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1.
Am J Prev Med ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473065

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lifestyle modification, such as healthy diet habits, regular physical activity, and maintaining a normal body weight, must be prescribed to all hypertensive individuals. This study aims to test whether a multicomponent intervention is effective in improving lifestyle and body weight among low-income families. STUDY DESIGN: Cluster randomized trial conducted between June 2013 and October 2016. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,954 uninsured adult patients were recruited in the study within 18 public primary healthcare centers of Argentina. INTERVENTION: Components targeting the healthcare system, providers, and family groups were delivered by community health workers; tailored text messages were sent for 18 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in the proportion of behavioral risk factors and body weight from baseline to end of follow-up. Data were analyzed in 2017. RESULTS: Low fruit and vegetable consumption (fewer than 5 servings per day) decreased from 96.4% at baseline to 92.6% at 18 months in the intervention group, whereas in the control group it increased from 97.0% to 99.9% (p=0.0110). The proportion of low physical activity (<600 MET-minutes/week) decreased from 54.3% at baseline to 46.2% at 18 months in the intervention group and kept constant around 52% (p=0.0232) in the control group. The intervention had no effect on alcohol intake (p=0.7807), smoking (p=0.7607), addition of salt while cooking or at the table (p=0.7273), or body weight (p=0.4000). CONCLUSIONS: The multicomponent intervention was effective for increasing fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity with no effect on alcohol consumption, smoking, addition of salt, or body weight among low-income families in Argentina. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01834131.

2.
Nutrition ; 67-68: 110521, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether dietary patterns (DP) are associated with endothelial dysfunction (ED) markers in an Argentinian population. RESEARCH METHODS & PROCEDURES: Cross-sectional study. The sample belonged to 1,983 subjects from two mid-sized cities of Argentina, involved in CESCAS I Study. To define DP, a food-frequency questionnaire was applied. In a subsample randomly selected from the primary cohort, serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and soluble E selectin (sSELE) were determined. Correlations and multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relation between each quartile of DP adherence score and ED markers (Q1 lowest adherence; Q4 highest adherence). RESULTS: Three DPs were identified: Traditional (TDP), Prudent (PDP), and Convenience and processed (CDP). TDP was characterized by higher intake of refined grains, red meat, whole fat dairy products, vegetable oils, and "mate", a traditional South American infused drink; PDP was characterized by higher intake of vegetables, fruit, low-fat dairy products, whole grains, and legumes; and CDP consisted mainly of processed meat, snacks, pizza, and "empanadas", a stuffed bread served baked or fried. Lower scores (Q2, Q3) in TDP were inversely associated to concentrations of sSELE (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.05, respectively). In PDP, higher scores were inversely associated with hs-CRP, whereas lower scores showed a positive relation with sSELE (P < 0.05). Contrariwise, higher scores in CDP were directly associated with sSELE concentrations (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Adherence for each DP identified is differentially related to ED markers in the studied population.

4.
Glob Heart ; 14(2): 155-163, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to define appropriate intervention strategies to control blood pressure in low- and middle-income countries. In 2018, a program proven effective in Argentina was translated to Guatemala's public primary health care system in rural and primarily indigenous communities. OBJECTIVES: This paper describes the stakeholder engagement process used to adapt the program to the Guatemalan rural context prior to implementing a type II hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial and shares lessons learned. METHODS: We identified key differences in the 2 contexts that are relevant to translating the intervention to the Guatemalan context. Alongside interviews and focus group discussions, we conducted consultation workshops in July and August 2018, applying a participatory translation process involving patients, family members, community members, health care providers, and Ministry of Health officials. The process consisted of multiple meetings in Guatemala City, as well as meetings in each of the 5 departments where the study will be implemented, and 1 district per department. During the workshops, we presented the evidence-based experience from Argentina and then focused on the challenges and recommended solutions that the participants identified for each of the intervention's 6 components. The process concluded with a meeting in which the research team and Ministry of Health officials defined specific details of the intervention. RESULTS: The outcome of the process is an adapted approach appropriate to integrate into Guatemala's public primary health care system in the trial phase. The approach considers the challenges and recommended strategies for each of the 6 intervention components. CONCLUSIONS: We identified lessons learned, challenges, and opportunities during the adaptation process. Findings will inform ongoing stakeholder engagement during the study implementation and future scale-up and efforts to translate evidence-based hypertension control strategies to low- and middle-income countries globally.

