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1.
J Ophthalmol ; 2019: 4818162, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781376

RESUMO

Purpose: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by increased susceptibility to UV radiation- (UVR-) induced skin pigmentation, skin cancers, ocular surface disease, and, in some patients, sunburn and neurological degeneration. Eight different genes are affected, and the prevalence of the disease differs across the world. The present study describes the main ophthalmologic features and symptoms in patients with XP in this case series. Methods: Patients were examined consecutively at the University Hospital of the Federal University of Goias between January 2016 and June 2018. All patients underwent ophthalmologic examination and were asked about their ophthalmological history and the presence of ocular symptoms. Results: Twenty-one patients with genetic confirmation were evaluated. The genetic variants XPV and XPC were detected in the patients. The most prevalent findings include eyelid changes, observed in 80.9% of the patients, and ocular surface changes as punctate keratopathy, occurring in 16 patients (76.2%), corneal neovascularization, and corneal opacities. Six patients (28.5%) presented corneoconjunctival tumor. More than half of patients had previous history of treatment of ocular neoplasia. Ocular burning was the most reported symptom. Conclusions: The ocular characteristics identified in this study corroborate the existing literature, mainly related to the surface. Concerning the XP variant and the gravity of ocular signs, XPC has earlier and more severe symptoms than XPV. Due to their relative rarity, publications of XP cases are important to understand the possible damages caused by the disease in the eyes and surrounding area.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572617

RESUMO

Background: To evaluate the in vivo and in vitro toxicity of a new formulation of liposome-encapsulated sirolimus (LES). Methods: In vitro experiments were done using ARPE-19 and HRP cells. An MTT assay was used to determine cell metabolic activity and a TUNEL assay for detecting DNA fragmentation. In vivo experiments were conducted on New Zealand albino rabbits that received intravitreal injections of empty liposomes (EL) or different concentrations of LES. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on the rabbit's eyes following injection. Results: Eighteen eyes of nine rabbits were used. MTT assay cell viability was 95.04% in group 1 (12.5 µL/mL LES). 92.95% in group 2 (25 µL/mL LES), 91.59% in group 3 (50 µL/mL LES), 98.09% in group 4 (12.5 µL/mL EL), 95.20% on group 5 (50 µL/mL EL), 98.53% in group 6 (50 µL/mL EL), and 2.84% on group 8 (50 µL/mL DMSO). There was no statistically significant difference among groups 1 to 7 in cell viability (p = 1.0), but the comparison of all groups with group 8 was significant (p < 0.0001). The TUNEL assay comparing two groups was not statistically significant from groups 1 to 7 (p = 1.0). The difference between groups 1 to 7 and group 8 (p < 0.0001) was significant. Histopathological changes were not found in any group. No activation of Müller cells was detected. Conclusion: A novel formulation of LES delivered intravitreally did not cause in vitro toxicity, as evaluated by MTT and TUNEL assays, nor in vivo toxicity as evaluated by histopathology and immunohistochemistry in rabbit eyes.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517743

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We report a case of paracentral acute middle maculopathy secondary to cholesterol embolization syndrome after an endovascular aortic aneurism repair (EVAR). METHODS: Functional and anatomical damage was assessed by Snellen visual acuity, fundoscopy, and optical coherence tomography. RESULTS: A 67-year-old man presented with sudden vision loss in the right eye for one day with concomitant livedo reticularis in both feet. His medical history included an abdominal EVAR repair three days before the symptoms. The best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Fundoscopy showed intraarteriolar cholesterol plaques (Hollenhorst) bilaterally, and a localized retinal whitening in the right eye. Optical coherence tomography at the lesion site revealed a hyperreflective band on the level of inner nuclear layer. The patient was referred for imaging and complete systemic evaluation. He was then closely followed up by a vascular team, without additional intervention. Retinal stigma partially regressed at six months with visual improvement. CONCLUSION: This case describes paracentral acute middle maculopathy as a rare ocular sign of cholesterol embolization in postoperative intraaortic operations. The diagnosis of this complication led to prompt clinical care with a multidisciplinary approach.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203809

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to establish guidelines for the management of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) associated prosthetic joint infections (PJI). This study reviewed 21 patients in the literature with documented ESBL associated PJI. Literature suggests patients with ESBL PJI being stratified into either early infections (<3 weeks) or late infections (>3 weeks), following which appropriate laboratory and imaging studies need to be completed. Favorable outcomes require a two-stage revision with an antibiotic impregnated spacer and a prolonged course of intravenous carbapenem antibiotic.

