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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400034

RESUMO

PURPOSE: HER2-targeted therapies are associated with cardiotoxicity which is usually asymptomatic and reversible. We report the updated cardiac safety assessment of patients with compromised heart function receiving HER2-targeted therapy for breast cancer, enrolled in the SAFE-HEaRt trial, at a median follow-up of 3.5 years. METHODS: Thirty patients with stage I-IV HER2-positive breast cancer receiving trastuzumab with or without pertuzumab, or ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), with asymptomatic LVEF (left ventricular ejection fraction) 40-49%, were started on cardioprotective medications, with the primary endpoint being completion of HER2-targeted therapy without cardiac events (CE) or protocol-defined asymptomatic worsening of LVEF. IRB-approved follow-up assessment included 23 patients. RESULTS: Median follow-up as of June 2020 is 42 months. The study met its primary endpoint with 27 patients (90%) completing their HER2-targeted therapies without cardiac issues. Of the 23 evaluable patients at long-term f/u, 14 had early stage breast cancer, and 9 had metastatic disease, 8 of whom remained on HER2-targeted therapies. One patient developed symptomatic heart failure with no change in LVEF. There were no cardiac deaths. The mean LVEF improved to 52.1% from 44.9% at study baseline, including patients who remained on HER2-targeted therapy, and those who received prior anthracyclines. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term follow-up of the SAFE-HEaRt study continues to provide safety data of HER2-targeted therapy use in patients with compromised heart function. The late development of cardiac dysfunction is uncommon and continued multi-disciplinary oncologic and cardiac care of patients is vital for improved patient outcomes.

2.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 18(11): 1510-1517, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastatic staging imaging is not recommended for asymptomatic patients with stage I-II breast cancer. Greater distant metastatic disease risk may warrant baseline imaging in patients with stage II-III with high-risk biologic subtypes. NCCN Guidelines recommend considering CT of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis (CT CAP) and bone scan in appropriate patients. CT CAP and bone scan are considered standard of care (SoC), although PET/CT is a patient-centered alternative. METHODS: Data were available for 799 high-risk patients with clinical stage II-III disease who initiated screening for the I-SPY2 trial at 4 institutions. A total of 564 complete records were reviewed to compare PET/CT versus SoC. Costs were determined from the payer perspective using the national 2018 Medicare Physician Fee Schedule and representative reimbursements to the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) measured cost of using PET/CT per percent of patients who avoided a false-positive (FP). RESULTS: The de novo metastatic disease rate was 4.6%. Imaging varied across the 4 institutions (P<.0001). The FP rate was higher using SoC versus PET/CT (22.1% vs 11.1%; P=.0009). Mean time between incidental finding on baseline imaging to FP determination was 10.8 days. Mean time from diagnosis to chemotherapy initiation was 44.3 days with SoC versus 37.5 days with PET/CT (P=.0001). Mean cost per patient was $1,132 (SoC) versus $1,477 (PET/CT) using the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule, with an ICER of $31. Using representative reimbursements to UCSF, mean cost per patient was $1,236 (SoC) versus $1,073 (PET/CT) for Medicare, and $3,083 (SoC) versus $1,656 (PET/CT) for a private payer, with ICERs of -$15 and -$130, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable variation exists in metastatic staging practices. PET/CT reduced FP risk by half and decreased workup of incidental findings, allowing for earlier treatment start. PET/CT may be cost-effective, and at one institution was shown to be cost-saving. Better alignment is needed between hospital pricing strategies and payer coverage policies to deliver high-value care.

