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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor genomic expression profile (GEP) data is used to guide chemotherapy choice, but there are gaps in evidence for women 65+. We estimate chemotherapy effects by age and comorbidity-level among women with early stage, hormone-receptor+/HER2- breast cancers and Oncotype DX scores of 26+. METHODS: A discrete-time stochastic state-transition simulation model synthesized data from population studies and clinical trials to estimate outcomes over a 25-year horizon for subgroups based on age (65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-89y) and comorbidity-levels (no/low, moderate, severe). Outcomes were discounted at 3%, and included quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), life years, and breast cancer and other-cause mortality with chemo-endocrine vs. endocrine therapy. Sensitivity analysis tested the impact of varying uncertain parameters. RESULTS: Women ages 65-69y with no/low comorbidity gained 0.16 QALYs with chemo-endocrine and reduced breast cancer mortality from 34.8% to 29.7%, for an absolute difference of 5.1%; this benefit was associated with a 12.8% rate of grade 3/4 toxicity. Women ages 65-69y with no/low or moderate comorbidity levels, and women aged 70-74 with no/low comorbidity had small chemotherapy benefits. All women ages 75+ experienced net losses in QALYs with chemo-endocrine therapy. The results were robust in sensitivity analyses. Chemotherapy had greater benefits as treatment effectiveness increased, but toxicity reduced the QALYs gained. CONCLUSION: Among women ages 65-89 whose tumors indicate a high recurrence risk, only those age 65-74y with no/low or moderate comorbidity have small benefits from adding chemotherapy to endocrine therapy. GEP testing (and chemotherapy use) should be reserved for women under age 75y without severe comorbidity.

2.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oncotype DX (ODX) is a genomic assay of tumor tissue that is utilized to predict the likelihood of recurrence and benefit of chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. Five to 10% of breast cancers are hereditary, and hereditary syndromes may not be uncovered through family history alone. We hypothesized that high ODX recurrence score (RS) may signal a potential hereditary cancer risk. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of data from hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients who had undergone ODX and germline genetic testing. The chi-square test and Fisher exact test were used to examine univariable association between RS and germline mutation status. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to examine if there was an association of RS with germline mutation status. RESULTS: In univariable analysis, the association of RS with germline mutation status was significant (P < .0001). In the multivariable logistic regression model predicting germline mutation status, RS level remained significantly associated with germline mutation, in particular BRCA1 or BRCA2. The mean RS for those with non-BRCA1/2 germline mutations versus those without germline mutations was not significant (P = .38). CONCLUSION: High RS is associated with germline mutation status. Breast cancer patients with high RS are more likely to harbor a mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. If confirmed prospectively, oncologists may consider referring patients with high RS for genetic risk assessment and counseling to inform management plans, as well as counseling of family members.

3.
Cancer ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbance and genetic profile are risks for cognitive decline in noncancer populations, yet their role in cancer-related cognitive problems remains understudied. This study examined whether sleep disturbance was associated with worse neurocognitive outcomes in breast cancer survivors and whether sleep effects on cognition varied by genotype. METHODS: Newly diagnosed female patients (n = 319) who were 60 years old or older and had stage 0 to III breast cancer were recruited from August 2010 to December 2015. Assessments were performed before systemic therapy and 12 and 24 months later. Neuropsychological testing measured attention, processing speed, executive function, learning, and memory; self-perceived cognitive functioning was also assessed. Sleep disturbance was defined by self-report of routine poor or restless sleep. Genotyping included APOE, BDNF, and COMT polymorphisms. Random effects fluctuation models tested associations of between-person and within-person differences in sleep, genotype, and sleep-genotype interactions and cognition and controlled for age, reading level, race, site, and treatment. RESULTS: One-third of the patients reported sleep disturbances at each time point. There was a sleep-APOE ε4 interaction (P = .001) in which patients with the APOE ε4 allele and sleep disturbances had significantly lower learning and memory scores than those who were APOE ε4-negative and without sleep disturbances. There was also a sleep disturbance-COMT genotype interaction (P = .02) in which COMT Val carriers with sleep disturbances had lower perceived cognition than noncarriers. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep disturbance was common and was associated with worse cognitive performance in older breast cancer survivors, especially those with a genetic risk for cognitive decline. Survivorship care should include sleep assessments and interventions to address sleep problems.