5.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 97(7): e1006-e1012, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012539

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the agreement between multimodal imaging-MI (fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, optical coherence tomography) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in the detection of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in patients with pigment epithelial detachment with subretinal/intraretinal fluid (PED+F) compared to patients with PED without subretinal/intraretinal fluid (PED-F). METHODS: Twenty-two eyes of 15 patients were divided into two groups (PED+F and PED-F). All patients underwent MI and OCTA with manual and automatic segmentation. MI findings were compared to OCTA findings and then analysed. RESULTS: In the PED+F group (10 eyes), all studied eyes demonstrated CNV in MI. In manual segmentation OCTA assessment, 9 of 10 eyes (90%) were detected with CNV. When evaluated by automatic segmentation, 8 of 10 eyes (80%) revealed the presence of CNV. In the PED-F (12 eyes) group, all eyes did not demonstrate CNV in MI and OCTA evaluations, either by manual or automatic segmentation. The agreement between MI and OCTA shows concordance (k: 0.908; 95% CI, 0.491-1.000); the evaluation of the agreement between the automatic and manual segmentation also shows concordance (k: 0.904; 95% CI, 0.488-1.000). CONCLUSION: The solid agreement between the multimodal imaging regarding the ability of OCTA to identify possible initial CNV in a patient with PED-F was observed. Accuracy was 95.45%. In addition, the agreement between manual and automatic segmentation to identify CNV on OCTA was also shown.


Assuntos
Neovascularização de Coroide/diagnóstico , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Verde de Indocianina/farmacologia , Descolamento Retiniano/diagnóstico , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/patologia , Vasos Retinianos/patologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Neovascularização de Coroide/etiologia , Corantes/farmacologia , Estudos Transversais , Seguimentos , Humanos , Descolamento Retiniano/complicações , Acuidade Visual
6.
Hepatol Med Policy ; 3: 1, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30288324

RESUMO

Background: The current model of care for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in Australia is through specialist Hepatology or Infectious Diseases clinics, and limited accredited primary care practices. Capacity is limited, and less than 5% of Australians living with CHB currently access therapy. Increasing treatment uptake is an urgent area of clinical need. Nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy is safe and effective treatment for CHB that is suitable for community prescribing. We have evaluated the success of a community-based model for the management of CHB in primary care clinics using a novel web-based clinical tool. Methods: Using guidelines set out by the Gastroenterological Society of Australia, we developed an interactive online clinical management tool for the shared care of patients with CHB in primary care clinics, with remote oversight from tertiary hospital-based hepatologists and a project officer. We call this model of care the "B in IT" program. Suitable patients were referred from the specialist liver clinic back to primary care for ongoing management. Compliance with recommended appointments, pathology tests and ultrasounds of patients enrolled in "B in IT" was assessed and compared to that of the same patients prior to community discharge, as well as a matched control group of CHB outpatients continuing to attend a specialist clinic. Results: Thirty patients with CHB were enrolled in the "B in IT" program. Compliance with attending scheduled appointments within 1 month of the suggested date was 87% across all 115 visits scheduled. Compliance with completing recommended pathology within 1 month of the suggested date was 94% and compliance with completing recommended liver ultrasounds for cancer screening within 1 month of the suggested date was 89%. The compliance rates for visit attendance and ultrasound completion were significantly higher than the control patient group (p < 0.0001) and the "B in IT" patients prior to community discharge (p = 0.002 and p = 0.039, respectively). Conclusions: The "B in IT" program's novel web-based clinical tool supports primary care physicians to treat and monitor patients with CHB. This program promotes community-based care and increases system capacity for the clinical care of people living with CHB.