3.
J Genet Couns ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010199

RESUMO

Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) is a risk management approach with strong evidence of mortality reduction for women with germline mutations in the tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2). Few studies to date have evaluated uptake of BSO in women from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds who carry BRCA1/2 mutations. The objective of the UPTAKE study was to explore rates and predictors of risk-reducing BSO among Latinas affected and unaffected with breast cancer who had a deleterious BRCA1/2 mutation. We recruited 100 Latina women with deleterious BRCA1/2 mutations from community hospitals, academic health systems, community, and advocacy organizations. Women completed interviews in Spanish or English. We obtained copies of genetic test reports for participants who provided signed medical release. After performing threefold cross-validation LASSO for variable selection, we used multiple logistic regression to identify demographic and clinical predictors of BSO. Among 100 participants, 68 had undergone BSO at the time of interview. Of these 68, 35 were US-born (61% of all US-born participants) and 33 were not (77% of the non-US-born participants). Among Latinas with BRCA1/2 mutations, older age (p = 0.004), personal history of breast cancer (p = 0.003), higher income (p = 0.002), and not having a full-time job (p = 0.027) were identified as variables significantly associated with uptake of BSO. Results suggest a high rate of uptake of risk-reducing BSO among a sample of Latinas with BRCA1/2 mutations living in the US. We document factors associated with BSO uptake in a diverse sample of women. Relevant to genetic counseling, our findings identify possible targets for supporting Latinas' decision-making about BSO following receipt of a positive BRCA1/2 test.

4.
Patient Educ Couns ; 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900604

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Women with early-stage, ER + breast cancer are recommend to receive genomic profiling tests, such as the 21-gene Recurrence Score (RS) test, to guide treatment decisions. We examined test- and treatment-related information discussed and the associations between RS categories and aspects of communication during patient-oncologist clinical encounters. METHODS: As part of a larger trial, clinical encounters (N = 46) were audiorecorded and coded for 1) RS- and treatment-related information, 2) shared decision making, 3) patient active participation, and 4) oncologist patient-centered communication. We examined differences by RS category using mixed models, adjusting for nesting within oncologist. RESULTS: Patients with a high RS were more likely to receive a chemotherapy recommendation (p < .01), hear about the risks/side effects of chemotherapy (p < .01), and offer their preferences (p = .02) than those with intermediate or low RS. Elements of shared decision making increased with RS. Oncologist patient-centered communication (M = 4.09/5, SD = .25) and patient active participation (M = 3.5/4, SD = 1.0) were high across RS. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that disease severity, rather than clinical uncertainty, impact treatment recommendations and shared decision making. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Oncologists adjust test- and treatment-related information and shared decision making by disease severity. This information provides a framework to inform decision making in complex cancer and genomics settings.

5.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1475, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983983

RESUMO

Background: PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is activated in breast cancer and associated with cell survival. We explored the prevalence of PI3K pathway alterations and co-expression with other markers in breast cancer subtypes. Methods: Samples of non-matched primary and metastatic breast cancer submitted to a CLIA-certified genomics laboratory were molecularly profiled to identify pathogenic or presumed pathogenic mutations in the PIK3CA-AKT1-PTEN pathway using next generation sequencing. Cases with loss of PTEN by IHC were also included. The frequency of co-alterations was examined, including DNA damage response pathways and markers of response to immuno-oncology agents. Results: Of 4,895 tumors profiled, 3,558 (72.7%) had at least one alteration in the PIK3CA-AKT1-PTEN pathway: 1,472 (30.1%) harbored a PIK3CA mutation, 174 (3.6%) an AKT1 mutation, 2,682 (54.8%) had PTEN alterations (PTEN mutation in 7.0% and/or PTEN loss by IHC in 51.4% of cases), 81 (1.7%) harbored a PIK3R1 mutation, and 4 (0.08%) a PIK3R2 mutation. Most of the cohort consisted of metastatic sites (n = 2974, 60.8%), with PIK3CA mutation frequency increased in metastatic (32.1%) compared to primary sites (26.9%), p < 0.001. Other PIK3CA mutations were identified in 388 (7.9%) specimens, classified as "off-label," as they were not included in the FDA-approved companion test for PIK3CA mutations. Notable co-alterations included increased PD-L1 expression and high tumor mutational burden in PIK3CA-AKT1-PTEN mutated cohorts. Novel concurrent mutations were identified including CDH1 mutations. Conclusions: Findings from this cohort support further exploration of the clinical benefit of PI3K inhibitors for "off-label" PIK3CA mutations and combination strategies with potential clinical benefit for patients with breast cancer.

