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1.
Foods ; 9(11)2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143027

RESUMO

Diabetes pathogenesis encompasses oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin malfunctioning and partial or total insulin secretion impairment, which leads to a constant hyperglycemia. Polyphenols are known to possess bioactive properties, being Tannat grape skin a natural and sustainable source of these compounds. The present study aimed to find out the bioaccessibility of health-promoting molecules composing a multifunctional extract from Tannat grape skin obtained under hydro-alcoholic-acid conditions. The identification of phenolic compounds in the samples was performed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Subsequently, the samples were in vitro digested mimicking the human oral gastrointestinal conditions and the bioactivity of the digest (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and modulation of glucose metabolism) was assessed. Effect on glucose metabolism was estimated by measuring carbohydrases activity and the functionality of glucose transporters of small intestine cells in presence and absence of the digested extract. Flavonoids, phenolic acids and phenolic alcohols were the major phenol compounds detected in the extract. The bioaccessible compounds protected the intestinal cells and macrophages against the induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). In addition, glucose transporters were inhibited by the digested extract. In conclusion, the bioaccessible compounds of the extract, including phenols, modulated key biochemical events involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes such as oxidative stress, inflammation and glucose absorption. The extract was effective under prevention with co-administration conditions supporting its potential for either reducing the risk or treating this disease.

2.
Biomolecules ; 10(9)2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825719

RESUMO

To obtain the coffee beverage, approximately 90% of the edible parts of the coffee cherry are discarded as agricultural waste or by-products (cascara or husk, parchment, mucilage, silverskin and spent coffee grounds). These by-products are a potential source of nutrients and non-nutrient health-promoting compounds, which can be used as a whole ingredient or as an enriched extract of a specific compound. The chemical composition of by-products also determines food safety of the novel ingredients. To ensure the food safety of coffee by-products to be used as novel ingredients for the general consumer population, pesticides, mycotoxins, acrylamide and gluten must be analyzed. According with the priorities proposed by the Food Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to maximize the benefit for the environment, society and economy, food waste generation should be avoided in the first place. In this context, the valorization of food waste can be carried out through an integrated bio-refinery approach to produce nutrients and bioactive molecules for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and non-food applications. The present research is an updated literature review of the definition of coffee by-products, their composition, safety and those food applications which have been proposed or made commercially available to date based on their chemical composition.

3.
Nutr Res Rev ; : 1-16, 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450931

RESUMO

The present review aims to give dietary recommendations to reduce the occurrence of the Maillard reaction in foods and in vivo to reduce the body's advanced glycation/lipoxidation end products (AGE/ALE) pool. A healthy diet, food reformulation and good culinary practices may be feasible for achieving the goal. A varied diet rich in fresh vegetables and fruits, non-added sugar beverages containing inhibitors of the Maillard reaction, and foods prepared by steaming and poaching as culinary techniques is recommended. Intake of supplements and novel foods with low sugars, low fats, enriched in bioactive compounds from food and waste able to modulate carbohydrate metabolism and reduce body's AGE/ALE pool is also recommended. In conclusion, the recommendations made for healthy eating by the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition (SENC) and Harvard University seem to be adequate to reduce dietary AGE/ALE, the body's AGE/ALE pool and to achieve sustainable nutrition and health.

4.
Foods ; 9(5)2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408584

RESUMO

Our research aimed to evaluate the formation of Maillard reaction products in sun-dried coffee cascara and their impact on the safety and health promoting properties of a novel beverage called "Instant Cascara" (IC) derived from this coffee by-product. Maillard reaction products in sun-dried coffee cascara have never been reported. "Instant Cascara" (IC) extract was obtained by aqueous extraction and freeze-drying. Proteins, amino acids, lipids, fatty acid profile, sugars, fiber, minerals, and vitamins were analyzed for its nutritional characterization. Acrylamide and caffeine were used as chemical indicators of safety. Colored compounds, also called melanoidins, their stability under 40 °C and in light, and their in vitro antioxidant capacity were also studied. A safe instant beverage with antioxidant properties was obtained to which the following nutritional claims can be assigned: "low fat", "low sugar" "high fiber" and "source of potassium, magnesium and vitamin C". For the first time, cascara beverage color was attributed to the presence of antioxidant melanoidins (>10 kDa). IC is a potential sustainable alternative for instant coffee, with low caffeine and acrylamide levels and a healthy composition of nutrients and antioxidants.