5.
Health Promot Int ; 2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302691

RESUMO

The Healthy Municipalities and Communities Strategy (HMCS) was developed by the Pan American Health Organization in 1990. Evaluation and monitoring are fundamental components of health promotion policies. The aim of this study is to explore the indicators used in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) countries to assess the performance of HMCS. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, BVSDE and Google Advanced Search for documents published between January 2000 and April 2016. We included only documents with assessment indicators of the strategy. All articles were independently assessed for eligibility by pairs of reviewers. We classified the indicators with a supporting framework proposed by O'Neill and Simard (Choosing indicators to evaluate Healthy Cities projects: a political task? Health Promot Int 2006, 21, 145-152.). Local level indicators figured far more prominently among countries and were distributed both in projects and specific activities. Regarding the evolution of the HMCS, indicators were reported in the five levels of analysis (local projects and activities, provincial, national and international networks). Empowerment was represented through the presence of active community organizations and different methods of community participation (forums, open hearing and participation maps). Public policies (such as for tobacco cessation) and bylaws adherence and changes in school's curricula regarding healthy eating were frequently mentioned. However, this review demonstrated that impact indicators related to lifestyle changes or built environment are not clearly defined and there is a lack of indicators to measure progress in achieving change in long-term outcomes in LAC. We highlight the importance of designing validated indicators for measuring the impact of health promotion policies in partnership with each country involved.

6.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 39(9): 19-24, Julio 2019. Tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1007688

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los cánceres de mama (CM) y colorrectal (CCR) presentan una elevada carga de enfermedad en Argentina, por lo que el estudio de la epidemiología de estos tumores constituye una prioridad en salud pública. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue describir la prevalencia de antecedentes familiares de CM y CCR, y estimar la incidencia de los tumores en adultos de 35 a 74 años de dos ciudades de Argentina: Bariloche y Marcos Paz. MÉTODOS: En el marco de la cohorte prospectiva de población general CESCAS I (Estudio de detección y seguimiento de enfermedad cardiovascular y factores de riesgo en el Cono Sur de Latinoamérica), se recolectó información individual sobre antecedentes familiares de CM y CCR en una muestra representativa de las ciudades de Bariloche y Marcos Paz. Los casos de cáncer fueron investigados mediante documentación médica respaldatoria. RESULTADOS: Durante 2016-2017 se obtuvo información de 3245 participantes. El 8,4% de la población reportó antecedente familiar de CCR, y el 15,2% de las mujeres, de CM. La incidencia anual para el período 2011-2017 fue de 55,2/100 000 mujeres de 35 a 74 años (IC95%: 22,8-133,7) para CM y 8,5/100 000 adultos de 35 a 74 años (IC95%: 15,3-96,8) para CCR. CONCLUSIONES: Además de garantizar el acceso universal a los programas de tamizaje, se debe tener en cuenta la importancia de indagar sobre los antecedentes familiares de cáncer para identificar pacientes con riesgo aumentado, que requieren algoritmos particulares de detección temprana y vigilancia.


INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) both present a high burden of disease in Argentina. Hence, studying the epidemiology of these tumors constitutes a public health priority. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of family history of BC and CRC and to estimate the incidence of these tumors in adults aged between 35 and 74 years from two cities in Argentina: Bariloche and Marcos Paz. METHODS: As part of the prospective population-based cohort CESCAS I (Study of detection and monitoring of cardiovascular disease and risk factors in the Southern Cone of Latin America), individual information on family history of BC and CRC was collected from a representative sample of the cities of Bariloche and Marcos Paz. Cancer cases were investigated using supporting medical documentation. RESULTS: During 2016-2017, information from 3245 participants was obtained. Family history of CRC was reported by 8.4% of the population, and 15.2% of women reported a family history of BC. The annual incidence for the 2011-2017 period was 55.2/100 000 women aged 35 to 74 years (95%CI: 22.8-133.7) for BC and 38.5/100 000 adults aged 35 to 74 years (95%CI: 15.3-96.8) for CRC.CONCLUSIONS: Besides guaranteeing universal access to screening programs, it is important to evaluate family history of cancer to identify patients with increased risk, who require specific early detection and surveillance algorithms.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Anamnese/métodos
7.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 136, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this review is to examine the effect of Omega-3 Fatty acids on mortality, morbidity, and adverse events in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library through May 2018. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized Controlled trials (RCT). Certainty of evidence was assessed with the GRADE system. INTERVENTIONS: omega 3 fatty acids against placebo or no treatment. Primary and secondary outcomes: All-cause death, cardiovascular death, new AMI, stroke, need for therapeutic angioplasty or By-pass, new diagnosis of cancer and incidence of adverse events. RESULTS: For the efficacy endpoints we included 10 RCT (24,414 patients). Omega 3 fatty acids probably make little or no difference to all-cause mortality (4 studies 9141 patients RR 1.06 - CI95% 0.90 to 1.27, moderate certainty), cardiovascular mortality (3 studies 4304 patients RR 0.93 - CI95% 0.63 to 1.37, moderate certainty), new AMI (RR 1.24 CI95% 0.71 to 2.14 - moderate certainty), any cardiovascular event (RR 0.95 95%CI 0.86 to 1.05; low certainty due to risk of bias and imprecision), and stroke (RR 1.2 95%CCI 0,66-2,19 - moderate certainty). Regarding adverse events, we are uncertain if Omega 3 fatty acids improve/reduce non severe adverse events (RR 1.39 95% CI 0.36 to 5.34; very low certainty). There is probably little or no difference in the outcome suspension due to adverse events (RR 1.19 CI 95% 0.97 to 1.47; moderate certainty). CONCLUSIONS: For adult patients with AMI, omega 3 fatty-acids probably yield no benefit to patient important outcomes.

8.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217845, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding patterns of socio-economic inequalities in tobacco consumption is key to design targeted public health policies for tobacco control. This study examines socio-economic inequalities in smoking and involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke between 2005 and 2013. METHODS: Data were derived from the Argentine National Risk Factors Surveys, conducted in 2005, 2009, and 2013. Two inequality measures were calculated: the age-adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) and the disparity index (DI). Educational level, household income per consumer unit and employment status were used as proxies for socio-economic status (SES). Generalized linear models were used in the analysis. RESULTS: Prevalence of smoking decreased from 29.7% to 25.1% between 2005 and 2013, mainly in women (p<0.001). Despite the overall prevalence reduction, socio-economic inequalities in smoking persisted. For both men and women, the DI was moderately high for smoking (14.47%-33.06%) across the three surveys. In men, the PR indicated a higher smoking prevalence for lower educational levels and lower household income throughout the analyzed period. In women, unlike previous years, the 2013 survey showed disparity related to unemployment. Involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke in 2013 was associated with educational level and household income, with lower involuntary exposure among those with higher SES. CONCLUSIONS: While overall smoking rates have decreased in Argentina, socio-economic disparities related to tobacco smoking persist. Comprehensive tobacco control programs targeted to address these inequalities are essential in developing strategies to reduce health disparities in tobacco-related diseases.

