iodate (PI) double staining assays, respectively. The expression levels of key factors involved in cell proliferation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in treated PC12 cells were measured through a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometric annexin V-FITC/PI double staining assays. A stable and energetically favorable binding was observed for miR-34a with gentamycin and neomycin. Gentamycin pretreatments followed by H2O2 oxidative injury led to increased cell viability and protected PC12 cells against H2O2-induced apoptotic events. This study will help in further understanding how the suppression of miR-34a in neural tissue affects the cell viability upon stroke.

8.
Phytomedicine ; 105: 154354, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adaptogens are generally referred to the substances, mostly found in plants, which non-specifically increase resilience and chances of survival by activation of signaling pathways in affected cells. PURPOSE: This literature review was conducted to summarize the investigation, until March 2021, on selected adaptogenic plants and plant-derived substances. STUDY DESIGN: Electronic databases were searched (up to March 2021) for in vitro and animal studies, as well as clinical trials. Moreover, all modes of action connected with the adaptogenic effects of plants and phytochemicals were collected. METHODS: The search of relevant studies was performed within electronic databases including Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed, and Cochrane library. The most important keywords were adaptogen, plant, phytochemical, and plant-derived. RESULTS: The most investigated medicinal herbs for their adaptogenic activity are Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng, Withania somnifera, Schisandra chinensis, and Rhodiola spp., salidroside, ginsenosides, andrographolide, methyl jasmonate, cucurbitacin R, dichotosin, and dichotosininare are phytochemicals that have shown a considerable adaptogenic activity. Phytochemicals that have been demonstrated adaptogenic properties mainly belong to flavonoids, terpenoids, and phenylpropanoid glycosides. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that the main modes of action of the selected adaptogenic plants are stress modulatory, antioxidant, anti-fatigue, and physical endurance enhancement. Other properties were nootropic, immunomodulatory, cardiovascular, and radioprotective activities.


Assuntos
Eleutherococcus , Plantas Medicinais , Rhodiola , Schisandra , Animais , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais
9.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; 45(1): 223-230, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642336

RESUMO

The genus Tamarix includes several plant species well-known for their medicinal properties since ancient times. Tamarix stricta Boiss is a plant native to Iran which has not been previously investigated regarding its phytochemical and biological properties. This study assessed phytochemical and toxicological aspects of T. stricta. The plant was collected from Kerman province of Iran and after authentication by botanist, it was extracted with 70% ethanol. Total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and antioxidant properties were measured using spectrophometric methods. Quercetin content of the extract was measured after complete acid hydrolysis with high-performance liquid chromatography. The phytochemical profile of the extract was provided using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Acute toxicity study with a single intragastric dose of 5000 mg/kg of the extract and sub-chronic toxicity using 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg of the extract was assessed in Wistar rats. Phytochemical analysis showed that polyphenols constitute the major components of the extract. Also, the extract contained 1.552 ± 0.35 mg/g of quercetin. Biochemical, hematological, and histological evaluations showed no sign of toxicity in animals. Our experiment showed that T. stricta is a rich source of polyphenols and can be a safe medicinal plant. Further pharmacological evaluations are recommended to assess the therapeutic properties of this plant.


Assuntos
Tamaricaceae , Animais , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Polifenóis/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
Phytomedicine ; 91: 153664, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As common, progressive, and chronic causes of disability and death, neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) significantly threaten human health, while no effective treatment is available. Given the engagement of multiple dysregulated pathways in neurodegeneration, there is an imperative need to target the axis and provide effective/multi-target agents to tackle neurodegeneration. Recent studies have revealed the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in some diseases and natural products with therapeutic potentials. PURPOSE: This is the first systematic and comprehensive review on the role of plant-derived secondary metabolites in managing and/or treating various neuronal disorders via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A systematic and comprehensive review was done based on the PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane electronic databases. Two independent investigators followed the PRISMA guidelines and included papers on PI3K/Akt/mTOR and interconnected pathways/mediators targeted by phytochemicals in NDDs. RESULTS: Natural products are multi-target agents with diverse pharmacological and biological activities and rich sources for discovering and developing novel therapeutic agents. Accordingly, recent studies have shown increasing phytochemicals in combating Alzheimer's disease, aging, Parkinson's disease, brain/spinal cord damages, depression, and other neuronal-associated dysfunctions. Amongst the emerging targets in neurodegeneration, PI3K/Akt/mTOR is of great importance. Therefore, attenuation of these mediators would be a great step towards neuroprotection in such NDDs. CONCLUSION: The application of plant-derived secondary metabolites in managing and/or treating various neuronal disorders through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway is a promising strategy towards neuroprotection.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Neuroproteção , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
11.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202374

