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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256354, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364518

RESUMO

Abstract Termites are known as social insects worldwide. Presently in China 473 species, 44 genera and 4 families of termites have been reported. Of them, 111 Reticulitermes species are widely spread in different zones of China. The dispersion flight season of these Chinese Reticulitermes species are usually started from February to June, but in some regions different species are distributed, sharing their boundaries and having overlapping flight seasons. These reasons become important sources of hybridization between two different heterospecific populations of termites. It was confirmed that the fertilized eggs and unfertilized eggs of some Reticulitermes termites have the capacity of cleavage. While the unfertilized eggs of R. aculabialis, R. chinensis and R. labralis cleaved normally and the only R. aculabialis unfertilized eggs develop in embryos. While, the R. flaviceps and R. chinensis were observed with their abnormal embryonic development, and not hatching of eggs parthenogenetically. They were reported more threatening to Chinese resources as they propagate with parthenogenesis, hybridization and sexual reproduction. Eggshell and macrophiles of eggs play important roles in species identification and control. Although, they are severe pests and cause a wide range of damages to wooden structures and products in homes, buildings, building materials, trees, crops, and forests in China's Mainland.


Resumo Os cupins são conhecidos como insetos sociais em todo o mundo. Atualmente na China foram relatadas 473 espécies, 44 gêneros e 4 famílias de cupins. Destas, 111 espécies de Reticulitermes estão amplamente distribuídas em diferentes zonas da China. A temporada de voo de dispersão dessas espécies chinesas de Reticulitermes geralmente começa de fevereiro a junho, mas em algumas regiões diferentes espécies são distribuídas, compartilhando seus limites e tendo temporadas de voo sobrepostas. Essas razões tornam-se importantes fontes de hibridização entre duas populações heteroespecíficas de cupins. Foi confirmado que os ovos fertilizados e não fertilizados de alguns cupins Reticulitermes possuem capacidade de clivagem. Já os ovos não fertilizados de R. aculabialis, R. chinensis e R. labralis clivaram normalmente, e os únicos ovos não fertilizados de R. aculabialis se desenvolvem em embriões. R. flaviceps e R. chinensis foram observados com desenvolvimento embrionário anormal, e não eclosão de ovos por partenogênese. Eles foram relatados como mais ameaçadores para os recursos chineses à medida que se propagam com partenogênese, hibridização e reprodução sexual. Casca de ovo e macrófilos de ovos desempenham papéis importantes na identificação e controle de espécies, embora sejam pragas graves e causem uma ampla gama de danos a estruturas e produtos de madeira em residências, edifícios, materiais de construção, árvores, plantações e florestas na China continental.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254011, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355886

RESUMO

Abstract Livestock is a fundamental part of the agriculture industry in Pakistan and contributes more than 11.53% to GDP. Among livestock species, the buffaloes are regarded as the black gold of Pakistan. Being the highest milk producers globally, Nili-Ravi buffaloes are the most famous ones. Buffaloes are affected by many endemic diseases, and "Hemorrhagic septicemia" (HS) is one of them. This study was designed to ascertain the effects of experimental exposure ofP. multocida B:2 (oral) and its immunogens, i.e., LPS (oral and intravenous) and OMP (oral and subcutaneous) on reproductive hormonal profiles in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Repeated serum samples were collected from the jugular vein of experimental animals for 21 days (0, 02, 04, 08, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 and 504 hours). Hormonal assays to determine the serum concentrations of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) were performed using (MyBioSource) commercial Elisa kits. The hormonal profile of all treatment groups of the buffalo heifers exhibited significant (P<0.05) variations as compared to the control group (G-1). These results indicate suppression in Nili-Ravi buffaloes' reproductive hormonal profile on exposure to P. multocida B:2 and its immunogens. This influence warrants that exposure to H.S may be a possible reason for delayed puberty and poor reproduction performance in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.


