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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(10): 5980-5991, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271021

RESUMO

Anthropogenic emissions alter secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation chemistry from naturally emitted isoprene. We use correlations of tracers and tracer ratios to provide new perspectives on sulfate, NOx, and particle acidity influencing isoprene-derived SOA in two isoprene-rich forested environments representing clean to polluted conditions-wet and dry seasons in central Amazonia and Southeastern U.S. summer. We used a semivolatile thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (SV-TAG) and filter samplers to measure SOA tracers indicative of isoprene/HO2 (2-methyltetrols, C5-alkene triols, 2-methyltetrol organosulfates) and isoprene/NOx (2-methylglyceric acid, 2-methylglyceric acid organosulfate) pathways. Summed concentrations of these tracers correlated with particulate sulfate spanning three orders of magnitude, suggesting that 1 µg m-3 reduction in sulfate corresponds with at least ∼0.5 µg m-3 reduction in isoprene-derived SOA. We also find that isoprene/NOx pathway SOA mass primarily comprises organosulfates, ∼97% in the Amazon and ∼55% in Southeastern United States. We infer under natural conditions in high isoprene emission regions that preindustrial aerosol sulfate was almost exclusively isoprene-derived organosulfates, which are traditionally thought of as representative of an anthropogenic influence. We further report the first field observations showing that particle acidity correlates positively with 2-methylglyceric acid partitioning to the gas phase and negatively with the ratio of 2-methyltetrols to C5-alkene triols.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1046, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837467

RESUMO

One of the least understood aspects in atmospheric chemistry is how urban emissions influence the formation of natural organic aerosols, which affect Earth's energy budget. The Amazon rainforest, during its wet season, is one of the few remaining places on Earth where atmospheric chemistry transitions between preindustrial and urban-influenced conditions. Here, we integrate insights from several laboratory measurements and simulate the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the Amazon using a high-resolution chemical transport model. Simulations show that emissions of nitrogen-oxides from Manaus, a city of ~2 million people, greatly enhance production of biogenic SOA by 60-200% on average with peak enhancements of 400%, through the increased oxidation of gas-phase organic carbon emitted by the forests. Simulated enhancements agree with aircraft measurements, and are much larger than those reported over other locations. The implication is that increasing anthropogenic emissions in the future might substantially enhance biogenic SOA in pristine locations like the Amazon.

3.
Indoor Air ; 29(1): 17-29, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387208

RESUMO

Emission, transport, and fate of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), which include plasticizers, flame retardants, pesticides, biocides, and oxidation products of volatile organic compounds, are influenced in part by their tendency to sorb to indoor surfaces. A thin organic film enhances this effect, because it acts as both an SVOC sink and a source, thus potentially prolonging human exposure. Unfortunately, our ability to describe the initial formation and subsequent growth of organic films on indoor surfaces is limited. To overcome this gap, we propose a mass transfer model accounting for adsorption, condensation, and absorption of multiple gas-phase SVOCs on impervious, vertical indoor surfaces. Further model development and experimental research are needed including more realistic scenarios accounting for surface heterogeneity, non-ideal organic mixtures, and particle deposition.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Modelos Químicos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Absorção Fisico-Química , Adsorção , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
4.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 20(11): 1546-1558, 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30357193