4.
J Cancer Educ ; 2019 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402434

RESUMO

Cascade testing for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer is an important public health priority. Increasing attention has been paid to the relevance of testing for men within BRCA1/2-positive families given that such testing may provide important information about their cancer risks, particularly for prostate cancer, and risks to their offspring. However, men are much less likely to seek genetic counseling and testing than their at-risk female relatives. To facilitate access to pre-test information and testing, we developed a web-based intervention (WI) for men that we are evaluating in a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT). This paper describes three phases of research in the development of the WI: (1) formative (qualitative) research among men from BRCA1/2 families to assess needs and preferences for education; (2) a detailed description of the organization, format, and content of the WI; and (3) usability testing. We discuss the aims and hypotheses of the pilot RCT in which the WI is being compared with an enhanced usual care condition among at-risk men. We expect that the WI described here will foster informed decisions and lead to increased use of BRCA1/2 counseling and testing, potentially yielding improved cancer control outcomes for this understudied group, and for their at-risk relatives.

6.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1781-1796, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112363

RESUMO

BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs) confer elevated risks of multiple cancers. However, most BRCA1/2 PSVs reports focus on European ancestry individuals. Knowledge of the PSV distribution in African descent individuals is poorly understood. We undertook a systematic review of the published literature and publicly available databases reporting BRCA1/2 PSVs also accessed the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) database to identify African or African descent individuals. Using these data, we inferred which of the BRCA PSVs were likely to be of African continental origin. Of the 43,817 BRCA1/2 PSV carriers in the CIMBA database, 469 (1%) were of African descent. Additional African descent individuals were identified in public databases (n = 291) and the literature (n = 601). We identified 164 unique BRCA1 and 173 unique BRCA2 PSVs in individuals of African ancestry. Of these, 83 BRCA1 and 91 BRCA2 PSVs are of likely or possible African origin. We observed numerous differences in the distribution of PSV type and function in African origin versus non-African origin PSVs. Research in populations of African ancestry with BRCA1/2 PSVs is needed to provide the information needed for clinical management and decision-making in African descent individuals worldwide.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472317

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Symptoms affect quality of life (QOL), functional status, and cognitive function in cancer survivors, but older survivors are understudied. OBJECTIVES: To identify prototypical pre-systemic therapy psychoneurological symptom clusters among older breast cancer survivors, and determine whether these symptom clusters predicted cognition and QOL over time. METHODS: Women with newly diagnosed non-metastatic breast cancer (n=319) and matched non-cancer controls (n=347) aged 60+ completed questionnaires and neuropsychological tests before systemic therapy and 12- and 24-months later. Latent class analysis identified clusters of survivors based upon their pre-therapy depression, anxiety, fatigue, sleep disturbance, and pain. Linear mixed-effects models examined changes in objective cognition, perceived cognition, and functional status (instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability, functional well-being, and breast cancer-specific QOL) by group, controlling for covariates. RESULTS: Nearly one-fifth of older survivors were classified as having a high pre-therapy symptoms (n=51; 16%); the remainder had a low symptoms (n=268; 84%); both groups improved over time on all outcomes. However, compared to the low symptom group and controls, survivors with high symptoms had lower baseline objective cognition and lower perceived cognition at baseline and 24-months, lower functional well-being at baseline and 12-months, greater IADL disability at baseline, and lower breast cancer-specific QOL at all time points (all p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Nearly one-fifth of older breast cancer survivors had high psychoneurological symptoms at diagnosis, which, predict clinically meaningful decrements in perceived cognition and function in the first 24 months post-diagnosis. Pre-treatment psychoneurological symptom clusters could identify survivors for monitoring or intervention.

10.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 146, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is not well understood. Currently, dose reduction is the only recommendation for alleviating symptoms, often leading to premature treatment cessation. The primary aim of this analysis was to determine the association between components of diet during taxane treatment for breast cancer and change in CIPN symptoms over treatment. METHODS: Women with stage II or III invasive breast cancer were enrolled into an ancillary study to the North American Breast Cancer Intergroup phase III trial (S0221) led by the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG). Questionnaires including a food frequency questionnaire and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Treatment Gynecologic Oncology Group-Neurotoxicity were administered to assess diet and neuropathic conditions at baseline and during chemotherapy. Ordinal regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for associations between various food groups and change in neuropathy score (< 10%, 10-30%, > 30%) (n = 900). RESULTS: The odds of worse neuropathy decreased by 21% for each increase in tertile of grain consumption (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.66-0.94, p = 0.009). We also observed a nominal 19% increase with higher consumption of citrus fruits (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.40, p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Distinguishing between those who experienced a moderate and a severe change in neuropathy, we found that citrus fruit and grain consumption may play a role in the severity of symptoms. Since there are no existing dietary recommendations for the management of CIPN, further research is needed to investigate whether there may be certain foods that could worsen or alleviate neuropathy symptoms associated with treatment for breast cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03413761 . Registered retrospectively on 29 January 2018.