Resumo A pecuária é uma parte fundamental da indústria agrícola no Paquistão e contribui com 11,53% do PIB nacional. Entre as espécies de gado, os búfalos são considerados o ouro negro do Paquistão. Sendo os maiores produtores de leite em todo o mundo, os búfalos Nili-Ravi são os mais famosos. Os búfalos são afetados por muitas doenças endêmicas, entre as quais a "septicemia hemorrágica" (SH). Este estudo busca verificar os efeitos da exposição experimental de P. multocida B:2 (oral) e seus imunógenos, ou seja, LPS (oral e intravenoso) e OMP (oral e subcutâneo), nos perfis hormonais reprodutivos em búfalos Nili-Ravi. Amostras de soro repetidas foram coletadas da veia jugular de animais experimentais por 21 dias (0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 e 504 horas). Os ensaios hormonais para determinar as concentrações séricas do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina (GnRH), hormônio foliculoestimulante (FSH), hormônio luteinizante (LH), estrogênio (E2) e progesterona (P4) foram realizados usando kits comerciais Elisa (MyBioSource). O perfil hormonal de todos os grupos de tratamento das novilhas bubalinas apresentou variações significativas (P < 0,05) em relação ao grupo controle (G-1). Esses resultados indicam supressão no perfil hormonal reprodutivo de búfalos Nili-Ravi na exposição a P. multocida B:2 e seus imunógenos. Essa influência garante que a exposição à SH possa ser uma possível razão para o atraso da puberdade e o baixo desempenho reprodutivo em búfalos Nili-Ravi.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Reprodução , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Búfalos , Progesterona , Bovinos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Pasteurella multocida
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250256, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355912

RESUMO

Abstract Ferns are often used by indigenous people in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This study was designed to collect the ethnomedicinal and traditional knowledge of these locals about this group of vascular plants. Forty taxa belong to nineteen genera and ten families are used in the treatment of different diseases. The Pteridaceae was the most representative family with twelve taxa (30%), followed by Athyriaceae and Dryopteridaceae with six taxa each (30%), and Thelypteridaceae with five taxa (12.5%). Regarding the genera, Adiantum, Asplenium and Dryopteris ranked first with four taxa each (30%), followed by Aleuritopteris, Diplazium, Pteris and Equisetum with three taxa each (30%), followed by Athyrium, Oeosporangium, Polystichum and Pseudophegopteris with two taxa each (20%). These taxa were commonly used in the treatment of respiratory disorders i.e. asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonia; intestinal ulcer, stomach, urinary ailments and skin disorders by the methods of decoction and infusion. Traditional knowledge about ethnomedicinal plants is a valuable and essential source for the discovery of allopathic, herbal and homeopathic medicines.


Resumo As samambaias são frequentemente usadas pelos indígenas em Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Este estudo foi desenhado para coletar o conhecimento etnomedicinal e tradicional desses moradores sobre este grupo de plantas vasculares. Quarenta táxons pertencem a dezenove gêneros, e dez famílias são utilizadas no tratamento de diferentes doenças. Pteridaceae foi a família mais representativa com doze táxons (30%), seguida por Athyriaceae e Dryopteridaceae com seis táxons cada (30%), e Thelypteridaceae com cinco táxons (12,5%). Em relação aos gêneros, Adiantum, Asplenium e Dryopteris ficaram em primeiro lugar com quatro táxons cada (30%), seguidos por Aleuritopteris, Diplazium, Pteris e Equisetum com três táxons cada (30%), e Athyrium, Oeosporangium, Polystichum e Pseudophegopteris com dois táxons cada (20%). Estes táxons foram comumente usados ​​no tratamento de distúrbios respiratórios, isto é, asma, bronquite, enfisema, pneumonia; úlcera intestinal, estômago, doenças urinárias e doenças da pele pelos métodos de decocção e infusão. O conhecimento tradicional sobre plantas etnomedicinais é uma fonte valiosa e essencial para a descoberta de medicamentos alopáticos, fitoterápicos e homeopáticos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Plantas Medicinais , Gleiquênias , Traqueófitas , Paquistão , Fitoterapia , Medicina Tradicional
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249125, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339338

RESUMO

Abstract COVID-19 is reported as an extremely contagious disease with common symptoms of fever, dry cough, sore throat, and tiredness. The published literature on incidence and gender-wise prevalence of COVID-19 is scarce in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare the distribution, incubation period and mortality rate of COVID-19 among the male and female population of district Attock. The data were collected between 01 April 2020 and 07 December 2020 from the population of district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 22,962 individuals were screened and 843 were found positive for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2. The confirmed positive cases were monitored carefully. Among the positive cases, the incidence of COVID-19 was 61.7% among males and 38.2% among females. The average recovery period of males was 18.89±7.75 days and females were 19±8.40 days from SARS-CoV-2. The overall mortality rate was 8.06%. The death rate of male patients was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to female patients. Also, the mortality rate was higher (P<0.05) in male patients of 40-60 years of age compared to female patients of the same age group. Moreover, the mortality rate significantly increased (P<0.05) with the increase of age irrespective of gender. In conclusion, the incidence and mortality rate of COVID-19 is higher in males compared to the female population. Moreover, irrespective of gender the mortality rate was significantly lower among patients aged <40 years.