5.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121016

RESUMO

The improvement of the nutritional quality of dairy foods has become a key strategy for reducing the risk of developing diet-related non-communicable diseases. In this context, we aimed to optimize the concentration of inulin in combination with 10 mg/mL of coffee-cascara extract in yogurt while considering their effect on appetite control, gastrointestinal wellbeing, and their effect on the sensory and technological properties of the product. For this purpose, we tested four coffee-cascara yogurt treatments in a blind cross-over nutritional trial with 45 healthy adults: a coffee-cascara yogurt without inulin (Y0) and coffee-cascara yogurts containing 3% (Y3), 7% (Y7), and 13% (Y13) of inulin. The ratings on sensory acceptance, satiety, gastrointestinal tolerance, and stool frequency were measured. Surveys were carried out digitally in each participant's cellphone. Yogurt pH, titratable acidity, syneresis, and instrumental texture were analyzed. Inulin addition increased the yogurt's firmness and consistency. Y13 achieved significantly higher overall acceptance, texture, and taste scores than Y0 (p < 0.05). Y3 presented similar gastrointestinal tolerance to Y0. However, 7% and 13% of inulin produced significant (p < 0.05) bloating and flatulence when compared to Y0. The appetite ratings were not significantly affected by the acute intake of the different yogurts. Overall, Y3 was identified as the formulation that maximized nutritional wellbeing, reaching a "source of fiber" nutritional claim, without compromising its technological and sensory properties.

6.
Molecules ; 25(6)2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192041

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the physicochemical, nutritional and sensory properties of gluten-free breads containing isolated coffee cascara dietary fiber (ICCDF) as a food ingredient. ICCDF was obtained by aqueous extraction. The oil and water holding capacity and the nutritional profile of the novel ingredient were determined. Its safety was certificated by analysis of ochratoxin A, caffeine and gluten. Gluten-free bread formulations were prepared enriching a commercial bakery premix in rice protein (8%) and ICCDF (3% and 4.5%). Nutritional profile of the novel gluten-free breads (dietary fiber, protein, amino acids, lipids, fatty acid profile and resistant starch), as well as bread volume, crumb density, moisture, firmness, elasticity and color intensity were determined. A sensory quantitative descriptive analysis of the breads was conducted using eight trained panelists. New breads showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) content of dietary fiber and protein than the control bread. The addition of ICCDF allowed increasing dough yield, a less crumb firmness and a higher crumb elasticity. The nutrition claims "source of protein and high in dietary fiber" were assigned to the new formulations. In conclusion, a certificated gluten-free bread with improved nutritional and physicochemical properties and good sensorial profile was obtained.

7.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383958

RESUMO

Coffee is one of the most popular beverages consumed worldwide. Roasted coffee is a complex mixture of thousands of bioactive compounds, and some of them have numerous potential health-promoting properties that have been extensively studied in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems, with relatively much less attention given to other body systems, such as the gastrointestinal tract and its particular connection with the brain, known as the brain-gut axis. This narrative review provides an overview of the effect of coffee brew; its by-products; and its components on the gastrointestinal mucosa (mainly involved in permeability, secretion, and proliferation), the neural and non-neural components of the gut wall responsible for its motor function, and the brain-gut axis. Despite in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies having shown that coffee may exert multiple effects on the digestive tract, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative effects on the mucosa, and pro-motility effects on the external muscle layers, much is still surprisingly unknown. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms of action of certain health-promoting properties of coffee on the gastrointestinal tract and to transfer this knowledge to the industry to develop functional foods to improve the gastrointestinal and brain-gut axis health.

8.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703400

RESUMO

This study aimed to complete the scientific basis for the validation of a coffee silverskin extract (CSE) as a novel food ingredient according to European legislation. Nutritional value, safety, effects on biochemical biomarkers and excretion of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in vivo of CSE were assessed. Proteins, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, fiber, simple sugars and micronutrients were analyzed. For the first time, toxicological and physiological effects were evaluated in vivo by a repeated-dose study in healthy Wistar rats. Hormone secretion, antioxidant (enzymatic and no-enzymatic) and anti-inflammatory biomarkers, and dietary fiber fermentability of CSE (analysis of SCFAs in feces) were studied in biological samples. This unique research confirms the feasibility of CSE as a human dietary supplement with several nutrition claims: "source of proteins (16%), potassium, magnesium, calcium and vitamin C, low in fat (0.44%) and high in fiber (22%)". This is the first report demonstrating that its oral administration (1 g/kg) for 28 days is innocuous. Hormone secretion, antioxidant or anti-inflammatory biomarkers were not affected in heathy animals. Total SCFAs derived from CSE fiber fermentation were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in male treated rats compared to male control rats. All the new information pinpoints CSE as a natural, sustainable and safe food ingredient containing fermentable fiber able to produce SCFAs with beneficial effects on gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Café , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Feminino , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
9.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234581