6.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 184(2): 265-275, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776290

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Homologous recombination (HR)-deficient breast tumors may have genomic alterations that predict response to treatment with PARP inhibitors and other targeted therapies. METHODS: Comprehensive molecular profiles of 4647 breast tumors performed at Caris Life Sciences using 592-gene NGS were reviewed to identify somatic pathogenic mutations in HR genes ARID1A, ATM, ATRX, BAP1, BARD1, BLM, BRCA1/2, BRIP1, CHEK1/2, FANCA/C/D2/E/F/G/L, KMT2D, MRE11, NBN, PALB2, RAD50/51/51B, and WRN, as well as 41 markers that may be associated with treatment response to targeted anticancer therapies. RESULTS: 17.9% of breast tumors had HR mutations (HR-MT, 831/4647) [ER/PR+ , HER2- 18.3%, n = 2183; TNBC 18.2%, n = 1568; ER/PR+ , HER2+ 15.6%, n = 237; ER/PR-, HER2+ 12.9%, n = 217; unknown n = 442]. Mean TMB was higher for HR-MT tumors across subtypes (9.2 mut/Mb vs 7.6 h-wild type (HR-WT), p ≤ 0.0001) and independent of microsatellite status. MSI-H/dMMR was more frequent among HR-MT tumors (2.1% HR-MT vs 0.2% HR-WT, p ≤ 0.0001), as was tumor PD-L1 overexpression (13.2% HR-MT vs 11.0% HR-WT, p = 0.08). Additional co-alterations were similar between HR-MT and HR-WT, with the exception of PIK3CA (30.3% HR-WT vs 26.4% HR-MT, p = 0.024) and AKT1 (3.7% HR-WT vs 2.1% HR-MT, p = 0.021). AR overexpression and PIK3CA mutations were more common among ER/PR+ tumors. ERBB2 mutations were seen in both HER2+ and HER2- tumors. CONCLUSIONS: HR-MT was common across breast cancer subtypes and co-occurred more frequently with markers of response to immunotherapy (MSI-H/dMMR, TMB) compared to HR-WT tumors. Mutations were identified in both HR-MT and HR-WT tumors that suggest other targets for treatment. Clinical trials combining HRD-targeted agents and immunotherapy are underway and could be enriched through comprehensive molecular profiling.

7.
Breast J ; 26(8): 1520-1527, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652823

RESUMO

Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes markedly increase the risk of breast cancer and other cancers such as ovarian/fallopian tube, pancreatic, prostate, and melanoma. Patients with BRCA1 mutations have a slightly higher lifetime risk of breast cancer than BRCA2 mutation carriers, and both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers tend to develop breast cancer at an earlier age than the general population. In this review, we will discuss management recommendations to reduce breast cancer risk for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers including special populations of carriers such as pregnant or lactating patients and men. Breast cancer screening, including clinical breast examination, mammogram, and breast MRI, is important for detecting breast cancer at an early and likely curable stage. In addition to screening, counseling on risk-reducing surgeries is strongly recommended for BRCA1/2 carriers. Risk-reducing mastectomy decreases the risk of breast cancer development, and risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy decreases ovarian cancer-specific as well as overall mortality, but controversy exists regarding its impact on breast cancer-specific mortality. Given the effectiveness of screening for breast cancer, further management should be carried out on an individual basis taking into account quality of life and psychosocial factors, and recommendations should be readdressed periodically as science progresses and patients' goals may change.