11.
Transl Behav Med ; 2018 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418620

RESUMO

Risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) and salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) are increasingly used to reduce breast and ovarian cancer risk following BRCA1/BRCA2 testing. However, little is known about how genetic counseling influences decisions about these surgeries. Although previous studies have examined intentions prior to counseling, few have examined RRM and RRSO intentions in the critical window between genetic counseling and test result disclosure. Previous research has indicated that intentions at this time point predict subsequent uptake of surgery, suggesting that much decision-making has taken place prior to result disclosure. This period may be a critical time to better understand the drivers of prophylactic surgery intentions. The aim of this study was to examine predictors of RRM and RRSO intentions. We hypothesized that variables from the Health Belief Model would predict intentions, and we also examined the role of affective factors. Participants were 187 women, age 21-75, who received genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. We utilized multiple logistic regression to identify independent predictors of intentions. 49.2% and 61.3% of participants reported intentions for RRM and RRSO, respectively. Variables associated with RRM intentions include: newly diagnosed with breast cancer (OR = 3.63, 95% CI = 1.20-11.04), perceived breast cancer risk (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.17-1.81), perceived pros (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.38-2.32) and cons of RRM (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.65-0.996), and decision conflict (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.66-0.98). Variables associated with RRSO intentions include: proband status (OR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.09-0.89), perceived pros (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.11-1.63) and cons of RRSO (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.59-0.89), and ambiguity aversion (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.65-0.95). These data provide support for the role of genetic counseling in fostering informed decisions about risk management, and suggest that the role of uncertainty should be explored further.

12.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1800140, 2018 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30281396

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine treatment and aging-related effects on longitudinal cognitive function in older breast cancer survivors. METHODS: Newly diagnosed nonmetastatic breast cancer survivors (n = 344) and matched controls without cancer (n = 347) 60 years of age and older without dementia or neurologic disease were recruited between August 2010 and December 2015. Data collection occurred during presystemic treatment/control enrollment and at 12 and 24 months through biospecimens; surveys; self-reported Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function; and neuropsychological tests that measured attention, processing speed, and executive function (APE) and learning and memory (LM). Linear mixed-effects models tested two-way interactions of treatment group (control, chemotherapy with or without hormonal therapy, and hormonal therapy) and time and explored three-way interactions of ApoE (ε4+ v not) by group by time; covariates included baseline age, frailty, race, and cognitive reserve. RESULTS: Survivors and controls were 60 to 98 years of age, were well educated, and had similar baseline cognitive scores. Treatment was related to longitudinal cognition scores, with survivors who received chemotherapy having increasingly worse APE scores ( P = .05) and those initiating hormonal therapy having lower LM scores at 12 months ( P = .03) than other groups. These group-by-time differences varied by ApoE genotype, where only ε4+ survivors receiving hormone therapy had short-term decreases in adjusted LM scores (three-way interaction P = .03). For APE, the three-way interaction was not significant ( P = .14), but scores were significantly lower for ε4+ survivors exposed to chemotherapy (-0.40; 95% CI, -0.79 to -0.01) at 24 months than ε4+ controls (0.01; 95% CI, 0.16 to 0.18; P < .05). Increasing age was associated with lower baseline scores on all cognitive measures ( P < .001); frailty was associated with baseline APE and self-reported decline ( P < .001). CONCLUSION: Breast cancer systemic treatment and aging-related phenotypes and genotypes are associated with longitudinal decreases in cognitive function scores in older survivors. These data could inform treatment decision making and survivorship care planning.