RESUMO

The bioaccessibility, metabolism, and excretion of lipids composing spent coffee grounds (SCGs) were investigated. An analysis of mycotoxins and an acute toxicity study in rats were performed for safety evaluation. Total fat, fatty acids, and diterpenes (cafestol and kahweol) were determined in SCGs and their digests obtained in vitro. A pilot repeated intake study was carried out in Wistar rats using a dose of 1 g SCGs/kg b.w. for 28 days. Fat metabolism was evaluated by analysis of total fat, cholesterol, and histology in liver. The dietary fiber effect of SCGs was measured radiographically. The absence of mycotoxins and toxicity was reported in SCGs. A total of 77% of unsaturated fatty acids and low amounts of kahweol (7.09 µg/g) and cafestol (414.39 µg/g) were bioaccessible after in vitro digestion. A significantly lower (p < 0.1) accumulation of lipids in the liver and a higher excretion of these in feces was found in rats treated with SCGs for 28 days. No lipid droplets or liver damage were observed by histology. SCGs acutely accelerated intestinal motility in rats. SCGs might be considered a sustainable, safe, and healthy food ingredient with potential for preventing hepatic steatosis due to their effect as dietary fiber with a high fat-holding capacity.


Assuntos
Coffea/metabolismo , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biotransformação , Coffea/toxicidade , Diterpenos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Fezes/química , Feminino , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Eliminação Intestinal , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/toxicidade , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Foods ; 8(2)2019 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30759878

RESUMO

Melanoidins present in coffee silverskin, the only by-product of the roasting process, are formed via the Maillard reaction. The exact structure, biological properties, and mechanism of action of coffee silverskin melanoidins, remain unknown. This research work aimed to contribute to this novel knowledge. To achieve this goal, melanoidins were obtained from an aqueous extract of Arabica coffee silverskin (WO2013004873A1) and was isolated through ultrafiltration (>10 kDa). The isolation protocol was optimized and the chemical composition of the high molecular weight fraction (>10 kDa) was evaluated, by analyzing the content of protein, caffeine, chlorogenic acid, and the total dietary fiber. In addition, the structural analysis was performed by infrared spectroscopy. Antioxidant properties were studied in vitro and the fiber effect was studied in vivo, in healthy male Wistar rats. Melanoidins were administered to animals in the drinking water at a dose of 1 g/kg. At the fourth week of treatment, gastrointestinal motility was evaluated through non-invasive radiographic means. In conclusion, the isolation process was effective in obtaining a high molecular weight fraction, composed mainly of dietary fiber, including melanoidins, with in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo dietary fiber effects.

11.
Rev. esp. nutr. comunitaria ; 24(1): 0-0, ene.-mar. 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-178344

RESUMO

Fundamentos: Una dieta basada en alimentos y bebidas con alto contenido en azúcar y almidón digestible se considera un factor de riesgo de padecer enfermedades crónicas no trasmisibles tales como obesidad y diabetes tipo 2. El objetivo es resumir las evidencias disponibles sobre la efectividad de los compuestos fenólicos en el metabolismo de carbohidratos y en la reducción del riesgo y el tratamiento de estas patologías. Métodos: Revisión bibliográfica mediante los sistemas de búsqueda PubMed y WOS para la identificación de compuestos fenólicos con efecto en el metabolismo de carbohidratos y las patologías metabólicas relacionadas. Resultados: Los compuestos fenólicos actúan a diferentes niveles: vía formación de complejos compuesto fenólico-carbohidrato, vía inhibición enzimática, modulación del transporte y regulación de la liberación de hormonas relacionadas con el metabolismo de los carbohidratos. Su efectividad puede ser igual o superior a la de fármacos utilizados comúnmente en el tratamiento de la diabetes, sin los efectos secundarios que se asocian a estos últimos. Conclusiones: Los flavonoides son los compuestos fenólicos de la dieta que podrían ser más efectivos en la regulación del metabolismo de carbohidratos. Estos pueden inhibir enzimas, modular transportadores; así como, estimular la secreción de hormonas de saciedad