9.
Glob Heart ; 14(1): 81-93, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular prognostic models guide treatment allocation and support clinical decisions. Whether there are valid models for Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) populations is unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to identify and critically appraise cardiovascular prognostic models developed, tested, or recalibrated in LAC populations. METHODS: The systematic review followed the CHARMS (CHecklist for critical Appraisal and data extraction for systematic Reviews of prediction Modelling Studies) framework (PROSPERO [International Prospective Register of Systemic Reviews]: CRD42018096553). Reports were included if they followed a prospective design and presented a multivariable prognostic model; reports were excluded if they studied symptomatic individuals or patients. The following search engines were used: EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus, SciELO, and LILACS. Risk of bias assessment was conducted with PROBAST (Prediction model Risk Of Bias ASsessment Tool). No quantitative summary was conducted due to large heterogeneity. RESULTS: From 2,506 search results, 8 studies (N = 130,482 participants) were included for qualitative synthesis. We could not identify any cardiovascular prognostic model developed for LAC populations; reviewed reports evaluated available models or conducted a recalibration analysis. Only 1 study included a Caribbean population (Puerto Rico); 3 studies were retrieved from Chile; 2 from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Uruguay; and 1 from Mexico. Four studies included population-based samples, and the other 4 included people affiliated to a health facility (e.g., prevention clinics). Most studied participants were older than 50 years, and there were more women in 5 reports. The Framingham model was assessed 6 times, and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association pooled equation was assessed twice. Across the prognostic models assessed, calibration varied widely from one population to another, showing great overestimation particularly in some subgroups (e.g., highest risk). Discrimination (e.g., C-statistic) was acceptable for most models; for Framingham it ranged from 0.66 to 0.76. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association pooled equation showed the best discrimination (0.78). That there were few outcome events was the most important methodological limitation of the identified studies. CONCLUSIONS: No cardiovascular prognostic models have been developed in LAC, hampering key evidence to inform public health and clinical practice. Validation studies need to improve methodological issues.

10.
Am J Prev Med ; 57(1): 95-105, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128958

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Statins are essential drugs for high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk management; however, there is still low adherence to good clinical practice guidelines for statin use at the primary care level in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to test whether a complex intervention targeting physicians improves treatment and control of hypercholesterolemia among patients with moderate to high CVD risk in Argentina. STUDY DESIGN: Cluster RCT. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Ten primary care centers from the public healthcare system of Argentina. INTERVENTION: Primary care physicians in the intervention group received an educational program with three main components: (1) an intensive 2-day training workshop; (2) educational outreach visits; and (3) a mobile health application installed on the physician's smartphones. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reduction in mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, reduction in mean Framingham risk score, proportion of patients receiving an appropriate statin dose, and mean annual number of primary care center visits. RESULTS: Data were analyzed in 2017-2018. Between April 2015 and April 2016, a total of 357 participants were enrolled (179 patients in the intervention group and 178 in the control group). The global follow-up rate was 97.2%. At the end of the follow-up period, there was no difference in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in any of the follow-up points among the groups. Mean CVD risk had a significant net difference in the first 6 months in the intervention group versus the control group (-4.0, 95% CI = -6.5, -1.5). At the end of follow-up, there was an absolute 41.5% higher rate of participants receiving an appropriate statin dose in the intervention group versus the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Although the intervention did not reach a reduction in cholesterol levels, it had a significant positive impact on the promotion of adequate use of clinical practice guidelines. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02380911.

11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(8): e011799, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943824

RESUMO

Background Control of cardiovascular disease ( CVD ) risk factors is suboptimal in Argentina, despite the government's provision of free blood pressure and cholesterol-lowering medications for people without private insurance. We assessed whether community health workers' use of an integrated mH ealth tool encourages patients to attend visits at primary care clinics to improve CVD risk management in 2 provinces of Argentina. Methods and Results We conducted a pragmatic cluster randomized trial, with primary care clinics randomly assigned to intervention or control. Eligible people were aged 40 to 79 years, lived in the catchment area of primary care clinics, possessed a mobile phone for personal use, had public health coverage, and a 10-year CVD risk ≥10%. In the control arm, community health workers screened for CVD risk using a paper-based tool and encouraged high-risk people to present to the primary care clinics for care. In the intervention arm, community health workers used the mH ealth tool to calculate CVD risk and confirm a scheduled physician appointment. Primary outcomes were the proportion of participants who attended a baseline visit and completed at least 1 follow-up, respectively. We enrolled 755 people (376 interventions; 379 controls). Intervention participants were significantly more likely to complete baseline visits (49.4% versus 13.5%, P value 0.0008) and follow-up visits (31.9% versus 7.7%; P value 0.0041). The use of chronic medication and current smoking were significant predictors of primary outcomes. Conclusions Use of mH ealth tools identifies patients at high CVD risk in their home, increases the likelihood of participating in chronic CVD risk factor management, and strengthens referrals. Clinical Trial Registration URL : http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT 02913339.