Resumo Covid-19 é relatada como uma doença extremamente contagiosa com sintomas comuns de febre, tosse seca, dor de garganta e cansaço. A literatura publicada sobre incidência e prevalência de Covid-19 com base no gênero é escassa no Paquistão. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar a distribuição, o período de incubação e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 entre a população masculina e feminina do distrito de Attock. Os dados foram coletados entre 1 de abril de 2020 e 7 de dezembro de 2020 da população do distrito de Attock, Paquistão. Um total de 22.962 indivíduos foi selecionado, e 843 foram considerados positivos para RT-qPCR para SARS-CoV-2. Os casos positivos confirmados foram monitorados cuidadosamente. Entre os casos positivos, a incidência de Covid-19 foi de 61,7% no sexo masculino e 38,2% no feminino. O período médio de recuperação dos homens foi de 18,89 ± 7,75 dias e das mulheres 19 ± 8,40 dias do SARS-CoV-2. A mortalidade geral foi de 8,06%. A taxa de mortalidade de pacientes do sexo masculino foi significativamente maior (P < 0,05) em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade foi maior (P < 0,05) em pacientes do sexo masculino com 40-60 anos de idade em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino da mesma faixa etária. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade aumentou significativamente (P < 0,05) com o aumento da idade, independentemente do sexo. Em conclusão, a incidência e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 são maiores no sexo masculino em comparação com a população feminina. E também, independentemente do sexo, a taxa de mortalidade foi significativamente menor entre os pacientes com idade < 40 anos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , COVID-19 , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Incidência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e259731, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544794

RESUMO

Juglans regia L. are nutritious fruit bearing plants mostly found in Northern areas of Pakistan. The population of walnuts was explored from district Dir and Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan for their geographical, climatic and chemical divergence. The geographical differences such as altitude, latitude and longitude whereas climatic differences viz. soil EC, soil pH, precipitations, intensity of light, temperature and soil temperature. In both districts TPC ranged from 211.2±0.6 to 227.8±0.4 mg/100g, RSA ranged from 43.32±1.5% to 52.18±0.4%, conductivity ranged from 296.43±0.6 to 312.22±0.3 S/m and elemental composition such as iron, copper, calcium, zinc and magnesium in Dir differs from 0.312±0.032, 0.209±0.13, 20.0±0.313, 0.406±0.10 and 10.2±0.030 mg/L to 0.543±0.65, 0.698±0.82, 28.7±0.234, 0.685±0.15 and 17.6±0.015 mg/L respectively. Altitude and temperature showed a correlation with total phenolics contents and radical scavenging activity while soil pH, precipitations, soil temperature, soil Ec and light intensity indicated a weak correlation with chemical traits of walnuts. Further studies of walnuts are needed to explore their therapeutically important phytochemicals to succeed naturally pharmaceutical nutrients of the maximum significance for the health of human beings.


Assuntos
Juglans , Altitude , Humanos , Nozes , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Solo
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7979, 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35562398

RESUMO

Banana is an important fruit crop in the tropics and subtropics; however, limited information on biomarkers and signature volatiles is available for selecting commercial cultivars. Clonal fidelity is a major contributor to banana yield and aroma; however, there are no useful biomarkers available to validate clonal fidelity. In this study, we performed the molecular profiling of 20 banana cultivars consisting of diploid (AA or AB) and triploid (AAA or AAB or ABB) genomic groups. We screened 200 molecular markers, of which 34 markers (11 RAPD, 11 ISSR, and 12 SSR) yielded unequivocally scorable biomarker profiles. About 75, 69, and 24 allelic loci per marker were detected for RAPD, ISSR, and SSR markers, respectively. The statistical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) exhibited a high genetic difference of 77% with a significant FST value of 0.23 (p < 0.001). Interestingly, the UBC-858 and SSR CNMPF-13 markers were unique to Grand Nain and Ardhapuri cultivars, respectively, which could be used for clonal fidelity analysis. Furthermore, the analysis of banana fruit volatilome using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GCMS) revealed a total of fifty-four volatile compounds in nine banana cultivars with 56% of the total volatile compounds belonging to the ester group as the significant contributor of aroma. The study assumes significance with informative biomarkers and signature volatiles which could be helpful in breeding and for the authentic identification of commercial banana cultivars.