7.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(5): 408-413, Sept.-Oct. 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-950489

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the safety of single intravitreal injection of each of two concentrations of 0.1 ml of sunitinib (1 and 10 mg/ml), 0.1 ml of a drug-free dispersion containing solid lipid nanoparticles, and 0.1 ml of a drug-free dispersion containing polymeric nanocapsules for analyzing the possible toxic effects using electrophysiology and histology in albino rabbit retina. Methods: We conducted an experimental controlled study of 20 eyes of albino rabbits. Intravitreal injections of each specific agent were applied to one eye per rabbit in each 5-rabbit group, while the contralateral eyes received no treatment and were used as controls. Results: We noted no electroretinographic changes in the sunitinib (1 and 10 mg/ml) or in solid lipid nanoparticles groups. However, we observed significant abnormalities in ocular morphology and in the electroretinogram in the nanocapsules group. At the histological level, only the nanocapsules group demonstrated abnormal changes, including severe edema and cytoplasmic vacuole formation. Conclusions: While nanocapsules intravitreal injections indicated retinal toxic effects, sunitinib and solid lipid nanoparticles intravitreal injections were not toxic to the retina. Our results suggest that a sunitinib preparation with solid lipid nanoparticles for controlled release may offer a significant therapeutic approach for vasoproliferative ocular disease.


RESUMO Objetivos: O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a segurança da injeção intravítrea de 0,1 ml de sunitinibe em duas concentrações (1 mg/ml e 10 mg/ml), 0,1 ml de dispersão contendo nanopartículas lipídicas sólidas sem droga e 0,1 ml de dispersão contendo nanocápsulas poliméricas livre de drogas analisando os possíveis efeitos tóxicos à retina de coelhos albinos detectados pela eletrofisiologia e histologia por microscopia óptica. Métodos: Um estudo controlado experimental foi rea­lizado com 20 olhos de coelhos albinos. Foram realizadas injeções intravítrea de duas concentrações diferentes de suniti­nibe, uma dispersão contendo nanopartículas lipídicas sólidas e uma dispersão contendo nanocápsulas. O olho contralateral não recebeu tratamento e foi utilizado como controle. Resultados: Não foram observadas alterações eletrorretinográficas nos grupos do sunitinibe (1 mg/ml e 10 mg/ml) e no grupo das nanopartículas lipídicas sólidas. No grupo das nanocápsulas, houve alterações significativas tanto na morfologia, quanto na amplitude e tempo das ondas do eletrorretinograma. Ao estudo histológico, somente o grupo das nanocápsulas apresentou al­terações degenerativas (núcleos tumefeitos) com acentuado edema e formação de vacúolos citoplasmáticos, sugerindo toxidade retiniana. Conclusões: As injeções intravítreas de sunitinibe e nanopartículas lipídicas sólidas não foram tóxicas para a retina. No entanto, nanocápsulas mostraram ser tóxicas para a retina. Sendo assim, a possibilidade de poder combinar o potencial de uma droga que possui a capacidade de inibir duas importantes vias da angiogênese, às vantagens de liberação controlada das nanopartículas lipídicas sólidas, pode ser um importante recurso terapêutico para doenças vasoproliferativas oculares.

8.
Arq Bras Oftalmol ; 81(5): 408-413, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30208143

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the safety of single intravitreal injection of each of two concentrations of 0.1 ml of sunitinib (1 and 10 mg/ml), 0.1 ml of a drug-free dispersion containing solid lipid nanoparticles, and 0.1 ml of a drug-free dispersion containing polymeric nanocapsules for analyzing the possible toxic effects using electrophysiology and histology in albino rabbit retina. METHODS: We conducted an experimental controlled study of 20 eyes of albino rabbits. Intravitreal injections of each specific agent were applied to one eye per rabbit in each 5-rabbit group, while the contralateral eyes received no treatment and were used as controls. RESULTS: We noted no electroretinographic changes in the sunitinib (1 and 10 mg/ml) or in solid lipid nanoparticles groups. However, we observed significant abnormalities in ocular morphology and in the electroretinogram in the nanocapsules group. At the histological level, only the nanocapsules group demonstrated abnormal changes, including severe edema and cytoplasmic vacuole formation. CONCLUSIONS: While nanocapsules intravitreal injections indicated retinal toxic effects, sunitinib and solid lipid nanoparticles intravitreal injections were not toxic to the retina. Our results suggest that a sunitinib preparation with solid lipid nanoparticles for controlled release may offer a significant therapeutic approach for vasoproliferative ocular disease.