12.
Transl Behav Med ; 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947329

RESUMO

Despite efforts to improve detection and treatment of adults with hypertension and diabetes in Argentina, many public healthcare system users remain undiagnosed or face barriers in managing these diseases. The purpose of this study is to identify health system, provider, and user-related factors that may hinder detection and treatment of hypertension and diabetes using a traditional and behavioral economics approach. We did qualitative research using in-depth semistructured interviews and focus groups with healthcare providers and adult users of Public Primary Care Clinics. Health system barriers included inadequate care accessibility; poor integration between primary care clinics and local hospitals; lack of resources; and gender bias and neglect of adult chronic disease. Healthcare provider-related barriers were inadequate training; lack of availability or reluctance to adopt Clinical Practice Guidelines; and lack of counseling prioritization. From a behavioral economics perspective, bottlenecks were related to inertia and a status quo, overconfidence, and optimism biases. User-related barriers for treatment adherence included lack of accurate information; resistance to adopt lifelong treatment; affordability; and medical advice mistrust. From a behavioral economics perspective, the most significant bottlenecks were overconfidence and optimism, limited attention, and present biases. Based on these findings, new interventions that aim to improve prevention and control of chronic conditions can be proposed. The study provides empirical evidence regarding the barriers and bottlenecks in managing chronic conditions in primary healthcare settings. Results may contribute to the design of behavioral interventions targeted towards healthcare provision for the affected population.

13.
J Hypertens ; 37(9): 1813-1821, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective is to describe hypertension (HTN) prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in urban and rural communities in Latin America to inform public and policy-makers. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis from urban (n = 111) and rural (n = 93) communities including 33 276 participants from six Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru and Uruguay) were included. HTN was defined as self-reported HTN on blood pressure (BP) medication or average BP over 140/90 mmHg, awareness as self-reported HTN, and controlled as those with BP under 140/90 mmHg. RESULTS: Mean age was 52 years, 60% were Female and 32% belonged to rural communities. HTN prevalence was 44.0%, with the lowest rates in Peru (17.7%) and the highest rates in Brazil (52.5%). 58.9% were aware of HTN diagnosis and 53.3% were receiving treatment. Prevalence of HTN were higher in urban (44.8%) than rural (42.1%) communities in all countries. Most participants who were aware of HTN were receiving medical treatment (90.5%), but only 37.6% of patients receiving medical treatment had their BP controlled (<140/<90 mmHg), with the rates being higher in urban (39.6%) than in rural (32.4%) communities. The rate of use of two or more drugs was low [36.4%, lowest in Argentina (29.6%) and highest in Brazil (44.6%)]. Statin use was low (12.3%), especially in rural areas (7.0%). Most modifiable risk factors were higher in people with HTN than people without HTN. CONCLUSION: HTN prevalence is high but BP control is low in Latin America, with marked differences between countries and between urban and rural settings. There is an urgent need for systematic approaches for better detection, treatment optimization and risk factor modification among those with HTN in Latin America.

14.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry ; 57: 34-40, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710890

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To examine the relationship between suicidal ideation (SI) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general adult population of four cities in the Southern Cone of Latin America (Argentina, Uruguay, Chile) and the role that depression, stressful life events (SLEs) and physical functional impairment may play in this association. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 7524 adults between 35 and 74 years old, randomly selected. History of CVD included acute myocardial infarction, stroke and central or peripheral revascularization. SI in the past two weeks was measured using the last item of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), quality of life was assessed with the 12-item Short Form Survey (SF-12), and having experience of a SLE was determined by asking participants whether they had experienced at least one of a list of events in the past year. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association between SI and CVD overall and by sex. RESULTS: The prevalence of SI was 8.3% (95% CI = 7.5, 9.0) and twice as high among women than men (11.1% vs. 5.1%). History of CVD was associated with almost twice the odds of SI (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.5, 2.4). This association remained strong and significant after adjusting for potential confounders (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2, 2.7). Three additional models were tested to further adjust for depression severity, functional impairment, and SLEs separately. Adjustment for depression severity yielded no association between CVD and SI (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.6, 1.7), adjustment for functional impairment yielded a marginal statistically significant association (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.0, 2.4) and adjustment for SLE didn't modify either the magnitude or the statistical significance of the association. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant association between SI and CVD, particularly among women, which may be driven, at least in part, by depression and physical functional impairment.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Argentina/epidemiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Uruguai/epidemiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646502

