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1.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rise in the number of valve operations performed for infective endocarditis (IE) due to drug use is an important manifestation of the opioid epidemic. This study characterized national trends and outcomes of valve surgery for drug use-associated IE (DU-IE). METHODS: Adults undergoing valve surgery for active IE in The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database between July 2011 and June 2018 were stratified as DU-IE and non-DU-IE. Trends and clinical profiles were analyzed. Early outcomes were assessed. The association of DU-IE with outcomes was analyzed with multivariable regression, adjusting for STS valve model covariates. RESULTS: There were 34,905 valve operations performed for IE, of which 33.7% were for DU-IE. DU-IE operations increased 2.7-fold during the study period. There was considerable regional variability in DU-IE operations ranging 28% to 58% of all IE surgeries in 2018, with highest rates observed in East South Central and South Atlantic regions. DU-IE patients were younger and had fewer cardiovascular comorbidities. Risk-adjusted major morbidity and in-hospital mortality were significantly higher in the DU-IE group. Redo valve procedures in DU-IE patients were associated with worse outcomes, compared with those receiving a first valve operation. CONCLUSIONS: Operations for DU-IE have increased sharply in the United States during the last several years exhibiting substantial regional variability. DU-IE patients have unique clinical profiles, and worse risk-adjusted outcomes. This demonstrates the significant impact of the opioid epidemic on endocarditis surgeries and punctuates the urgent need for multidisciplinary regional and national efforts to reverse this trend.

2.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(5): 788-794, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924319

RESUMO

Acute kidney recovery (AKR) is a recently described phenomenon observed after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and is more frequent than acute kidney injury (AKI). To determine the incidence and predictors of AKR between surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and TAVR, we examined patients with chronic kidney disease and severe aortic stenosis who underwent SAVR or TAVR procedure between 2007 and 2017; excluding age <65 or >90, dialysis, endocarditis, non-aortic valve stenosis, or patients died within 48-hours postprocedure. AKR was defined as an increase of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >25% and AKI as decrease in eGFR >25% at discharge. Stroke, mortality, major bleeding, transfusion, and length of stay were examined. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine predictors of AKR. There were 750 transcatheter and 1,062 surgical patients and 319 pairs after propensity matching. AKR was observed in 26% TAVR versus 23.2% SAVR, p = 0.062. Highest recovery was in patients with eGFR <30 for both TAVR (33.7%) and SAVR (34.5%) patients. Independent predictors of AKR were ejection fraction <50% (odds ratio [OR] 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 2.71, p = 0.042), female gender (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.5, p = 0.015), and obesity (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.04-2.3, p = 0.032). Diabetes was a negative predictor of AKR (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.84, p = 0.005). AKR was associated with improved secondary clinical outcomes compared with AKI. In conclusion, AKR is a generalizable phenomenon occurring frequently and similarly among transcatheter or surgical aortic valve patients. Diabetes is a negative predictor of AKR, possibly indicative of less reversible kidney disease.

3.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 109(2): 465-471, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epiaortic ultrasound detects and localizes ascending aortic atherosclerosis. In this analysis we investigated the association between epiaortic ultrasound-based atheroma grade during surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and perioperative adverse outcomes. METHODS: SAVR patients in a randomized trial of 2 embolic protection devices underwent a protocol-defined 5-view epiaortic ultrasound read at a core laboratory. Aortic atherosclerosis was quantified with the Katz atheroma grade, and patients were categorized as mild (grade I-II) or moderate/severe (grade III-V). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate associations between atheroma grade and adverse outcomes, including death, clinically apparent stroke, cerebral infarction on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, delirium, and acute kidney injury (AKI) by 7 and 30 days. RESULTS: Precannulation epiaortic ultrasound data were available for 326 of 383 randomized patients (85.1%). Of these, 106 (32.5%) had moderate/severe Katz atheroma grade at any segment of the ascending aorta. Although differences in the composite of death, stroke, or cerebral infarction on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging by 7 days were not statistically significant, moderate/severe atheroma grade was associated with a greater risk of AKI by 7 days (adjusted odds ratio, 2.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-5.58; P = .01). At 30 days, patients with moderate/severe atheroma grade had a greater risk of death, stroke, or AKI (adjusted odds ratio, 1.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-3.71; P = .04). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate/severe aortic atherosclerosis was associated with an increased risk of adverse events after SAVR. Epiaortic ultrasound may serve as a useful adjunct for identifying patients who may benefit from strategies to reduce atheroembolic complications during SAVR.