13.
JCO Precis Oncol ; 20182018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30234181

RESUMO

Purpose: The prevalence of homologous recombination DNA damage repair (HR-DDR) deficiencies among all tumor lineages is not well characterized. Therapy directed toward homologous recombination DDR deficiency (HRD) is now approved in ovarian and breast cancer, and there may be additional opportunities for benefit for patients with other cancers. Comprehensive evaluations for HRD are limited in part by the lack of a uniform, cost-effective method for testing and defining HRD. Methods: Molecular profiles of 52,426 tumors were reviewed to identify pathogenic mutations in the HR-DDR genes ARID1A, ATM, ATRX, BAP1, BARD1, BLM, BRCA1/2, BRIP1, CHEK1/2, FANCA/C/D2/E/F/G/L, MRE11A, NBN, PALB2, RAD50, RAD51, RAD51B, or WRN. From solid tumors submitted to Caris Life Sciences, molecular profiles were generated using next-generation sequencing (NGS; average read depth, 500×). A total of 17,566 tumors were sequenced with NGS600 (n = 592 genes), and 34,860 tumors underwent hotspot Illumina MiSeq platform testing (n = 47 genes). Results: Of the tumors that underwent NGS600 testing, the overall frequency of HRDDR mutations detected was 17.4%, and the most commonly mutated lineages were endometrial (34.4%; n = 1,475), biliary tract (28.9%; n = 343), bladder (23.9%; n = 201), hepatocellular (20.9%; n = 115), gastroesophageal (20.8%; n = 619), and ovarian (20.0%; n = 2,489). Least commonly mutated lineages included GI stromal (3.7%; n = 108), head and neck (6.8%; n = 206), and sarcoma (9.3%; n = 592). ARID1A was the most commonly mutated gene (7.2%), followed by BRCA2 (3.0%), BRCA1 (2.8%), ATM (1.3%), ATRX (1.3%), and CHEK2 (1.3%). Conclusions: HR-DDR mutations were seen in 17.4% of tumors across 21 cancer lineages, providing a path to explore the role of HRD-directed therapies, including poly-ADP ribose polymerase inhibitors, DNA-damaging chemotherapies, and newer agents such as ATR inhibitors.

14.
J Health Commun ; 23(7): 679-686, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30130477

RESUMO

Thousands of women with early-stage breast cancer receive gene-expression profile (GEP) tests to guide chemotherapy decisions. However, many patients report a poor understanding of how their test results inform treatment decision-making. We applied models of patient-centered communication and informed decision-making to assess which variables oncologists' perceive as most influential to effective communication with their patients about GEP results and intervention modalities and approaches that could support more effective conversations about treatment decisions in routine clinical care. Medical oncologists who were part of a practice group in the mid-Atlantic US completed an online, cross-sectional survey in 2016. These data were merged with de-identified electronic patient and practice data. Of the 83 oncologists contacted, 29 completed the survey (35% response rate, representing 52% of the test-eligible patients in the practice network). There were no significant differences between survey responders and nonresponders. Oncologists reported patient-related variables as most influential, including performance status (65.5%), pretesting preferences for chemotherapy (55.2%), and comprehension of complex test results (55.2%). Oncologists endorsed their experience with testing (58.6%) and their own confidence in using the test results (48.3%) as influential as well. They indicated that a clinical decision support tool incorporating patient comorbidities, age, and potential benefits from chemotherapy would support their own practice and that they could share these results and other means of communication support using print materials (79.3%) with their patients in clinic (72.4%). These preferred intervention characteristics could be integrated into routine care, ultimately facilitating more effective communication about genomic testing (such as GEP) and its role in treatment selection.

15.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 4: 26, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131975

RESUMO

Advances in the surgical management of the axilla in patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, especially those with node positive disease at diagnosis, have led to changes in practice and more judicious use of axillary lymph node dissection that may minimize morbidity from surgery. However, there is still significant confusion about how to optimally manage the axilla, resulting in variation among practices. From the viewpoint of drug development, assessment of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy remains paramount and appropriate assessment of residual disease-the primary endpoint of many drug therapy trials in the neoadjuvant setting-is critical. Therefore decreasing the variability, especially in a multicenter clinical trial setting, and establishing a minimum standard to ensure consistency in clinical trial data, without mandating axillary lymph node dissection, for all patients is necessary. The key elements which include proper staging and identification of nodal involvement at diagnosis, and appropriately targeted management of the axilla at the time of surgical resection are presented. The following protocols have been adopted as standard procedure by the I-SPY2 trial for management of axilla in patients with node positive disease, and present a framework for prospective clinical trials and practice.