RESUMO

A newly diagnosed coronavirus in 2019 (COVID-19) has affected all human activities since its discovery. Flavonoids commonly found in the human diet have attracted a lot of attention due to their remarkable biological activities. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the benefits of flavonoids in COVID-19 disease. Previously-reported effects of flavonoids on five RNA viruses with similar clinical manifestations and/or pharmacological treatments, including influenza, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and Ebola, were considered. Flavonoids act via direct antiviral properties, where they inhibit different stages of the virus infective cycle and indirect effects when they modulate host responses to viral infection and subsequent complications. Flavonoids have shown antiviral activity via inhibition of viral protease, RNA polymerase, and mRNA, virus replication, and infectivity. The compounds were also effective for the regulation of interferons, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and sub-cellular inflammatory pathways such as nuclear factor-κB and Jun N-terminal kinases. Baicalin, quercetin and its derivatives, hesperidin, and catechins are the most studied flavonoids in this regard. In conclusion, dietary flavonoids are promising treatment options against COVID-19 infection; however, future investigations are recommended to assess the antiviral properties of these compounds on this disease.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 269: 113692, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321187

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complicated metabolic disorder with no definite treatment. Different species of the genus Tamarix (tamarisk) are used by local people to treat DM. Tamarix stricta Boiss. is an endemic species to Iran with several traditional therapeutic uses in Persian Medicine. This study aimed to assess the antidiabetic activity of T. stricta. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hydroethanolic extract of the plant was prepared and analyzed by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The protective effect of the extract was evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced toxicity and markers of autophagy in pancreatic RIN-5F cells. The effect of intragastric 10 or 20 mg/kg of the extract was compared with negative control (water) or positive control (metformin) treatment during four weeks of administration in high-fat diet + STZ-induced DM in Balb/c mice. RESULTS: Results showed the presence of 8.436 mg of gallic acid in each gram of the extract. A significant cytoprotective effect was observed by T. stricta in STZ-induced toxicity in RIN-5F cells, partially due to the modulation of autophagy. Also, animals treated with the extract showed a significant improvement in glycemic and lipid profiles, liver function, and histopathologic features of pancreas and liver compared with the negative control. CONCLUSION: T. stricta demonstrated beneficial effects in animal model of DM; though, further studies are recommended to confirm the clinical use of this plant in DM.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Tamaricaceae , Animais , Autofagia/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Estreptozocina
13.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114450

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neuronal/cognitional dysfunction, leading to disability and death. Despite advances in revealing the pathophysiological mechanisms behind AD, no effective treatment has yet been provided. It urges the need for finding novel multi-target agents in combating the complex dysregulated mechanisms in AD. Amongst the dysregulated pathophysiological pathways in AD, oxidative stress seems to play a critical role in the pathogenesis progression of AD, with a dominant role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1)/antioxidant responsive elements (ARE) pathway. In the present study, a comprehensive review was conducted using the existing electronic databases, including PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and Scopus, as well as related articles in the field. Nrf2/Keap1/ARE has shown to be the upstream orchestrate of oxidative pathways, which also ameliorates various inflammatory and apoptotic pathways. So, developing multi-target agents with higher efficacy and lower side effects could pave the road in the prevention/management of AD. The plant kingdom is now a great source of natural secondary metabolites in targeting Nrf2/Keap1/ARE. Among natural entities, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, terpene/terpenoids, carotenoids, sulfur-compounds, as well as some other miscellaneous plant-derived compounds have shown promising future accordingly. Prevailing evidence has shown that activating Nrf2/ARE and downstream antioxidant enzymes, as well as inhibiting Keap1 could play hopeful roles in overcoming AD. The current review highlights the neuroprotective effects of plant secondary metabolites through targeting Nrf2/Keap1/ARE and downstream interconnected mediators in combating AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Produtos Biológicos/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Alcaloides/química , Animais , Elementos de Resposta Antioxidante , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Carotenoides/química , Bases de Dados de Produtos Farmacêuticos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Metabolismo Secundário , Transdução de Sinais , Terpenos/química
14.
Behav Pharmacol ; 31(8): 728-737, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925224