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(21): 2607-2620, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk factors for post-operative conduction disturbances after cardiac valve surgery requiring a permanent pacemaker (PPM) are poorly characterized. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the timing and risk factors for PPM implantation after mitral or aortic valve surgery. METHODS: All patients who underwent open aortic or mitral valve surgery between January 1996 and December 2014 were reviewed using New York State's mandatory hospital discharge database. Patients with prior cardiac surgery or pre-existing PPM were excluded. The primary endpoint was PPM implantation within 1 year. RESULTS: Among 77,882 patients, 63.8% (n = 49,706) underwent aortic valve replacement (AVR), 18.9% (n = 14,686) underwent mitral valve replacement (MVR), 10.5% (n = 8,219) underwent mitral valve repair (MVr), 5.4% (n = 4,202) underwent AVR plus MVR, and 1.4% (n = 1,069) underwent AVR plus MVr. The 1-year PPM implantation rate was 4.5% after MVr, 6.6% after AVR, 9.3% after AVR plus MVr, 10.5% after MVR, and 13.3% after AVR plus MVR (p < 0.001). Across all groups, the majority of PPMs were implanted during the index hospitalization (79.9%). MVr was associated with the lowest risk for PPM and AVR plus MVR with the highest risk. Older age, history of arrhythmias, pre-operative conduction disturbances, and concomitant index procedures were associated with increased risk for PPM during the index hospitalization. Conversely, beyond 30 days, chronic comorbidities were associated with increased risk for PPM. CONCLUSIONS: Conduction disturbances requiring PPM remain a common adverse event after valve surgery. Identifying patients at risk for PPM will help facilitate perioperative planning and inform clinical decision making regarding post-operative rhythm surveillance.

5.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Northern New England Cardiovascular Disease Study Group (NNECDSG) was founded in 1987 as a regional consortium to improve cardiovascular quality in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. We sought to assess the longitudinal impact of the NNECDSG on quality and cost of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) during the past 30 years. METHODS: Patients undergoing isolated CABG at 5 medical centers from 1987-2017 were retrospectively reviewed (n = 67,942). They were divided into 4 time periods: 1987-1999 (n = 36,885), 2000-2005 (n = 14,606), 2006-2011(n = 8470), and 2012-2017 (n = 7981). The first period was the time the NNECDSG initiated a series of quality improvement initiatives including data feedback, quality improvement training, process mapping, and site visits. RESULTS: Throughout the 4 time intervals, there was a consistent decline in in-hospital mortality, from 3.4% to 1.8% despite an increase in predicted risk of mortality (P < .001), and a significant decline in in-hospital morbidity, including return to the operating room for bleeding, acute kidney injury, mediastinitis, and low output failure (P < .001). Median length of stay decreased from 7 to 5 days (P < .001), which translated into potential savings of $82,722,023. There was a decrease in use of red blood cells from 3.1 units to 2.6 units per patient in the most current time, which translated into potential savings of $1,985,456. CONCLUSIONS: By using collaborative quality improvement initiatives, the NNECDSG has succeeded in significant, sustained improvements in quality and cost for CABG during the past 30 years. These data support the utility of a regional consortium in improving quality.