RESUMO

Organosulfates are formed in the atmosphere from reactions between reactive organic compounds (such as oxidation products of isoprene) and acidic sulfate aerosol. Here we investigated speciated organosulfates in an area typically downwind of the city of Manaus situated in the Amazon forest in Brazil during "GoAmazon2014/5" in both the wet season (February-March) and dry season (August-October). We observe products consistent with the reaction of isoprene photooxidation products and sulfate aerosols, leading to formation of several types of isoprene-derived organosulfates, which contribute 3% up to 42% of total sulfate aerosol measured by aerosol mass spectrometry. During the wet season the average contribution of summed organic sulfate concentrations to total sulfate was 19 ± 10% and similarly during the dry season the contribution was 19 ± 8%. This is the highest fraction of speciated organic sulfate to total sulfate observed at any reported site. Organosulfates appeared to be dominantly formed from isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX), averaging 104 ± 73 ng m-3 (range 15-328 ng m-3) during the wet season, with much higher abundance 610 ± 400 ng m-3 (range 86-1962 ng m-3) during the dry season. The concentration of isoprene-derived organic sulfate correlated with total inorganic sulfate (R2 = 0.35 and 0.51 during the wet and dry seasons, respectively), implying the significant influence of inorganic sulfate aerosol for the heterogeneous reactive uptake of IEPOX. Organosulfates also contributed to organic matter in aerosols (3.5 ± 1.9% during the wet season and 5.1 ± 2.5% during the dry season). The present study shows that an important fraction of sulfate in aerosols in the Amazon downwind of Manaus consists of multifunctional organic chemicals formed in the atmosphere, and that increased SO2 emissions would substantially increase SOA formation from isoprene.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Atmosfera/química , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Sulfatos/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Brasil , Butadienos , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hemiterpenos , Espectrometria de Massas , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Oxirredução , Sulfatos/química , Vento
5.
Atmos Chem Phys ; 18(1): 357-370, 2018 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29963078

RESUMO

Several models were used to describe the partitioning of ammonia, water, and organic compounds between the gas and particle phases for conditions in the southeastern US during summer 2013. Existing equilibrium models and frameworks were found to be sufficient, although additional improvements in terms of estimating pure-species vapor pressures are needed. Thermodynamic model predictions were consistent, to first order, with a molar ratio of ammonium to sulfate of approximately 1.6 to 1.8 (ratio of ammonium to 2× sulfate, RN/2S ≈ 0.8 to 0.9) with approximately 70% of total ammonia and ammonium (NH x ) in the particle. Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization Network (SEARCH) gas and aerosol and Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) Monitor for AeRosols and Gases in Ambient air (MARGA) aerosol measurements were consistent with these conditions. CMAQv5.2 regional chemical transport model predictions did not reflect these conditions due to a factor of 3 overestimate of the nonvolatile cations. In addition, gas-phase ammonia was overestimated in the CMAQ model leading to an even lower fraction of total ammonia in the particle. Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) and aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements indicated less ammonium per sulfate than SEARCH and MARGA measurements and were inconsistent with thermodynamic model predictions. Organic compounds were predicted to be present to some extent in the same phase as inorganic constituents, modifying their activity and resulting in a decrease in [H+]air (H+ in µgm-3 air), increase in ammonia partitioning to the gas phase, and increase in pH compared to complete organic vs. inorganic liquid-liquid phase separation. In addition, accounting for nonideal mixing modified the pH such that a fully interactive inorganic-organic system had a pH roughly 0.7 units higher than predicted using traditional methods (pH = 1.5 vs. 0.7). Particle-phase interactions of organic and inorganic compounds were found to increase partitioning towards the particle phase (vs. gas phase) for highly oxygenated (O : C≥0.6) compounds including several isoprene-derived tracers as well as levoglu-cosan but decrease particle-phase partitioning for low O: C, monoterpene-derived species.

6.
Science ; 359(6377): 760-764, 2018 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29449485

RESUMO

A gap in emission inventories of urban volatile organic compound (VOC) sources, which contribute to regional ozone and aerosol burdens, has increased as transportation emissions in the United States and Europe have declined rapidly. A detailed mass balance demonstrates that the use of volatile chemical products (VCPs)-including pesticides, coatings, printing inks, adhesives, cleaning agents, and personal care products-now constitutes half of fossil fuel VOC emissions in industrialized cities. The high fraction of VCP emissions is consistent with observed urban outdoor and indoor air measurements. We show that human exposure to carbonaceous aerosols of fossil origin is transitioning away from transportation-related sources and toward VCPs. Existing U.S. regulations on VCPs emphasize mitigating ozone and air toxics, but they currently exempt many chemicals that lead to secondary organic aerosols.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Ácido Dioctil Sulfossuccínico , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Estados Unidos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(9): 2038-2043, 2018 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29440409