Assuntos
Injeções Intravítreas , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Sunitinibe/farmacologia , Corpo Vítreo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Eletrorretinografia , Nanocápsulas , Nanopartículas , Coelhos
9.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 77(1): 5-8, jan.-fev. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-899105

RESUMO

Abstract Purpose: To identify the prevalence of the most common diseases diagnosed in the Low Vision Service (LVS) Methods: Seven hundred and thirteen patient's clinical records were evaluated. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the better eye was collected. All of the diagnosed diseases related to visual impairment were identified and classified. A total of 220 patients (36.6%) fulfilled the concept of low vision (group 1), and 381 patients (63.39%) presented legal blindness (groups 2, 3, 4 and 5), according to the WHO Study Group on the Prevention of Blindness (Geneva, l972). Results: The most prevalent disorder was the group of Retinal Inherited Distrophies (n=124; 20.63%). Following the first group were Ocular toxoplasmosis with chorioretinal scars (118 cases, representing a prevalence of 19.63%), Myopic Maculopathy (38-6.32%), Age related Macular Degeneration (AMD) (36 cases, representing a prevalence of 6%). Conclusion: Planning and implementing preventive actions in ophthalmology requires appropriate comprehension about regional clinical problems. Social support, and a proper partnership between educational and health systems, are important to improve visual outcomes in patients diagnosed with low vision and legal blindness.


Resumo Objetivo: identificar a prevalência dos distúrbios mais comuns em pacientes do Serviço de Visão Subnormal do Centro de Referência de Oftalmologia (CEROF - UFG). Método: Foram avaliados 713 registros de pacientes, t odos apresentavam erros refrativos corrigidos. Coletaram-se dois elementos: melhor acuidade visual corrigida (MAVC) no melhor olho e o diagnóstico da doença oftalmológica responsável pela deficiência visual. Todos os grupos etários foram incluídos, sem distinção entre sexo ou raça. Resultados: As doenças mais prevalentes foram distrofias retinianas hereditárias (124 pacientes; 20,63%), cicatrizes coriorretinianas por toxoplasmose (118-19,63%), maculopatia miópica (38-6,32%), Degeneração macular relacionada à idade (DMRI) (36-6%). 220 pacientes (36,6%) preencheram critério de baixa visão (grupo 1), e 381 (63,39%) apresentaram definição de cegueira legal (grupos 2, 3, 4 e 5) recomendada pelo Grupo de Estudos para a Prevenção da Cegueira WHO (Genebra, l972). Conclusão: Estudos nacionais mostram resultados semelhantes sobre cicatrizes coriorretinianas. Estudos epidemiológicos mostram maior prevalência de DMRI, provavelmente porque as clínicas oftalmológicas primárias falham no encaminhamento destes pacientes. A proporção de cegueira relacionada à ROP nos países desenvolvidos é maior, possivelmente porque não há plano de ação público oferecendo acompanhamento oftalmológico adequado para essas crianças. Não havia número significativo de pacientes com glaucoma congênito no departamento, o que pode se relacionar com as condições socioeconômicas e saúde no Brasil. Ações preventivas em oftalmologia necessitam de conhecimento científico de problemas oftalmológicos regionais aplicados à realidade, que será foco de tal ação. Um suporte social, incluindo parceria entre escola, família e sistema público de saúde, seria importante para gerar benefícios para a população.

10.
J Knee Surg ; 31(1): 87-91, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28476062

RESUMO

Although single-radius (SR) designs of total knee replacement (TKR) have theoretical benefits, the clinical advantage conferred by such designs is unknown. The aim of this randomized, controlled study was to compare the short-term clinical outcomes of the two design rationales. A total of 105 knees were randomized to receive either a single radius (Scorpio, Stryker; SR Group) or multiple radius (AGC, Zimmer Biomet; MR group) TKR. Patient-reported outcomes (Oxford Knee Score [OKS] and Knee Society Score [KSS]) were collected at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year following surgery. No knees were revised. There was no difference in primary outcomes: OKS was 39.5 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 36.9-42.1) in the SR group and 38.1 (95% CI: 36.0-40.3) in the MR group (p = 0.40). KSS was 168.4 (95% CI: 159.8-177.0) in the SR group; 159.5 (95% CI 150.5-168.5) in the MR group (p = 0.16). There was a small but statistically significant difference in the degree of change of the objective subscale of the KSS, favoring the SR design (p = 0.04), but this is of uncertain clinical relevance. The reported benefits of SR designs do not provide demonstrable functional advantages in the short term.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Prótese do Joelho , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Desenho de Prótese , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Arq Bras Oftalmol ; 80(5): 321-323, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160545