8.
J Card Surg ; 34(8): 655-662, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Readmissions after cardiac surgery are common and associated with increased morbidity, mortality and cost of care. Policymakers have targeted coronary artery bypass grafting to achieve value-oriented health care milestones. We explored the causes of readmission following cardiac surgery among a regional consortium of hospitals. METHODS: Using administrative data, we identified patients readmitted to the same institution within 30 days of cardiac surgery. We performed standardized review of readmitted patients' medical records to identify primary and secondary causes of readmission. We evaluated causes of readmission by procedure and tested for univariate associations between characteristics of readmitted patients and nonreadmitted patients in our clinical registry. RESULTS: Of 2218 cardiac surgery patients, 272 were readmitted to the index hospital within 30 days for a readmission rate of 12.3%. Median time to readmission was 9 days (interquartile range 4-16 days) and only 13% of patients were evaluated in-office before readmission. Readmitted patients were more likely to have had valve surgery (31.3% vs 22.7%) than patients not readmitted. Readmitted patients were also more likely to have preoperative creatinine more than or equal to 2 mg/dL (P = .015) or congestive heart failure (CHF) (P = .034), require multiple blood transfusions or sustained inotropic support (P < .001), and experience postoperative atrial fibrillation (P = .022) or renal insufficiency (P < .001). Infection (26%), pleural or pericardial effusion (19%), arrhythmia (16%), and CHF (11%) were the most common primary etiologies leading to readmission. CONCLUSIONS: Ensuring early follow-up for high-risk patient groups while improving early detection and management of the principal drivers of readmission represent promising targets for decreasing readmission rates.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Arritmias Cardíacas , Fibrilação Atrial , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , New England/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Risco , Fatores de Tempo
9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(19): 2427-2435, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation is higher following mitral valve surgery (MVS) with ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) compared with MVS alone. OBJECTIVES: This study identified risk factors and outcomes associated with PPM implantation in a randomized trial that evaluated ablation for AF in patients who underwent MVS. METHODS: A total of 243 patients with AF and without previous PPM placement were randomly assigned to MVS alone (n = 117) or MVS + ablation (n = 126). Patients in the ablation group were further randomized to pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) (n = 62) or the biatrial maze procedure (n = 64). Using competing risk models, this study examined the association among PPM and baseline and operative risk factors, and the effect of PPM on time to discharge, readmissions, and 1-year mortality. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients received a PPM within the first year (14.4%), 29 (83%) underwent implantation during the index hospitalization. The frequency of PPM implantation was 7.7% in patients randomized to MVS alone, 16.1% in MVS + PVI, and 25% in MVS + biatrial maze. The indications for PPM were similar among patients who underwent MVS with and without ablation. Ablation, multivalve surgery, and New York Heart Association functional (NYHA) functional class III/IV were independent risk factors for PPM implantation. Length of stay post-surgery was longer in patients who received PPMs, but it was not significant when adjusted for randomization assignment (MVS vs. ablation) and age (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.61 to 1.08; p = 0.14). PPM implantation did not increase 30-day readmission rate (HR: 1.43; 95% CI: 0.50 to 4.05; p = 0.50). The need for PPM was associated with a higher risk of 1-year mortality (HR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.01 to 10.17; p = 0.05) after adjustment for randomization assignment, age, and NYHA functional class. CONCLUSIONS: AF ablation, multivalve surgery, and NYHA functional class III/IV were associated with an increased risk for permanent pacing. PPM implantation following MVS was associated with a significant increase in 1-year mortality. (Surgical Ablation Versus No Surgical Ablation for Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Mitral Valve Surgery; NCT00903370).

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(19): 2477-2486, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097169

RESUMO

Peripheral vascular disease affects millions of individuals worldwide, and results in significant morbidity and mortality. The complex nature of the disease, the presence of multiple comorbidities, and the existence of a wide variety of therapeutic options suggests that a multidisciplinary approach to treatment has the potential to improve care of these patients. The success of the heart team for complex coronary artery and structural heart disease could serve as a model for the efficient and effective management of patients with peripheral vascular disease. In this paper, the authors propose a multidisciplinary vascular team approach for the treatment of critical limb ischemia, pulmonary embolism, acute ischemic stroke, and acute aortic syndromes. The successful implementation of such vascular teams has the potential to significantly enhance quality of care, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce costs. Prospective evaluation is warranted to determine how to best integrate this approach into routine clinical care.

11.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 158(6): 1529-1538.e2, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to examine the long-term survival of patients between the ages of 50 and 65 years who underwent tissue versus mechanical aortic valve replacement (AVR) in a multicenter cohort. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective analysis of all AVR patients (n = 9388) from 1991 to 2015 among 7 medical centers reporting to a prospectively maintained clinical registry was conducted. Inclusion criteria were: patients aged 50 to 65 years who underwent isolated AVR. Baseline comorbidities were balanced using inverse probability weighting for a study cohort of 1449 AVRs: 840 tissue and 609 mechanical. The primary end point of the analysis was all-cause mortality. Secondary end points included in-hospital morbidity, 30-day mortality, length of stay, and risk of reoperation. RESULTS: During the study period, there was a significant shift from mechanical to tissue valves (P < .001). There was no significant difference in major in-hospital morbidity, mortality, or length of hospitalization. Also, there was no significant difference in adjusted 15-year survival between mechanical versus tissue valves (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.13; P = .29), although tissue valves were associated with a higher risk of reoperation with a cumulative incidence of 19.1% (95% CI, 14.4%-24.3%) versus 3.0% (95% CI, 1.7%-4.9%) for mechanical valves. The reoperative 30-day mortality rate was 2.4% (n = 2) for the series. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients 50 to 65 years old who underwent AVR, there was no difference in adjusted long-term survival according to prosthesis type, but tissue valves were associated with a higher risk of reoperation.