RESUMO

Background: Obesogenic environments promote sedentary behavior and high dietary energy intake. The objective of the study was to identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation and impact evaluation of projects oriented to promote physical activity and healthy diet at community level. We analyzed experiences of the projects implemented within the Healthy Municipalities and Communities Program (HMCP) in Argentina. Methods: A mixed methods approach included (1) in-depth semi-structured interviews, with 44 stakeholders; and (2) electronic survey completed by 206 individuals from 96 municipalities across the country. Results: The most important barriers included the lack of: adequate funding (43%); skilled personnel (42%); equipment and material resources (31%); technical support for data management and analysis (20%); training on project designs (12%); political support from local authorities (17%) and acceptance of the proposed intervention by the local community (9%). Facilitators included motivated local leaders, inter-sectorial participation and seizing local resources. Project evaluation was mostly based on process rather than outcome indicators. Conclusions: This study contributes to a better understanding of the difficulties in the implementation of community-based intervention projects. Findings may guide stakeholders on how to facilitate local initiatives. There is a need to improve project evaluation strategies by incorporating process, outcome and context specific indicators.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Exercício , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Argentina , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Dieta Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649400

RESUMO

Background: Using data from general adult population, this study aims to describe epidemiology of alcohol consumption patterns and their association with cardiovascular risk. Methods: CESCAS I is a population-based study from four mid-sized cities in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. Associations between diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and history of CVD and drinking patterns were assessed using crude prevalence odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted OR. Results: A total of 37.2% of the studied population never drank and 18.3% reported to be former drinkers. Among current drinkers, moderate drinking was the most frequent pattern (24.2%). For women with light and moderate consumption, the odds of having >20% CVD risk was ~40% lower than that of never drinkers. The odds of having a history of CVD was 50% lower in those with moderate consumption. For men with heavy consumption, the odds of having >20% CVD risk was about twice as high as for never drinkers. Conclusions: A harmful association was observed between heavy drinking and having >20% CVD risk for men. However, for women, an apparently protective association was observed between light and moderate drinking and having >20% CVD risk and between moderate drinking and having a history of CVD.

17.
Value Health ; 21(12): 1357-1364, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent cluster randomized trial evaluating a multicomponent intervention showed significant reductions in blood pressure in low-income hypertensive subjects in Argentina. OBJECTIVES: To assess the cost-effectiveness of this intervention. METHODS: A total of 1432 hypertensive participants were recruited from 18 primary health care centers. The intervention included home visits led by community health workers, physician education, and text messaging. Resource use and quality of life data using the three-level EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire were prospectively collected. The study perspective was that of the public health care system, and the time horizon was 18 months. Intention-to-treat analysis was used to analyze cost and health outcomes (systolic blood pressure [SBP] change and quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]). A 1 time gross domestic product per capita per QALY was used as the cost-effectiveness threshold (US $14,062). RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar in the two arms. QALYs significantly increased by 0.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04-0.09) in the intervention group, and SBP net difference favored the intervention group: 5.3 mm Hg (95% CI 0.27-10.34). Mean total costs per participant were higher in the intervention arm: US $304 in the intervention group and US $154 in the control group (adjusted difference of US $140.18; 95% CI US $75.41-US $204.94). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $3299 per QALY (95% credible interval 1635-6099) and US $26 per mm Hg of SBP (95% credible interval 13-46). Subgroup analysis showed that the intervention was cost-effective in all prespecified subgroups (age, sex, cardiovascular risk, and body mass index). CONCLUSIONS: The multicomponent intervention was cost-effective for blood pressure control among low-income hypertensive patients.