RESUMO

This report presents multimodal imaging of a 27-year-old woman diagnosed with benign familial fleck retina (OMIM 228980), an uncommon disorder. Fundus photographs revealed retinal flecks that affected her post-equatorial retina but spared the macular area. Fundus autofluorescence and infrared imaging demonstrated a symmetrical pattern of yellow-white fleck lesions that affected both eyes. Her full-field electroretinogram and electrooculogram were normal. An optical coherence tomography B-scan was performed for both eyes, revealing increased thickness of the retinal pigmented epithelium leading to multiple small pigmented epithelium detachments. The outer retina remained intact in both eyes. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography with split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation algorithm and 3 × 3 mm structural en face optical coherence tomography did not show macular lesions. Benign familial fleck retina belongs to a heterogenous group of so-called flecked retina syndromes, and should be considered in patients with yellowish-white retinal lesions without involvement of the macula.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/patologia , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/patologia , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Retinianas/patologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Adulto , Eletrorretinografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos
12.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 80(5): 321-323, Sept.-Oct. 2017. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-888138

RESUMO

ABSTRACT This report presents multimodal imaging of a 27-year-old woman diagnosed with benign familial fleck retina (OMIM 228980), an uncommon disorder. Fundus photographs revealed retinal flecks that affected her post-equatorial retina but spared the macular area. Fundus autofluorescence and infrared imaging demonstrated a symmetrical pattern of yellow-white fleck lesions that affected both eyes. Her full-field electroretinogram and electrooculogram were normal. An optical coherence tomography B-scan was performed for both eyes, revealing increased thickness of the retinal pigmented epithelium leading to multiple small pigmented epithelium detachments. The outer retina remained intact in both eyes. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography with split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation algorithm and 3 × 3 mm structural en face optical coherence tomography did not show macular lesions. Benign familial fleck retina belongs to a heterogenous group of so-called flecked retina syndromes, and should be considered in patients with yellowish-white retinal lesions without involvement of the macula.


RESUMO O objetivo do presente relato é demonstrar um estudo multimodal de um paciente com diagnóstico de Benign Familial Fleck Retina (BFFR) (OMIM 228980), uma alteração retinana muito rara. Retinografia colorida demonstrou "flecks" na retina posterior ao equador, poupando mácula. Tanto autofluorescência quando imagem "infrared," nota-se padrão simétrico de lesões amareladas em ambos os olhos. Eletrorretinograma padrão de campo total e EOG não evidenciaram alterações. SD OCT B-scan demostrou pequenos e múltiplos descolamentos do epitélio pigmentado (EPR), com retina externa intacta em ambos os olhos. Angiografia por OCT com "split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation algorithm" e "structural" "en face" OCT 3 x 3 mm não apontaram anormalidades na mácula. BFFR pertence ao heterogêneo grupo chamado "flecked retina syndromes," devendo ser considerada em pacientes com flecks retinianos poupando mácula.

13.
Rev. eletrônica enferm ; 19: 1-10, Jan.Dez.2017. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-912226

RESUMO

Objetivou-se avaliar a melhora da acuidade visual (AV) antes e no 15° dia do pós-operatório de facectomia e o seu impacto na qualidade de vida dos idosos. Estudo prospectivo, desenvolvido com 156 pacientes submetidos à facectomia em campanha oftalmológica. De acordo com a tabela de Snellen, a AV média, em logMAR, após 15 dias da cirurgia melhorou de 1,23 para 0,57 nos idosos (p=0,000). Na comparação das médias de qualidade de vida, pelo questionário de avaliação da qualidade de vida Visual Functioning Questionnaire (VQF-25), o subdomínio visão geral apresentou a maior diferença entre as médias antes e após a facectomia (de 29,65 para 89,87). A análise de correlação apontou que a melhora da AV melhorou a satisfação geral, em relação à atividade para longe, dor ocular, saúde mental e dependência, levando a um impacto positivo na qualidade de vida dos idosos. Levantaram-se indicadores que direcionam à terapêutica mais individualizada.