7.
FASEB J ; 36 Suppl 12022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35554266

RESUMO

Nanomedicine has been widely employed as a site-specific and target-oriented drug delivery tactic in treating heart failure (HF). Ischemia-induced inflammation plays a robust role in the development of HF and neutrophil is one of the main immune cell types that rapidly infiltrate into the inflamed tissues after myocardial infarction (MI). In the present study, we examined the efficacy of a formation of biomimetic nanoparticles that were prepared by fabricated TAPI-1 loaded liposomes coated with neutrophil membranes in the treatment of HF. Male SD rats underwent coronary artery ligation (CL) to induce HF. These HF rats were treated with intravenous injection of TAPI-1-loaded biomimetic nanoparticles (n=6) or TAPI-1 alone (n=6) for 4 weeks. The left ventricular (LV) function was assessed by echocardiography within 24 hours and 4 weeks after CL. The nanoparticles were evaluated prior to the treatments. Compared with non-coated formation, neutrophil membrane-coated nanoparticles have high uptake into LPS-stimulated cardiac cells or endothelial cells. Moreover, the coated nanoparticles exhibited higher cell-specific targeting potential and internalization capacity than non-coated nanoparticles in LPS-stimulated endothelial cells. Small animal imaging showed that DiR-labeled nanoparticles were mainly accumulated in the injured heart after MI. Compared with HF rats treated with TAPI-1 alone, the HF rats treated with TAPI-1-loaded nanoparticles had significantly (* p<0.05) improved anatomic indicators with reduced ratio (%) of heart/body weight (0.34 ± 0.042* vs. 0.48± 0.11) and lung/body weight (0.84 ± 0.19* vs. 1.14 ± 0.15). Additionally, one 4-week treatment with TAPI-1-loaded biomimetic nanoparticles reduced LV end systolic volume (0.67±0.032* vs. 0.83±0.036, mL) when compared with the TAPI-1 alone. While LV stroke volume (LVSV) did not change significantly in IV TAPI-1-treated HF animals, LVSV (0.47±0.043* vs. 0.27±0.029, mL) was significantly increased in HF rats treated with TAPI-1-loaded nanoparticles at 4 weeks vs. 24 hours after CL. LV end diastolic volume, LV ejection fraction, and LV infarction zone didn't exhibit significant differences between two treatment groups. Cardiac hemodynamic measurements revealed that the HF rats treated with TAPI-1-loaded nanoparticles had decreased LV end diastolic pressure (10.53±1.67* vs. 19.01±3.32, mmHg) and elevated dP/dtmax (8202.65±658.09* vs. 5994.47±630.81) compared with the HF rats-treated with TAPI-1 alone. Histological evaluation indicated that the fibrosis areas surrounding the infarction scar were significant reduced (15.97±1.84* vs. 22.86±2.27, %) in HF rats treated with TAPI-1-loaded nanoparticles vs. TAPI alone. Flow cytometric analysis also demonstrated that treatment with TAPI-1-loaded nanoparticles improved inflammatory conditions indicated by increased ratio of CD4+ /CD8+ T Cells (2.40±0.67* vs. 1.56±0.21) in the blood and reduced percentage of leukocytes in the heart of HF. These data indicate that neutrophil membrane fusogenic liposomal nanoparticle is an effective drug delivery approach in treating this devastating disease. (Supported by NIH grants R01 HL-139521 & HL-155091 to SGW, S10 OD019941 to RW).