18.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 6(11): e10226, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The uptake of an intervention aimed at improving health-related lifestyles may be influenced by the participant's stage of readiness to change behaviors. OBJECTIVE: We conducted secondary analysis of the Grupo de Investigación en Salud Móvil en América Latina (GISMAL) trial according to levels of uptake of intervention (dose-response) to explore outcomes by country, in order to verify the consistency of the trial's pooled results, and by each participant's stage of readiness to change a given lifestyle at baseline. The rationale for this secondary analysis is motivated by the original design of the GISMAL study that was independently powered for the primary outcome-blood pressure-for each country. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a mobile health (mHealth) multicountry trial conducted in Argentina, Guatemala, and Peru. The intervention consisted of monthly motivational phone calls by a trained nutritionist and weekly tailored text messages (short message service), over a 12-month period, aimed to enact change on 4 health-related behaviors: salt added to foods when cooking, consumption of high-fat and high-sugar foods, consumption of fruits or vegetables, and practice of physical activity. Results were stratified by country and by participants' stage of readiness to change (precontemplation or contemplation; preparation or action; or maintenance) at baseline. Exposure (intervention uptake) was the level of intervention (<50%, 50%-74%, and ≥75%) received by the participant in terms of phone calls. Linear regressions were performed to model the outcomes of interest, presented as standardized mean values of the following: blood pressure, body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, physical activity, and the 4 health-related behaviors. RESULTS: For each outcome of interest, considering the intervention uptake, the magnitude and direction of the intervention effect differed by country and by participants' stage of readiness to change at baseline. Among those in the high intervention uptake category, reductions in systolic blood pressure were only achieved in Peru, whereas fruit and vegetable consumption also showed reductions among those who were at the maintenance stage at baseline in Argentina and Guatemala. CONCLUSIONS: Designing interventions oriented toward improving health-related lifestyle behaviors may benefit from recognizing baseline readiness to change and issues in implementation uptake. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01295216; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01295216 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/72tMF0B7B).

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap (ACO) represents the confluence of bronchial airway hyperreactivity and chronic airflow limitation and has been described as leading to worse lung function and quality of life than found with either singular disease process. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the prevalence and risk factors for ACO among adults across 6 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: We compiled cross-sectional data for 11,923 participants aged 35 to 92 years from 4 population-based studies in 12 settings. We defined COPD as postbronchodilator FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio below the lower limit of normal, asthma as wheeze or medication use in 12 months or self-reported physician diagnosis, and ACO as having both. RESULTS: The prevalence of ACO was 3.8% (0% in rural Puno, Peru, to 7.8% in Matlab, Bangladesh). The odds of having ACO were higher with household exposure to biomass fuel smoke (odds ratio [OR], 1.48; 95% CI, 0.98-2.23), smoking tobacco (OR, 1.28 per 10 pack-years; 95% CI, 1.22-1.34), and having primary or less education (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.07-1.70) as compared to nonobstructed nonasthma individuals. ACO was associated with severe obstruction (FEV1 %, <50; 31.6% of ACO vs 10.9% of COPD alone) and severe spirometric deficits compared with participants with asthma (-1.61 z scores FEV1; 95% CI, -1.48 to -1.75) or COPD alone (-0.94 z scores; 95% CI, -0.78 to -1.10). CONCLUSIONS: ACO may be as prevalent and more severe in LMICs than has been reported in high-income settings. Exposure to biomass fuel smoke may be an overlooked risk factor, and we favor diagnostic criteria for ACO that include environmental exposures common to LMICs.

20.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 12(6): 510-516, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30166114

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the one-year post effect of the implementation of a diabetes program that includes mHealth interventions on the quality of diabetic care in public primary care centers. METHOD: It is a quasi-experimental study with outcome measurements at baseline, 6 and 12months. The program includes primary care team training, a diabetes registry with a decision support tool in an app. and text messages for patients. RESULTS: At baseline, 947 patients were included in the registry, 62.3% women with a mean age of 53.6±11.5years and 92% with type 2 diabetes. Common comorbidities were hypertension (61.3%) and obesity (59%). Only 16.9% had one HbA1c and 48.9% a cholesterol lab in the last year, 61.9% were screened for diabetic peripheral neuropathy, and 29.0% had one eye exam in the previous year. With respect to blood sugar, lipid and blood pressure control: 44.4% of those with HbA1c measurements had levels ≥8%, total cholesterol was over 200mg/dL in 40.6% and 48.2% had uncontrolled blood pressure values. CONCLUSION: Patients with diabetes received a low quality of care at public primary care clinics. A diabetes registry allowed us to draw an epidemiological profile of diabetic patients and determine the quality of care provided.

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