RESUMO

The chemical complexity of atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) has caused substantial uncertainties in understanding its origins and environmental impacts. Here, we provide constraints on OA origins through compositional characterization with molecular-level details. Our results suggest that secondary OA (SOA) from monoterpene oxidation accounts for approximately half of summertime fine OA in Centreville, AL, a forested area in the southeastern United States influenced by anthropogenic pollution. We find that different chemical processes involving nitrogen oxides, during days and nights, play a central role in determining the mass of monoterpene SOA produced. These findings elucidate the strong anthropogenic-biogenic interaction affecting ambient aerosol in the southeastern United States and point out the importance of reducing anthropogenic emissions, especially under a changing climate, where biogenic emissions will likely keep increasing.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Monoterpenos/química , Estações do Ano , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Nat Chem ; 10(4): 462-468, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483638

RESUMO

The evolution of atmospheric organic carbon as it undergoes oxidation has a controlling influence on concentrations of key atmospheric species, including particulate matter, ozone and oxidants. However, full characterization of organic carbon over hours to days of atmospheric processing has been stymied by its extreme chemical complexity. Here we study the multigenerational oxidation of α-pinene in the laboratory, characterizing products with several state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Although quantification of some early generation products remains elusive, full carbon closure is achieved (within measurement uncertainty) by the end of the experiments. These results provide new insights into the effects of oxidation on organic carbon properties (volatility, oxidation state and reactivity) and the atmospheric lifecycle of organic carbon. Following an initial period characterized by functionalization reactions and particle growth, fragmentation reactions dominate, forming smaller species. After approximately one day of atmospheric aging, most carbon is sequestered in two long-lived reservoirs-volatile oxidized gases and low-volatility particulate matter.

9.
J Chromatogr A ; 1529: 81-92, 2017 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29126588

RESUMO

Chromatography provides important detail on the composition of environmental samples and their chemical processing. However, the complexity of these samples and their tendency to contain many structurally and chemically similar compounds frequently results in convoluted or poorly resolved data. Data reduction from raw chromatograms of complex environmental data into integrated peak areas consequently often requires substantial operator interaction. This difficulty has led to a bottleneck in analysis that increases analysis time, decreases data quality, and will worsen as advances in field-based instrumentation multiply the quantity and informational density of data produced. In this work, we develop and validate an automated approach to fitting chromatographic data within a target retention time window with a combination of multiple idealized peaks (Gaussian peaks either with or without an exponential decay component). We compare this single-ion peak fitting approach to drawn baseline integration methods of more than 70,000 peaks collected by field-based chromatographs spanning across a wide range of volatilities and functionalities. Accuracy of peak fitting under real-world conditions is found to be within 10%. The quantitative parameters describing the fit (e.g. coefficients, fit residuals, etc.) are found to provide valuable information to increase the efficiency of quality control and provide constraints to accurately integrate peaks that are significantly convoluted with neighboring peaks. Implementation of the peak fitting method is shown to yield accurate integration of peaks otherwise too poorly resolved to separate into individual compounds and improved quantitative metrics to determine the fidelity of the data reduction process, while substantially decreasing the time spent by operators on data reduction.


Assuntos
Cromatografia , Estatística como Assunto/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estatística como Assunto/normas
13.
Analyst ; 142(13): 2395-2403, 2017 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28555694

RESUMO

A new analytical methodology combining comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), dual ionization energies and high resolution time of flight mass spectrometry has been developed that improves molecular level identification of organic compounds in complex environmental samples. GC×GC maximizes compound separation providing cleaner mass spectra by minimizing erroneous fragments from interferences and co-eluting peaks. Traditional electron ionization (EI, 70 eV) provides MS fragmentation patterns that can be matched to published EI MS libraries while vacuum ultraviolet photoionization (VUV, 10.5 eV) yields MS with reduced fragmentation enhancing the abundance of the molecular ion providing molecular formulas when combined with high resolution mass spectrometry. We demonstrate this new approach by applying it to a sample of organic aerosol. In this sample, 238 peaks were matched to EI MS library data with FM ≥ 800 but a fifth (42 compounds) were determined to be incorrectly identified because the molecular formula was not confirmed by the VUV MS data. This highlights the importance of using a complementary technique to confirm compound identifications even for peaks with very good matching statistics. In total, 171 compounds were identified by EI MS matching to library spectra with confirmation of the molecular formula from the high resolution VUV MS data and were not dependent on the matching statistics being above a threshold value. A large number of unidentified peaks were still observed with FM < 800, which in routine analysis would typically be neglected. Where possible, these peaks were assigned molecular formulas from the VUV MS data (211 in total). In total, the combination of EI and VUV MS data provides more than twice as much molecular level peak information than traditional approaches and improves confidence in the identification of individual organic compounds. The molecular formula data from the VUV MS data was used, in conjunction with GC×GC retention times and the observed EI MS, to generate a new, searchable EI MS library compatible with the standard NIST MS search program. This library is deliberately dynamic and editable so that other end users can add new entries and update existing entries as new information becomes available.