RESUMO

Pain is one of the most common medical challenges, reducing life quality. Despite the progression in pain management, it has remained a clinical challenge, which raises the need for investigating novel antinociceptive drugs with correspondence signaling pathways. Besides, the precise antinociceptive mechanisms of melatonin are not revealed. Accordingly, owing to the critical role of L-arginine/nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP (cGMP)/KATP in the antinociceptive responses of various analgesics, the role of this signaling pathway is evaluated in the antinociceptive effects of melatonin. Male NMRI mice were intraperitoneally pretreated with the injection of L-arginine (NO precursor, 100 mg/kg), N(gamma)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester [L-NAME, NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, 30 mg/kg], S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP, NO donor, 1 mg/kg), sildenafil (phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 0.5 mg/kg), and glibenclamide (KATP channel blocker, 10 mg/kg) alone and before the administration of the most effective dose of melatonin amongst the intraperitoneal doses of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg. The formalin test (2%, 25 µL, intra-plantarly) was done following the melatonin administration, then the nociceptive responses of mice were evaluated during the early phase for 5 min and the late phase for 15 min. The results showed that 100 mg/kg dose of melatonin carried out the most antinociceptive effects. While the antinociceptive effect of melatonin was increased by L-arginine, SNAP, and sildenafil, it was significantly reduced by L-NAME and glibenclamide in both phases of the formalin test, with no relation to the sedative effects of melatonin evaluated by the inclined plane test. In conclusion, the antinociceptive effect of melatonin is mediated through the L-arginine/NO/cGMP/KATP pathway.


Assuntos
Melatonina/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacologia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Animais não Endogâmicos , Arginina/análogos & derivados , Arginina/metabolismo , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Canais KATP/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Phytother Res ; 34(11): 3052-3062, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548864

RESUMO

Nigella sativa L. (black seed) is one of the main medicinal plants frequently cited in traditional Persian medicine manuscripts for management of acne vulgaris. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of a topical preparation from N. sativa in acne vulgaris. In a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial, 60 patients (30 patients in treatment and 30 in placebo group) were randomly received N. sativa hydrogel (standardized based on thymoquinone) or placebo hydrogel, twice daily for 60 days. The Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) grading score was recorded for each patient. Moreover, acne disability index (ADI) was evaluated using a standard questionnaire filled out by the patients at the beginning and end of the study. A 78% mean reduction in the IGA score on the N. sativa-treated group was recorded compared with 3.3% on the vehicle-treated one. Significant reductions in the number of comedones, papules, and pustules were observed in the treatment group compared with placebo after 2 months. Also, ADI was decreased 63.49% in the treatment versus 4.5% in the placebo groups. No adverse event was recorded. N. sativa hydrogel had significant effects on improving the symptoms of acne vulgaris with acceptable tolerability.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/tratamento farmacológico , Hidrogéis/uso terapêutico , Nigella sativa/química , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pharmacol Res ; 151: 104584, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809853