8.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e256354, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35319619

RESUMO

Termites are known as social insects worldwide. Presently in China 473 species, 44 genera and 4 families of termites have been reported. Of them, 111 Reticulitermes species are widely spread in different zones of China. The dispersion flight season of these Chinese Reticulitermes species are usually started from February to June, but in some regions different species are distributed, sharing their boundaries and having overlapping flight seasons. These reasons become important sources of hybridization between two different heterospecific populations of termites. It was confirmed that the fertilized eggs and unfertilized eggs of some Reticulitermes termites have the capacity of cleavage. While the unfertilized eggs of R. aculabialis, R. chinensis and R. labralis cleaved normally and the only R. aculabialis unfertilized eggs develop in embryos. While, the R. flaviceps and R. chinensis were observed with their abnormal embryonic development, and not hatching of eggs parthenogenetically. They were reported more threatening to Chinese resources as they propagate with parthenogenesis, hybridization and sexual reproduction. Eggshell and macrophiles of eggs play important roles in species identification and control. Although, they are severe pests and cause a wide range of damages to wooden structures and products in homes, buildings, building materials, trees, crops, and forests in China's Mainland.


Assuntos
Baratas , Isópteros , Animais , China , Reprodução
10.
Fam Med ; 54(1): 16-23, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35006595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the prevalence of published opinions about the use of professional academic writers to help disseminate the results of clinical research, particularly opinions about the use of ghost writers, very little information has been published on the possible roles for professional writers within academic medical departments or the mechanisms by which these departments can hire and compensate such writers. To begin addressing this lack of information, the Association of Departments of Family Medicine hosted an online discussion and a subsequent webinar in which we obtained input from three departments of family medicine in the United States regarding their use of academic writers. This discussion revealed three basic models by which academic writers have benefitted these departments: (1) grant writing support, (2) research and academic support for clinical faculty, and (3) departmental communication support. Drawing on specific examples from these institutions, the purpose of this paper is to describe the key support activities, advantages, disadvantages, and funding opportunities for each model for other departments to consider and adapt.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Docentes de Medicina , Organização do Financiamento , Humanos , Publicações , Estados Unidos
11.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e254011, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019102

RESUMO

Livestock is a fundamental part of the agriculture industry in Pakistan and contributes more than 11.53% to GDP. Among livestock species, the buffaloes are regarded as the black gold of Pakistan. Being the highest milk producers globally, Nili-Ravi buffaloes are the most famous ones. Buffaloes are affected by many endemic diseases, and "Hemorrhagic septicemia" (HS) is one of them. This study was designed to ascertain the effects of experimental exposure ofP. multocida B:2 (oral) and its immunogens, i.e., LPS (oral and intravenous) and OMP (oral and subcutaneous) on reproductive hormonal profiles in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Repeated serum samples were collected from the jugular vein of experimental animals for 21 days (0, 02, 04, 08, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 and 504 hours). Hormonal assays to determine the serum concentrations of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) were performed using (MyBioSource) commercial Elisa kits. The hormonal profile of all treatment groups of the buffalo heifers exhibited significant (P<0.05) variations as compared to the control group (G-1). These results indicate suppression in Nili-Ravi buffaloes' reproductive hormonal profile on exposure to P. multocida B:2 and its immunogens. This influence warrants that exposure to H.S may be a possible reason for delayed puberty and poor reproduction performance in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.


Assuntos
Búfalos , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Reprodução , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Lipopolissacarídeos , Pasteurella multocida , Progesterona
12.
Astrobiology ; 22(1): 104-115, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748403

RESUMO

Hygroscopic salts at Mars' near-surface (MgSO4, (per)chlorates, NaCl) may form brines by absorbing moisture from the atmosphere at certain times through the process of deliquescence. We have previously shown strong bacterial growth in saturated MgSO4 (∼67% w/v as epsomite) at room temperature, and growth was observed at the MgSO4 eutectic point (43% w/v at -4°C). Here, we have investigated the growth of salinotolerant microbes (Halomonas, Marinococcus, Planococcus) from Hot Lake, Washington; Basque Lake, British Columbia; and Great Salt Plains, Oklahoma under deliquescing conditions. Bacterial cultures were grown to mid-log phase in SP medium supplemented with 50% MgSO4 (as epsomite), 20% NaClO3, or 10% NaCl (w/v), and small aliquots in cups were dried by vacuum desiccation. When the dried culture was rehydrated by the manual addition of water, the culture resumed growth in the reconstituted brine. When desiccated cultures were maintained in a sealed container with a brine reservoir of the matching growth medium controlling the humidity of the headspace, the desiccated microbial culture evaporites formed brine by deliquescence using humidity alone. Bacterial cultures resumed growth in all three salts once rehydrated by deliquescence. Cultures of Halomonas sp. str. HL12 showed robust survival and growth when subjected to several cycles of desiccation and deliquescent or manual rehydration. Our laboratory demonstrations of microbial growth in deliquescent brines are relevant to the surface and near-subsurface of cold arid worlds like Mars. When conditions become wetter, hygroscopic evaporite minerals can deliquesce to produce the earliest habitable brines. Survival after desiccation and growth in deliquescent brines increases the likelihood that microbes from Earth, carried on spacecraft, pose a contamination risk to Mars.