8.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(8): 1218-1230, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614418

RESUMO

Importance: The limited data on cancer phenotypes in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) have hampered the development of evidence-based recommendations for early cancer detection and risk reduction in this population. Objective: To compare the cancer spectrum and frequencies between male BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 6902 men, including 3651 BRCA1 and 3251 BRCA2 PV carriers, older than 18 years recruited from cancer genetics clinics from 1966 to 2017 by 53 study groups in 33 countries worldwide collaborating through the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Clinical data and pathologic characteristics were collected. Main Outcomes and Measures: BRCA1/2 status was the outcome in a logistic regression, and cancer diagnoses were the independent predictors. All odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, country of origin, and calendar year of the first interview. Results: Among the 6902 men in the study (median [range] age, 51.6 [18-100] years), 1634 cancers were diagnosed in 1376 men (19.9%), the majority (922 of 1,376 [67%]) being BRCA2 PV carriers. Being affected by any cancer was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2, rather than a BRCA1, PV carrier (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.81-3.70; P < .001), as well as developing 2 (OR, 7.97; 95% CI, 5.47-11.60; P < .001) and 3 (OR, 19.60; 95% CI, 4.64-82.89; P < .001) primary tumors. A higher frequency of breast (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 4.06-7.37; P < .001) and prostate (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P = .008) cancers was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Among cancers other than breast and prostate, pancreatic cancer was associated with a higher probability (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.55-5.81; P = .001) and colorectal cancer with a lower probability (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.78; P = .003) of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Conclusions and Relevance: Significant differences in the cancer spectrum were observed in male BRCA2, compared with BRCA1, PV carriers. These data may inform future recommendations for surveillance of BRCA1/2-associated cancers and guide future prospective studies for estimating cancer risks in men with BRCA1/2 PVs.

9.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(9): 1355-1362, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701140

RESUMO

Importance: Pathologic complete response (pCR) is a known prognostic biomarker for long-term outcomes. The I-SPY2 trial evaluated if the strength of this clinical association persists in the context of a phase 2 neoadjuvant platform trial. Objective: To evaluate the association of pCR with event-free survival (EFS) and pCR with distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS) in subpopulations of women with high-risk operable breast cancer treated with standard therapy or one of several novel agents. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter platform trial of women with operable clinical stage 2 or 3 breast cancer with no prior surgery or systemic therapy for breast cancer; primary tumors were 2.5 cm or larger. Women with tumors that were ERBB2 negative/hormone receptor (HR) positive with low 70-gene assay score were excluded. Participants were adaptively randomized to one of several different investigational regimens or control therapy within molecular subtypes from March 2010 through 2016. The analysis included participants with follow-up data available as of February 26, 2019. Interventions: Standard-of-care neoadjuvant therapy consisting of taxane treatment with or without (as control) one of several investigational agents or combinations followed by doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. Main Outcomes and Measures: Pathologic complete response and 3-year EFS and DRFS. Results: Of the 950 participants (median [range] age, 49 [23-77] years), 330 (34.7%) achieved pCR. Three-year EFS and DRFS for patients who achieved pCR were both 95%. Hazard ratios for pCR vs non-pCR were 0.19 for EFS (95% CI, 0.12-0.31) and 0.21 for DRFS (95% CI, 0.13-0.34) and were similar across molecular subtypes, varying from 0.14 to 0.18 for EFS and 0.10 to 0.20 for DRFS. Conclusions and Relevance: The 3-year outcomes from the I-SPY2 trial show that, regardless of subtype and/or treatment regimen, including 9 novel therapeutic combinations, achieving pCR after neoadjuvant therapy implies approximately an 80% reduction in recurrence rate. The goal of the I-SPY2 trial is to rapidly identify investigational therapies that may improve pCR when validated in a phase 3 confirmatory trial. Whether pCR is a validated surrogate in the sense that a therapy that improves pCR rate can be assumed to also improve long-term outcome requires further study. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01042379.