17.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 10: 190-192, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30009277

RESUMO

Palbociclib has been shown to be a highly effective therapy in hormone receptor positive metastatic breast cancer when used in combination with letrozole or fulvestrant. Grade 3/4 neutropenia is a common side effect although febrile neutropenia is relatively uncommon. Insufficient data exist to describe the hematological safety of palbociclib in African American women (AAW) known to have a high incidence of benign ethnic neutropenia (BEN). PALOMA 1, 2 and 3, the initial phase II/III studies that led to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of palbociclib in metastatic breast cancer, only included participants with baseline absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of 1500/mm3 or higher. African American women (AAW) were underrepresented in the PALOMA trials and this may be partially explained by strict requirements for minimal ANC ≥1500/mm3. The ANC of 1500/mm3 for initiation of treatment in those with BEN has been previously challenged. In this study, we propose to lower the ANC cutoff for enrollment to 1000/mm3. PALINA (NCT02692755) is a phase II, single arm, multicenter clinical trial that will enroll 35 patients. The primary endpoint is to assess the proportion of patients who complete therapy without the development of febrile neutropenia or treatment discontinuation due to neutropenia. The secondary endpoints include number of patients who required dose delays or dose reductions in palbociclib attributed to neutropenia, rate of grade 3/4 neutropenia, clinical benefit rate at 24 weeks, the association between metabolite and exosomal signature with disease response and the association between baseline ANC prior to cancer diagnosis and the Duffy Null polymorphism (SNP rs2814778) with hematological safety. PALINA will provide important information about the hematologic safety of palbociclib in AAW with advanced breast cancer.

18.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 170(3): 517-524, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29611029

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Breast cancer patients who carry BRCA1/BRCA2 gene mutations may consider bilateral mastectomy. Having bilateral mastectomy at the time of diagnosis not only reduces risk of a contralateral breast cancer, but can eliminate the need for radiation therapy and yield improved reconstruction options. However, most patients do not receive genetic counseling or testing at the time of their diagnosis. In this trial, we tested proactive rapid genetic counseling and testing (RGCT) in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients in order to facilitate pre-surgical genetic counseling and testing. METHODS: We recruited newly diagnosed breast cancer patients at increased risk for carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation. Of 379 eligible patients who completed a baseline survey, 330 agreed to randomization in a 2:1 ratio to RGCT (n = 220) versus UC (n = 108). Primary outcomes were genetic counseling and testing uptake and breast cancer surgical decisions. RESULTS: RGCT led to higher overall (83.8% vs. 54.6%; p < 0.0001) and pre-surgical (57.8% vs. 38.7%; p = 0.001) genetic counseling uptake compared to UC. Despite higher rates of genetic counseling, RGCT did not differ from UC in overall (54.1% vs. 49.1%, p > 0.10) or pre-surgical (30.6% vs. 27.4%, p > 0.10) receipt of genetic test results nor did they differ in uptake of bilateral mastectomy (26.6% vs. 21.8%, p > 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Although RGCT yielded increased genetic counseling participation, this did not result in increased rates of pre-surgical genetic testing or impact surgical decisions. These data suggest that those patients most likely to opt for genetic testing at the time of diagnosis are being effectively identified by their surgeons.

20.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0192106, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29432428

RESUMO

Placental-specific protein 1 (PLAC1) is an X-linked trophoblast gene that is re-expressed in several malignancies, including breast cancer, and is therefore a potential biomarker to follow disease onset and progression. Sera from 117 preoperative/pretreatment breast cancer patients and 51 control subjects, including those with fibrocystic disease, were analyzed for the presence of PLAC1 protein as well as its expression by IHC in tumor biopsies in a subset of subjects. Serum PLAC1 levels exceeded the mean plus one standard deviation (mean+SD) of the level in control subjects in 67% of subjects with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), 67% with HER2+ tumors, 73% with triple-negative cancer and 73% with ER+/PR+ tumors. Greater sensitivity was achieved using the mean+2 SD of control PLAC1 serum values, where the false positive rate was 3% and was exceeded by 38%, 40%, 60% and 43% of subjects with DCIS, HER2+, TNBC and ER+/PR+/HER2- tumors. PLAC1 was detected in 97% of tumor biopsies, but did not correlate quantitatively with serum levels. There was no significant correlation of serum PLAC1 levels with race, age at diagnosis, body mass index (BMI) or the presence of metastatic disease. It remains to be determined whether PLAC1 serum levels can serve as a diagnostic biomarker for the presence or recurrence of disease post-surgery and/or therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Proteínas da Gravidez/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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