Background: A diet based on foods and beverages with high sugar content and digestible starch is considered a risk factor of non-communicable chronic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim is to summarize the evidence available on the effect of phenolic compounds in the metabolism of carbohydrates and in the reduction of risk and treatment of these pathologies. Methods: Literature search using PubMed and WOS as search systems for the identification of phenolic compounds with an effect on carbohydrate metabolism and related metabolic pathologies. Results: Phenolic compounds act at different levels: via complex formation of phenolic-carbohydrate compounds, via enzymatic inhibition, modulation of transporters and regulation of the release of hormones related to carbohydrate metabolism. Their effectiveness may be equal or superior to that of drugs commonly used in the treatment of diabetes, but without the side effects that are associated with the latter. Conclusions: Flavonoids are the phenolic compounds found in diet that are effective in regulating carbohydrate metabolism. They can inhibit enzymes, modulate transporters; as well as, stimulate the secretion of satiety hormones


Assuntos
Humanos , Compostos Fenólicos/análise , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/fisiologia , Flavonoides/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Substâncias Protetoras/análise , Resposta de Saciedade/fisiologia
12.
Food Res Int ; 100(Pt 1): 791-797, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28873751

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to validate the food safety of CSE, by studying its effect on cytotoxicity (100-20000µg/ml) and genotoxicity (10, 100 and 1000µg/ml) and also to investigate its preventive potential (1, 10 and 100µg/ml) against B(a)P induced DNA damage. Prior to analyses, the antioxidant capacity and the microbiological quality of CSE were tested. DNA damage (strand breaks and oxidized purines/pyrimidines) was evaluated by the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis or comet assay. HepG2 cells were pre-treated with CSE (1, 10 and 100µg/ml) for 24h followed by the addition of 100µM B(a)P in presence of CSE for other 24h. Detection of oxidized purines and pyrimidines was carried out using Formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase or Endonuclease III enzymes, respectively. Chlorogenic acid (CGA), the major antioxidant present in coffee, was used as a control. Treatment with 100 µM B(a)P significantly increased (p<0.05) levels of DNA strand breaks and oxidized purine and pyrimidine bases. Treatment of HepG2 cells with CSE did not induce either cytotoxicity or genotoxicity. CSE significantly inhibited (p<0.05) genotoxicity induced by B(a)P and the observed effect may be associated to its antioxidant capacity. CGA alone at the concentration present in CSE was effective against B(a)P. Thus, CGA seems to be a contributor to the preventive effect of CSE against B(a)P induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, CSE presents potential as a natural sustainable chemoprotective agent against the chemical carcinogen B(a)P.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Café/química , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sementes/química , Testes de Toxicidade
13.
Molecules ; 21(6)2016 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27258247

RESUMO

Nowadays, coffee beans are almost exclusively used for the preparation of the beverage. The sustainability of coffee production can be achieved introducing new applications for the valorization of coffee by-products. Coffee silverskin is the by-product generated during roasting, and because of its powerful antioxidant capacity, coffee silverskin aqueous extract (CSE) may be used for other applications, such as antiaging cosmetics and dermaceutics. This study aims to contribute to the coffee sector's sustainability through the application of CSE to preserve skin health. Preclinical data regarding the antiaging properties of CSE employing human keratinocytes and Caenorhabditis elegans are collected during the present study. Accelerated aging was induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) in HaCaT cells and by ultraviolet radiation C (UVC) in C. elegans. Results suggest that the tested concentrations of coffee extracts were not cytotoxic, and CSE 1 mg/mL gave resistance to skin cells when oxidative damage was induced by t-BOOH. On the other hand, nematodes treated with CSE (1 mg/mL) showed a significant increased longevity compared to those cultured on a standard diet. In conclusion, our results support the antiaging properties of the CSE and its great potential for improving skin health due to its antioxidant character associated with phenols among other bioactive compounds present in the botanical material.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Coffea/química , Oxidantes/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Biomarcadores , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta
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