10.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(9): 1410-1415, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644110

RESUMO

Importance: A significant proportion of patients with early-stage triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Sequencing of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) after surgery, along with enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), may be used to detect minimal residual disease and assess which patients may experience disease recurrence. Objective: To determine whether the presence of ctDNA and CTCs after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early-stage TNBC is independently associated with recurrence and clinical outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: A preplanned secondary analysis was conducted from March 26, 2014, to December 18, 2018, using data from 196 female patients in BRE12-158, a phase 2 multicenter randomized clinical trial that randomized patients with early-stage TNBC who had residual disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy to receive postneoadjuvant genomically directed therapy vs treatment of physician choice. Patients had blood samples collected for ctDNA and CTCs at time of treatment assignment; ctDNA analysis with survival was performed for 142 patients, and CTC analysis with survival was performed for 123 patients. Median clinical follow-up was 17.2 months (range, 0.3-58.3 months). Interventions: Circulating tumor DNA was sequenced using the FoundationACT or FoundationOneLiquid Assay, and CTCs were enumerated using an epithelial cell adhesion molecule-based, positive-selection microfluidic device. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were distant disease-free survival (DDFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: Among 196 female patients (mean [SD] age, 49.6 [11.1] years), detection of ctDNA was significantly associated with inferior DDFS (median DDFS, 32.5 months vs not reached; hazard ratio [HR], 2.99; 95% CI, 1.38-6.48; P = .006). At 24 months, DDFS probability was 56% for ctDNA-positive patients compared with 81% for ctDNA-negative patients. Detection of ctDNA was similarly associated with inferior DFS (HR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.28-5.57; P = .009) and inferior OS (HR, 4.16; 95% CI,1.66-10.42; P = .002). The combination of ctDNA and CTCs provided additional information for increased sensitivity and discriminatory capacity. Patients who were ctDNA positive and CTC positive had significantly inferior DDFS compared with those who were ctDNA negative and CTC negative (median DDFS, 32.5 months vs not reached; HR, 5.29; 95% CI, 1.50-18.62; P = .009). At 24 months, DDFS probability was 52% for patients who were ctDNA positive and CTC positive compared with 89% for those who were ctDNA negative and CTC negative. Similar trends were observed for DFS (HR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.07-9.27; P = .04) and OS (HR, 8.60; 95% CI, 1.78-41.47; P = .007). Conclusions and Relevance: In this preplanned secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial, detection of ctDNA and CTCs in patients with early-stage TNBC after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was independently associated with disease recurrence, which represents an important stratification factor for future postneoadjuvant trials. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02101385.

11.
J Cardiovasc Transl Res ; 13(3): 478-489, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458402

RESUMO

We investigated time trends and factors associated with the use of cardiac imaging among women with early-stage breast cancer prior to the initiation of treatment. Of 11,732 women ages 24-64, diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer in 2006-2011, 2550 (22%) received anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Baseline cardiac imaging was used in 79% of patients receiving anthracyclines and increased over time. Of 2277 (20%) women who received non-anthracycline therapy, 16% received cardiac imaging. Women receiving cardiac imaging in non-anthracycline therapy group were more likely to have higher cardiovascular risk, as well as higher cancer stage and worse histological tumor grade suggesting that results of imaging might have influenced the choice of cancer therapy. Our findings indicate the need for cardio-oncology collaboration in identification and treatment of women at high risk for adverse oncology and cardiovascular outcomes.


Assuntos
Antraciclinas/efeitos adversos , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Cardiotoxicidade , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Cardiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 16(10): e1085-e1097, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463763

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The 21-gene recurrence score (RS) assay is used to guide breast cancer treatment decisions but can be poorly understood by patients. We examined the effects of a question prompt list (QPL) on knowledge, distress, and decisional conflict related to genomic testing and treatment in early-stage breast cancer. METHODS: We describe the feasibility and acceptability of the QPL and the impact of the QPL on knowledge, distress, and decisional conflict before and after the receipt of the QPL (MEND 2, N = 65). We also compared distress and decisional conflict between women who received the QPL (MEND 2, N = 65) and a comparable group of women who did not receive the QPL who participated in an earlier observational study within the same clinics (MEND 1, N = 136). RESULTS: MEND 2 participants indicated high acceptability and feasibility using the QPL. Knowledge increased post-QPL (P < .01) but did not decrease distress. Decisional conflict was lower among women in MEND 2 compared with those in MEND 1 (P < .01), with no statistically significant differences in distress. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that the QPL is feasible, acceptable, can improve knowledge and decrease decisional conflict in the large group of women deciding treatment while integrating RS test results.