The objective was to improve the visual acuity (VA) before facectomy and at the 15th-day of the post-operative phase, and its impact on elderly quality of life. We developed a prospective study, with 156 patients submitted to facectomy in an ophthalmologic campaign. According to the Snellen table, the mean VA in logMAR at 15 days post-surgery improved from 1.23 to 0.57 for elderly (p=0.000). When comparing the quality of life means using the quality of life tool Visual Functioning Questionnaire (VQF-25), the subdomain general vision presented the highest difference between means before and after facectomy (from 29.65 to 89.87). The correlation analysis pointed that the VA improved general satisfaction for far activities, ocular pain, mental health, and dependency, resulting in a positive impact on elderly quality of life. We brought up indicators to guide a more individualized therapy.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Catarata , Facoemulsificação/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Acuidade Visual , Saúde Ocular
14.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 76(3): 165-167, maio-jun. 2017. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-899060

RESUMO

Abstract The diagnosis of macular retinoschisis is often complex and demands complementary exams to be confirmed. This is the report of a case of a 27 years old man diagnosed with macular retinoschisis, in which En face OCT and OCT angiography were used to identify and demonstrate the typical patterns of the disease, as well as distinguish them from the findings of cystoid macular edema.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28293432

RESUMO

In diabetic retinopathy (DR), macular involvement can present as either macular edema or ischemia. Fluorescein angiography remains the gold standard in the evaluation of retinal vascular perfusion and diagnosis of macular ischemia. However, it is a costly, time-consuming technique, it requires venipuncture, and reports of anaphylaxis and death related to fluorescein injections have been documented, despite their rarity. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides a fast and non-invasive method to assess retinal structures at a microscopic level. OCT angiography permits the noninvasive study of retinal and choroid circulation via motion contrast imaging. Split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation angiography combined with OCT angiography has furthered the understanding of retinal and choroidal vascular diseases, allowing the evaluation of retinal microvasculature and identification of subsequent disorders, including DR. Previous studies using OCT angiography have demonstrated that it may demonstrate DR findings such as microaneurysms, arteriolar wall staining, retinal neovascularization, and intraretinal microvascular abnormalities. The purpose of this article is to describe and discuss different concepts regarding OCT angiography, as well as its role in the diagnosis of DR and maculopathy.

16.
J Ophthalmol ; 2016: 3989310, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27891250

RESUMO

Purpose. To compare fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images of foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) with and without diabetic macular ischemia (DMI). Methods. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare area measurements and p values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. FA and OCTA images were independently graded by 2 observers that reached agreement regarding quantitative DMI according established protocols. The ischemic area was divided into "large" macular ischemia (superior to 0.32 mm2) and "small" (inferior to 0.32 mm2) groups. Quantitative analyses of the FAZ were performed using custom software. Results. Thirty-four eyes from 34 diabetic patients were enrolled. Subjects with DMI presented a mean area on FA and OCTA of 0.68 ± 0.53 mm2 and 0.58 ± 0.35 mm2, respectively (p = 0.1374). Patients without DMI presented a mean area on FA and OCTA of 0.19 ± 0.67 mm2 and 0.20 ± 0.79 mm2, respectively (p = 0.9594). The ICC for the FAZ measurements between the 2 observers on FA and OCTA was 0.96 and 0.92, respectively. Conclusion. OCTA represents a novel technique for the diagnosis of DMI and it may become an alternative to FA for this purpose.

17.
Arq Bras Oftalmol ; 79(2): 85-7, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27224069

RESUMO

This study aimed to report the clinical and structural outcomes of intravitreal ocriplasmin in the treatment of vitreomacular interface disorders in two tertiary centers in Brazil. A retrospective study was performed by reviewing medical records and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings of seven patients who were treated with a single ocriplasmin injection. A total of 57.14% of patients achieved resolution of vitreomacular traction as evidenced by SD-OCT. Regarding our functional results, 87.71% maintained or improved visual acuity after follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting initial results of ocriplasmin therapy in Brazil.