14.
Atmos Chem Phys ; 17(1): 343-369, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30147709

RESUMO

Organic compounds and liquid water are major aerosol constituents in the southeast United States (SE US). Water associated with inorganic constituents (inorganic water) can contribute to the partitioning medium for organic aerosol when relative humidities or organic matter to organic carbon (OM/OC) ratios are high such that separation relative humidities (SRH) are below the ambient relative humidity (RH). As OM/OC ratios in the SE US are often between 1.8 and 2.2, organic aerosol experiences both mixing with inorganic water and separation from it. Regional chemical transport model simulations including inorganic water (but excluding water uptake by organic compounds) in the partitioning medium for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) when RH > SRH led to increased SOA concentrations,· particularly at night. Water uptake to the organic phase resulted in even greater SOA concentrations as a result of a positive feedback in which water uptake increased SOA, which further increased aerosol water and organic aerosol. Aerosol properties· such as the OM/OC and hygroscopicity parameter (κorg), were captured well by the model compared with measurements during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) 2013. Organic nitrates from monoterpene oxidation were predicted to be the least water-soluble semivolatile species in the model, but most biogenically derived semivolatile species in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model were highly water soluble and expected to contribute to water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Organic aerosol and SOA precursors were abundant at night, but additional improvements in daytime organic aerosol are needed to close the model-measurement gap. When taking into account deviations from ideality, including both inorganic (when RH > SRH) and organic water in the organic partitioning medium reduced the mean bias in SOA for routine monitoring networks and improved model performance compared to observations from SOAS. Property updates from this work will be released in CMAQ v5.2.

15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(18): 9952-62, 2016 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27552285

RESUMO

Exchange of atmospheric organic compounds between gas and particle phases is important in the production and chemistry of particle-phase mass but is poorly understood due to a lack of simultaneous measurements in both phases of individual compounds. Measurements of particle- and gas-phase organic compounds are reported here for the southeastern United States and central Amazonia. Polyols formed from isoprene oxidation contribute 8% and 15% on average to particle-phase organic mass at these sites but are also observed to have substantial gas-phase concentrations contrary to many models that treat these compounds as nonvolatile. The results of the present study show that the gas-particle partitioning of approximately 100 known and newly observed oxidation products is not well explained by environmental factors (e.g., temperature). Compounds having high vapor pressures have higher particle fractions than expected from absorptive equilibrium partitioning models. These observations support the conclusion that many commonly measured biogenic oxidation products may be bound in low-volatility mass (e.g., accretion products, inorganic-organic adducts) that decomposes to individual compounds on analysis. However, the nature and extent of any such bonding remains uncertain. Similar conclusions are reach for both study locations, and average particle fractions for a given compound are consistent within ∼25% across measurement sites.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Oxirredução , Pressão de Vapor , Volatilização
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(22): 13130-8, 2015 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26460682