RESUMO

Polyphenols are one of most important phytochemicals distributing in herb plants, vegetables and fruits, which known as important anticancer agents. Given the high incidence and mortality of skin cancer, this study aimed to uncover the chemopreventive effects of polyphenols against skin cancer metastasis. Electronic databases including Scopus, PubMed, and Cochrane library were used to compile the literature from 2000 to August 2019. Only in vivo mechanistic studies with English full-texts were chosen for this review. Polyphenols were included in this study if they were administered in purified form; while total extract and fractions were excluded. Among the 8254 primarily selected papers, only a final number of 34 studies were included. The chemopreventive effects of polyphenols as anthocyanins, ellagitanins, EGCG, oleuropeindihydroxy phenyl, punicalagin, quercetin, resveratrol and theaflavin, were mainly examined in treatment of melanoma as the highly metastatic form of this cutaneous cancer. Those properties are mediated by modulation of angiogenesis, apoptosis, inflammation, metastasis, proliferation, pathways such as EGFR/MAPK, mTOR/PI3K/Akt, JAK/STAT, FAK/RTK2, PGE-2/VEGF, PGE-1/ERK/HIIF-1α, and modulation of related signals including NF-κB, P21WAF/CIP1, Bim, Bax, Bcl2, Bclx, Bim, Puma, Noxa, ILs and MMPs. Chemopreventive effects of polyphenols are mediated by several signaling pathways against skin carcinogenesis and metastasis, implying the importance of polyphenols to open up new horizons in development of anti-skin cancer therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anticarcinógenos/farmacologia , Anticarcinógenos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
17.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 311(8): 577-588, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115657

RESUMO

The grape seed extract (GSE) and its main active polyphenol, resveratrol (RES), have shown considerable antioxidant activities, besides possessed protective and therapeutic effects against various skin complications. This paper discusses the favorable effects of RES, GSE and their nanoformulations for dermatological approaches, with specific emphasis on clinical interventions. In this manner, electronic databases including PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar were searched. Data were collected from 1980 up to February 2019. The search terms included "Vitis vinifera", "grape", "resveratrol", "skin", "dermatology", and "nanoformulation". To increase the skin permeability of GSE and RES, several innovative nanoformulation such as liposomes, niosomes, solid-lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, and lipid-core nanocapsule has been evaluated. According to our extensive searches, both RES and GSE have beneficial impacts on skin disorders such as chloasma, acne vulgaris, skin aging, as well as wound and facial redness. More clinical studies with nanoformulation approaches are recommended to achieve conclusive outcomes regarding the efficacy of RES and GSE in the management of skin diseases.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/administração & dosagem , Nanocápsulas/química , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Lipídeos/química , Lipossomos , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Daru ; 26(2): 241-242, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478655

RESUMO

The corresponding author, Mohammad Hosein Farzaei, affiliation is Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. The correct spelling of the 7th author surname is Iranpanah.

19.
Daru ; 26(2): 229-239, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30382546

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which is classified into Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are among chronic gastrointestinal diseases with unknown pathogenesis. Diverse strategies have been applied for the treatment of this chronic disease. However, selective and site-specific routes of drug delivery to the inflamed location of the colon remain of high importance. Consequently, the application and effects of natural products in the form of nanoformulation and stimuli responsive nanoparticles as a novel strategy for the treatment of IBD are discussed in this review article. This approach may potentially overcome some complications that are associated with conventional means of colon drug delivery. Meanwhile, in vitro and in vivo studies pave the way for understanding of the mechanism that lies behind this chronic relapsing disease and potentially more effective treatment. Graphical abstract ᅟ.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/química , Humanos , Nanotecnologia
20.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 12(10): 1007-1024, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136591

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory disorder. A wealth of data pointed out that various aspects of chronic inflammation may be affected by several specific dietary factors. This paper calls attention to anthocyanins enriched plant food and anthocyanin dietary supplements, whose role in the management of IBD and its associated oncogenesis deems crucial. Area covered: We updated the most relevant dietary anthocyanins with potential anti-colitis and preventive effect on inflammatory associated colorectal cancer based on the recent animal and human researches along with revealing the major cellular and molecular mechanisms of action. Mounting evidence reported that anthocyanins enriched plant foods perform their protective role on IBD and inflammatory-induced colorectal cancer via different cellular transduction signaling pathways, including inflammatory transcription factors, SAPK/JNK and p38 MAPK cascade, JAK/STAT signaling, NF-kB/pERK/MAPK, Wnt signaling pathway, Nrf2 cytoprotective pathway as well as AMPK pathway and autophagy. Expert commentary: Combination of anthocyanins enriched dietary supplements with existing medications can provide new therapeutic options for IBD patients. Further, well-designed randomized control trials (RCTs) are essential to evaluate the role of anthocyanins enriched medicinal foods as well as isolated anthocyanin components as promising preventive and therapeutic dietary agents for IBD and its associated oncogenesis.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/uso terapêutico , Dieta , Alimentos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Proteção
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...