Assuntos
Fibrinolisina/uso terapêutico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Descolamento do Vítreo/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Brasil , Feminino , Fibrinolisina/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Aderências Teciduais/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpo Vítreo/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpo Vítreo/patologia , Descolamento do Vítreo/patologia
18.
Arq Bras Oftalmol ; 79(2): 113-5, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27224076

RESUMO

Pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) is a common complication following cataract surgery. Although majority of patients with PCME remain asymptomatic, it remains an important cause of vision loss after cataract surgery. The pathogenesis of PCME remains unclear, but most authors agree that inflammation plays a major role in its development. There is no standard algorithm for treatment procedures for PCME. A biodegradable 0.7 mg dexamethasone intravitreal implant can be used to deliver medication into the posterior segment of eyes. This drug acts on all inflammatory mediators and has been approved for the treatment of macular abnormalities secondary to retinal vein occlusion and for non-infectious posterior uveitis. In this case series, we report six patients who presented with PCME and were treated with a 0.7 mg dexamethasone intravitreal implant. Favorable anatomical outcomes were demonstrated by spectral domain-optical coherence tomography images.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Pseudofacia/tratamento farmacológico , Implantes Absorvíveis , Idoso , Implantes de Medicamento , Feminino , Humanos , Edema Macular/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pseudofacia/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/fisiopatologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 79(2): 113-115, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-782798

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) is a common complication following cataract surgery. Although majority of patients with PCME remain asymptomatic, it remains an important cause of vision loss after cataract surgery. The pathogenesis of PCME remains unclear, but most authors agree that inflammation plays a major role in its development. There is no standard algorithm for treatment procedures for PCME. A biodegradable 0.7 mg dexamethasone intravitreal implant can be used to deliver medication into the posterior segment of eyes. This drug acts on all inflammatory mediators and has been approved for the treatment of macular abnormalities secondary to retinal vein occlusion and for non-infectious posterior uveitis. In this case series, we report six patients who presented with PCME and were treated with a 0.7 mg dexamethasone intravitreal implant. Favorable anatomical outcomes were demonstrated by spectral domain-optical coherence tomography images.


RESUMO O edema macular cistóide do pseudofácico (PCME) é uma frequente complicação no acompanhamento pós-operatório da cirurgia de catarata. Embora a maioria dos pacientes apresente-se sem sintomas, PCME ainda permanece como importante causa de baixa visão após facectomia. Sua patogênese ainda permanece obscura, porém, autores sugerem que fatores que promovem maior inflamação possuem papel fundamental em sua origem. Não há um algoritmo padrão no manejo do PCME. O implante biodegradável de dexametasona 0,7 mg surgiu como possível arma terapêutica, após aplicação intra-vítrea. Essa droga consegue agir sobre mediadores inflamatórios, além de já ter sido aprovada no tratamento do edema de macula secundário à oclusões venosas da retina, e uveítes posteriores de origem não infecciosa. Na seguinte série de casos, relatamos a evolução de 6 pacientes com PCME, submetidos a terapia com implante de dexametasona 0,7 mg. A melhora anatômica foi documentada com imagens de SD OCT.

20.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 79(2): 85-87, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-782800

RESUMO

ABSTRACT This study aimed to report the clinical and structural outcomes of intravitreal ocriplasmin in the treatment of vitreomacular interface disorders in two tertiary centers in Brazil. A retrospective study was performed by reviewing medical records and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings of seven patients who were treated with a single ocriplasmin injection. A total of 57.14% of patients achieved resolution of vitreomacular traction as evidenced by SD-OCT. Regarding our functional results, 87.71% maintained or improved visual acuity after follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting initial results of ocriplasmin therapy in Brazil.


RESUMO O objetivo desse estudo é relatar os resultados iniciais, tanto do ponto de vista funcional quanto anatômico, no tratamento das doenças da interface vítreo-macular com a ocriplasmina em 2 serviços terciários no Brasil. Um estudo retrospectivo foi realizado através de revisão de prontuários, além de análise de achados em tomografia de coerência óptica de domínio espectral (SD-OCT) em 7 pacientes tratados com uma única injeção intravítrea de ocriplasmina. Em nosso estudo 57,14% dos pacientes apresentaram resolução da tração vítreo-macular no SD-OCT. Em relação aos resultados funcionais, 87,71% dos pacientes mantiveram, ou melhoraram sua acuidade visual durante o acompanhamento. Para nosso conhecimento, trata-se do primeiro estudo em nosso país, mostrando resultados iniciais com ocriplasmina em pacientes tratados no Brasil.

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