RESUMO

Comprehensive chemical information is needed to understand the environmental fate and impact of hydrocarbons released during oil spills. However, chemical information remains incomplete because of the limitations of current analytical techniques and the inherent chemical complexity of crude oils. In this work, gas chromatography (GC)-amenable C9-C33 hydrocarbons were comprehensively characterized from the National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (NIST SRM) 2779 Gulf of Mexico crude oil by GC coupled to vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry (GC/VUV-MS), with a mass balance of 68 ± 22%. This technique overcomes one important limitation faced by traditional GC and even comprehensive 2D gas chromatography (GC×GC): the necessity for individual compounds to be chromatographically resolved from one another in order to be characterized. VUV photoionization minimizes fragmentation of the molecular ions, facilitating the characterization of the observed hydrocarbons as a function of molecular weight (carbon number, NC), structure (number of double bond equivalents, NDBE), and mass fraction (mg kg(-1)), which represent important metrics for understanding their fate and environmental impacts. Linear alkanes (8 ± 1%), branched alkanes (11 ± 2%), and cycloalkanes (37 ± 12%) dominated the mass with the largest contribution from cycloalkanes containing one or two rings and one or more alkyl side chains (27 ± 9%). Linearity and good agreement with previous work for a subset of >100 components and for the sum of compound classes provided confidence in our measurements and represents the first independent assessment of our analytical approach and calibration methodology. Another crude oil collected from the Marlin platform (35 km northeast of the Macondo well) was shown to be chemically identical within experimental errors to NIST SRM 2779, demonstrating that Marlin crude is an appropriate surrogate oil for researchers conducting laboratory research into impacts of the DeepWater Horizon disaster.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos/química , Petróleo/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa , Golfo do México , Isomerismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Peso Molecular , Campos de Petróleo e Gás/química , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Padrões de Referência , Temperatura
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(16): 9768-77, 2015 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26200667

RESUMO

Traditional descriptions of gas-particle partitioning of organic aerosols (OA) rely solely on thermodynamic properties (e.g., volatility). Under realistic conditions where phase partitioning is dynamic rather than static, the transformation of OA involves the interplay of multiphase partitioning with oxidative aging. A key challenge remains in quantifying the fundamental time scales for evaporation and oxidation of semivolatile OA. In this paper, we use isomer-resolved product measurements of a series of normal-alkanes (C18, C20, C22, and C24) to distinguish between gas-phase and heterogeneous oxidation products formed by reaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH). The product isomer distributions when combined with kinetics measurements of evaporation and oxidation enable a quantitative description of the multiphase time scales to be simulated using a single-particle kinetic model. Multiphase partitioning and oxidative transformation of semivolatile normal-alkanes under laboratory conditions is largely controlled by the particle phase state, since the time scales of heterogeneous oxidation and evaporation are found to occur on competing time scales (on the order of 10(-1) h). This is in contrast to atmospheric conditions where heterogeneous oxidation time scales are expected to be much longer (on the order of 10(2) h), with gas-phase oxidation being the dominant process regardless of the evaporation kinetics. Our results demonstrate the dynamic nature of OA multiphase partitioning and oxidative aging and reveal that the fundamental time scales of these processes are crucial for reliably extending laboratory measurements of OA phase partitioning and aging to the atmosphere.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Alcanos/química , Atmosfera/química , Simulação por Computador , Isomerismo , Cinética , Oxirredução , Fatores de Tempo , Volatilização
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(1): 37-42, 2015 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25535345

RESUMO

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) constitutes a substantial fraction of fine particulate matter and has important impacts on climate and human health. The extent to which human activities alter SOA formation from biogenic emissions in the atmosphere is largely undetermined. Here, we present direct observational evidence on the magnitude of anthropogenic influence on biogenic SOA formation based on comprehensive ambient measurements in the southeastern United States (US). Multiple high-time-resolution mass spectrometry organic aerosol measurements were made during different seasons at various locations, including urban and rural sites in the greater Atlanta area and Centreville in rural Alabama. Our results provide a quantitative understanding of the roles of anthropogenic SO2 and NOx in ambient SOA formation. We show that isoprene-derived SOA is directly mediated by the abundance of sulfate, instead of the particle water content and/or particle acidity as suggested by prior laboratory studies. Anthropogenic NOx is shown to enhance nighttime SOA formation via nitrate radical oxidation of monoterpenes, resulting in the formation of condensable organic nitrates. Together, anthropogenic sulfate and NOx can mediate 43-70% of total measured organic aerosol (29-49% of submicron particulate matter, PM1) in the southeastern US during summer. These measurements imply that future reduction in SO2 and NOx emissions can considerably reduce the SOA burden in the southeastern US. Updating current modeling frameworks with these observational constraints will also lead to more accurate treatment of aerosol formation for regions with substantial anthropogenic-biogenic interactions and consequently improve air quality and climate simulations.

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