12.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 107(1): 135-142, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons guidelines recommend surgical ablation (SA) at the time of concomitant mitral operations, aortic valve replacement, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and aortic valve replacement plus CABG for patients in atrial fibrillation (AF). The goal of this analysis was to assess the influence of SA on long-term survival. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 20,407 consecutive CABG or valve procedures from 2008 to 2015 among seven centers reporting to a prospectively maintained clinical registry was conducted. Patients undergoing operation with documented preoperative AF were included (n = 2,740). Patients receiving SA were compared with patients receiving no SA. The primary end point was all-cause mortality. Secondary end points included in-hospital morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: The frequency of SA was 23.1% (n = 634), and an increase was seen in the rate of SA over the study period (p < 0.001). Concomitant SA was performed in 16.2% of CABG, 30.6% of valve, and 24.3% of valve plus CABG procedures. A substantial improvement was found in unadjusted survival among patients undergoing SA (hazard ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval: 0.42 to 0.70). Moreover, no differences were found in postoperative complications. SA did have longer bypass times (p < 0.001) but a shorter overall length of stay (p < 0.001). After risk adjustment, SA patients had an improved 5-year survival (hazard ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval: 0.51 to 0.92), and the effect was observed across all operations. CONCLUSIONS: In a multicenter cohort of patients with AF, concomitant SA resulted in substantially improved long-term survival across patients who underwent CABG, valve, and valve plus CABG. These findings support current guidelines from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons that recommend broader application of concomitant SA.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade/tendências , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 107(2): 477-484, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A patient's hemoglobin (Hb) A1c level, regardless of diabetic status, is a measure of glycemic control. Studies have found it is an independent predictor of short-term death in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). In this study, we used preoperative HbA1c to assess whether levels are associated with short-term and long-term survival after CABG. METHODS: From a regional registry of consecutive cases, we identified 6,415 patients undergoing on-pump isolated CABG from 2008 to 2015 with documented preoperative HbA1c level. We defined four HbA1c groups: less than 5.7% (n = 1,713), 5.7% to 6.4% (n = 2,505), 6.5% to 8.0% (n = 1,377), and more than 8% (n = 820). Relationship to in-hospital outcomes and long-term survival was assessed. Outcome rates and hazard ratios were adjusted for patient and disease risk factors using multivariable logistic regression and Cox models. RESULTS: The study included 3,740 patients (58%) not diagnosed as having diabetes and 2,674 with diabetes. Prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7% to 6.4%) was documented in 52% (n = 1,933) of nondiabetic patients. Higher HbA1c values were associated with younger age, female sex, greater body mass index, more comorbid diseases, lower ejection fraction, more 3-vessel coronary disease, and recent myocardial infarction (p < 0.05 trend for all). After adjustment for patient risk, greater HbA1c values were not associated with higher rates of in-hospital death or morbidity. Long-term survival was significantly worse as HbA1c increased. Risk of death increased by 13% for every unit increase in HbA1c (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 1.19; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Preadmission glycemic control, as assessed by HbA1c, is predictive of long-term survival, with higher levels associated with poorer prognosis. Whether this risk can be modified by better glycemic control postoperatively remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 156(4): 1410-1421.e2, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29961592