Assuntos
Marte , Sais , Temperatura Baixa , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Cloreto de Sódio
14.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 2021 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34866296

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) is a gaseous molecule and originates endogenously in plants. It is considered a potential signalling agent in various physiological processes of plants. Numerous reports have examined the role of H2 S in fruit ripening and in enhancing fruit quality traits. H2 S coordinates the fruit antioxidant system, fruit ripening phytohormones, such as ethylene and abscisic acid, together with other ripening-related signalling molecules, including nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide. Although many studies have increased understanding of various aspects of this complex network, there is a gap in understanding crosstalk of H2 S with key players of fruit ripening, postharvest senescence and fruit metabolism. This review focused on deciphering fruit H2 S metabolism, signalling and its interaction with other ripening-related signalling molecules during fruit ripening and postharvest storage. Moreover, we also discuss how H2 S can be used as a tool for improving fruit quality and productivity and reducing postharvest loss of perishable fruits.

15.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e250256, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932624

RESUMO

Ferns are often used by indigenous people in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This study was designed to collect the ethnomedicinal and traditional knowledge of these locals about this group of vascular plants. Forty taxa belong to nineteen genera and ten families are used in the treatment of different diseases. The Pteridaceae was the most representative family with twelve taxa (30%), followed by Athyriaceae and Dryopteridaceae with six taxa each (30%), and Thelypteridaceae with five taxa (12.5%). Regarding the genera, Adiantum, Asplenium and Dryopteris ranked first with four taxa each (30%), followed by Aleuritopteris, Diplazium, Pteris and Equisetum with three taxa each (30%), followed by Athyrium, Oeosporangium, Polystichum and Pseudophegopteris with two taxa each (20%). These taxa were commonly used in the treatment of respiratory disorders i.e. asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonia; intestinal ulcer, stomach, urinary ailments and skin disorders by the methods of decoction and infusion. Traditional knowledge about ethnomedicinal plants is a valuable and essential source for the discovery of allopathic, herbal and homeopathic medicines.


Assuntos
Gleiquênias , Plantas Medicinais , Traqueófitas , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Paquistão , Fitoterapia
16.
PRiMER ; 5: 31, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841206

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The benefits of physical activity (PA) are widely recognized; American medical schools have begun to emphasize PA, but the effectiveness of these changes is unclear. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of medical students enrolled in US osteopathic and allopathic medical schools between August 2019 and May 2020. All participants completed an electronic survey about PA instruction across the 4 years of medical school. Objective information including hours and format of PA instruction was collected. Subjectively, participants reported their relative comfort discussing various aspects of PA education with patients. RESULTS: A total of 480 medical students completed the survey, representing 82 of the 192 US medical schools (69 allopathic, 13 osteopathic). Students are more comfortable discussing overall exercise benefits than exercise testing, exercise prescription, and exercise physiology (P<.0001). They also report more exposure to general PA guidelines related to overall PA duration than strength training (P<.0001). Students at allopathic and osteopathic schools reported similar outcomes regarding PA education, while students with class sizes under 200 reported increased familiarity with National Physical Activity Guidelines regarding PA duration (P<.0001) and strength training (P=.01). CONCLUSION: Despite recent efforts to improve PA education in medical school, students feel unprepared to apply their knowledge in a clinical setting and remain unaware of national PA guidelines. Future studies should determine how to practically integrate PA education longitudinally into curricula to change PA education from an afterthought to an essential component of medical school education.

17.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249125, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669800

RESUMO

COVID-19 is reported as an extremely contagious disease with common symptoms of fever, dry cough, sore throat, and tiredness. The published literature on incidence and gender-wise prevalence of COVID-19 is scarce in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare the distribution, incubation period and mortality rate of COVID-19 among the male and female population of district Attock. The data were collected between 01 April 2020 and 07 December 2020 from the population of district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 22,962 individuals were screened and 843 were found positive for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2. The confirmed positive cases were monitored carefully. Among the positive cases, the incidence of COVID-19 was 61.7% among males and 38.2% among females. The average recovery period of males was 18.89±7.75 days and females were 19±8.40 days from SARS-CoV-2. The overall mortality rate was 8.06%. The death rate of male patients was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to female patients. Also, the mortality rate was higher (P<0.05) in male patients of 40-60 years of age compared to female patients of the same age group. Moreover, the mortality rate significantly increased (P<0.05) with the increase of age irrespective of gender. In conclusion, the incidence and mortality rate of COVID-19 is higher in males compared to the female population. Moreover, irrespective of gender the mortality rate was significantly lower among patients aged <40 years.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 814-821, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153402

RESUMO

Abstract Untreated sewage and industrial wastes from Faisalabad city are disposed to River Chenab through Chakbandi Main Drain (CMD). The present project is planned to investigate the effects of this freshwater pollution on the body of fish Ictalurus punctatus. The specimens of this fish species were collected upstream and downstream of the entrance of CMD into River Chenab. Fish gills, liver, kidney and muscles from dorsolateral regions of fish were subjected to histopathology. Farmed fish and fish from upstream areas were used as control. Fish collected from polluted experimental sites showed significant damage in selected organs. Gill tissues showed an abnormality in the form of an uplifting of the primary epithelium, fusion, vacuolation, hypertrophy, and necrosis. While liver tissues subjected to hepatocytes degeneration, necrosis, mitochondrial granular hepatocyte, and sinusoids dilation. Kidney tissues indicated increased bowmen space and constricted glomerulus and degenerated nephrons. Edema, necrosis, and atrophy were observed in muscle tissues of fish from polluted areas. Fish from the upstream area showed fused gill lamellae, inflammatory cell infiltration, hypertrophy and vacuolation in hepatocytes. Kidney tissues indicated the presence of nuclear tubular cells, destructive renal tubules, hemorrhage, and necrosis at tubular epithelium. Intra myofibril spaces were also observed in muscles. Specimens of control fish indicated no variation in gills, liver, kidney, and muscles. The present study revealed a strong correlation between the degree of tissue damage and environmental contamination. Present findings also compel global warnings to protect our water bodies and fish to rescue the human population.


Resumo O esgoto não tratado e os resíduos industriais da cidade de Faisalabad, no Paquistão, são descartados no Rio Chenab através do dreno principal de Chakbandi (CMD). O presente projeto busca investigar os efeitos dessa poluição de água doce no corpo de peixes Ictalurus punctatus. Os espécimes deste peixe foram coletados a montante e a jusante da entrada do CMD no Rio Chenab. Brânquias, fígado, rim e músculos das regiões dorsolaterais dos peixes foram submetidos à histopatologia. Peixes de criação e peixes de áreas a montante foram utilizados como controle. Peixes coletados em locais experimentais poluídos mostraram danos significativos em órgãos selecionados. Os tecidos branquiais mostraram uma anormalidade na forma de elevação do epitélio primário, fusão, vacuolação, hipertrofia e necrose. Observou-se que os tecidos hepáticos estão sujeitos a degeneração de hepatócitos, necrose, hepatócitos mitocondriais granulares e dilatação de sinusoides. Os tecidos renais indicaram aumento do espaço dos arqueiros, glomérulos contraídos e néfrons degenerados. Edema, necrose e atrofia foram observados nos tecidos musculares de peixes de áreas poluídas. Peixes da área a montante apresentaram lamelas branquiais fundidas, infiltração de células inflamatórias, hipertrofia e vacuolização em hepatócitos. Os tecidos renais indicaram a presença de células tubulares nucleares, túbulos renais destrutivos, hemorragia e necrose no epitélio tubular. Os espaços intramiofibrilas também foram observados nos músculos. Amostras de peixes controle não indicaram variação em brânquias, fígado, rim e músculos. O presente estudo revelou uma forte correlação entre o grau de dano tecidual e a contaminação ambiental. As descobertas atuais também constituem avisos globais para proteger nossos corpos d'água e peixes para resguardar a população humana.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ictaluridae , Brânquias , Rim , Fígado , Músculos
19.
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