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There are no prospective randomized trial data to guide decisions on optimal revascularization strategies for patients with multivessel coronary artery disease and reduced ejection fraction. In this analysis, we describe the comparative effectiveness of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) versus percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in this patient population. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective analysis of all CABG (n = 18,292) and PCIs (n = 55,438) performed from 2004 to 2014 among 7 medical centers reporting to the Northern New England Cardiovascular Disease Study Group. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria from the Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure trial, there were 955 CABG and 718 PCI patients with an ejection fraction ≤ 35% and 2- or 3-vessel disease. Inverse probability weighting was used for risk adjustment. The primary end point was all-cause mortality. Secondary end points included rates of 30-day mortality, stroke, acute kidney injury, and incidence of repeat revascularization. RESULTS: The median duration of follow-up was 4.3 years (range, 1.59-6.71 years). CABG was associated with improved long-term survival compared with PCI after risk adjustment (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.71; P < .01). Although CABG and PCI had similar 30-day mortality rates (P = .14), CABG was associated with a higher frequency of stroke (P < .001) and acute kidney injury (P < .001), whereas PCI was associated with a higher incidence of repeat revascularization (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with reduced ejection fraction and multivessel disease, CABG was associated with improved long-term survival compared with PCI. CABG should be strongly considered in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and multivessel coronary disease.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Isquemia Miocárdica/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
17.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 106(2): 466-472, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29550203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arterial conduits are preferred to venous conduits for coronary artery bypass grafting because of longer patency. A single internal mammary artery (SIMA) is used routinely. Bilateral internal mammary arteries (BIMA) are used less frequently. We sought to determine whether BIMA were superior to SIMA. METHODS: From our regional registry of consecutive open heart operations, we identified 47,984 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting from 1992 to 2014. Of the 1,482 BIMA patients, 1,297 were propensity matched to a cohort of SIMA patients. Short-term outcomes were compared using standard statistical techniques. Long-term survival was compared using Kaplan-Meier estimators and compared using a log-rank test. RESULTS: BIMA patients were younger and had fewer comorbid conditions than SIMA patients. After propensity weighting, BIMA and SIMA patients were well matched. There was no difference in in-hospital outcomes for BIMA versus SIMA patients for mortality (1.2% [n = 15] vs 0.8% [n = 10], p = 0.315), stroke (0.7% [n = 9] vs 0.7% [n = 9), p = 1.000), bleeding (2.2% [n = 28] vs 2.8% [n = 36], p = 0.311), or mediastinitis (0.8% [n = 10] vs 0.9% [n = 12], p = 0.667). The median follow-up was 12 years. Survival was better for BIMA than SIMA (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.69 to 0.91; p < 0.001). Survival curves began to separate after 5 years. At 15 years, the absolute difference in survival was 8.4%. CONCLUSIONS: In a large regional experience, BIMA is associated with no upfront risk of adverse events and improved long-term survival compared with SIMA. Our results indicate that BIMA conduits should be considered more frequently during coronary artery bypass grafting due to their demonstrated survival advantage.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Anastomose de Artéria Torácica Interna-Coronária/métodos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos de Coortes , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Anastomose de Artéria Torácica Interna-Coronária/mortalidade , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Future Cardiol ; 14(1): 75-87, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29199850

RESUMO

The field of minimally invasive cardiac surgery has undergone rapid transformation over recent years. In this review, we provide a summary of the most current evidence supporting the use of minimally invasive aortic and mitral valve replacement techniques, as well as transcatheter approaches for aortic and mitral valve disease. As an adjunct, the use of robotically assisted coronary bypass surgery and hybrid coronary revascularization procedures is discussed. In order to obtain optimal patient outcomes, a collaborative, heart-team approach between cardiac surgeons and interventional cardiologists is necessary.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Humanos
20.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 155(2): 670-678.e1, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29102205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have increased rapidly over the past 2 decades, particularly in elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. This study sought to characterize the incidence and risks of these infections in cardiac surgery patients. METHODS: A total of 5158 patients at 10 Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network sites in the US and Canada participated in a prospective study of major infections after cardiac surgery. Patients were followed for infection, readmission, reoperation, or death up to 65 days after surgery. We compared clinical and demographic characteristics, surgical data, management practices, and outcomes for patients with CDI and without CDI. RESULTS: C difficile was the third most common infection observed (0.97%) and was more common in patients with preoperative comorbidities and complex operations. Antibiotic prophylaxis for >2 days, intensive care unit stay >2 days, and postoperative hyperglycemia were associated with increased risk of CDI. The median time to onset was 17 days; 48% of infections occurred after discharge. The additional length of stay due to infection was 12 days. The readmission and mortality rates were 3-fold and 5-fold higher, respectively, in patients with CDI compared with uninfected patients. CONCLUSIONS: In this large multicenter prospective study of major infections following cardiac surgery, CDI was encountered in nearly 1% of patients, was frequently diagnosed postdischarge, and was associated with extended length of stay and substantially increased mortality. Patients with comorbidities, longer surgery time, extended antibiotic exposure, and/or hyperglycemic episodes were at increased risk for CDI.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Canadá/epidemiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Comorbidade , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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