13.
J Surg Oncol ; 122(2): 134-143, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Many newly diagnosed breast cancer patients do not receive genetic counseling and testing at the time of diagnosis. We examined predictors of genetic testing (GT) in this population. METHODS: Within a randomized controlled trial of proactive rapid genetic counseling and testing vs usual care, patients completed a baseline survey within 6 weeks of breast cancer diagnosis but before a definitive survey. We conducted a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of GT timing/uptake. RESULTS: Having discussed GT with a surgeon was a dominant predictor (χ2 (2, N = 320) = 70.13; P < .0001). Among those who discussed GT with a surgeon, patients who had made a final surgery decision were less likely to receive GT before surgery compared with postsurgically (OR [odds ratio] = 0.24; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.12-0.49) or no testing (OR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.14-0.56). Older patients (OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.91-0.99) and participants enrolled in New York/New Jersey (OR = 0.22; 95% CI = 0.07-0.72) were less likely to be tested compared with receiving results before surgery. Those with higher perceived risk (OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 1.00-1.03) were more likely to receive results before surgery than to not be tested. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the role of patient-physician communication about GT as well as patient-level factors that predict presurgical GT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Mid-Atlantic Region/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(18): 2080-2106, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243226

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop recommendations for management of patients with breast cancer (BC) with germline mutations in BC susceptibility genes. METHODS: The American Society of Clinical Oncology, American Society for Radiation Oncology, and Society of Surgical Oncology convened an Expert Panel to develop recommendations based on a systematic review of the literature and a formal consensus process. RESULTS: Fifty-eight articles met eligibility criteria and formed the evidentiary basis for the local therapy recommendations; six randomized controlled trials of systemic therapy met eligibility criteria. RECOMMENDATIONS: Patients with newly diagnosed BC and BRCA1/2 mutations may be considered for breast-conserving therapy (BCT), with local control of the index cancer similar to that of noncarriers. The significant risk of a contralateral BC (CBC), especially in young women, and the higher risk of new cancers in the ipsilateral breast warrant discussion of bilateral mastectomy. Patients with mutations in moderate-risk genes should be offered BCT. For women with mutations in BRCA1/2 or moderate-penetrance genes who are eligible for mastectomy, nipple-sparing mastectomy is a reasonable approach. There is no evidence of increased toxicity or CBC events from radiation exposure in BRCA1/2 carriers. Radiation therapy should not be withheld in ATM carriers. For patients with germline TP53 mutations, mastectomy is advised; radiation therapy is contraindicated except in those with significant risk of locoregional recurrence. Platinum agents are recommended versus taxanes to treat advanced BC in BRCA carriers. In the adjuvant/neoadjuvant setting, data do not support the routine addition of platinum to anthracycline- and taxane-based chemotherapy. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (olaparib and talazoparib) are preferable to nonplatinum single-agent chemotherapy for treatment of advanced BC in BRCA1/2 carriers. Data are insufficient to recommend PARP inhibitor use in the early setting or in moderate-penetrance carriers. Additional information available at www.asco.org/breast-cancer-guidelines.

15.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although physical activity has been consistently associated with reduced breast cancer mortality, evidence is largely based upon data collected at one occasion. We examined how pre- and post-diagnosis physical activity was associated with survival outcomes in high-risk breast cancer patients. METHODS: Included were 1,340 patients enrolled in the DELCaP Study, a prospective study of lifestyle and prognosis ancillary to a SWOG clinical trial (S0221). Activity before diagnosis, during treatment, and at one-and two-year intervals after enrollment were collected. Patients were categorized according to the Physical Activity Guidelines as meeting the minimum Guidelines (yes/no) and incrementally as inactive, low-active, moderately active (meeting the Guidelines), or high-active. RESULTS: In joint-exposure analyses, patients meeting the Guidelines before and one-year after diagnosis experienced statistically significant reductions in hazards of recurrence (HR=0.59, 95% CI: 0.42-0.82) and mortality (HR=0.51, 95% CI: 0.34-0.77); associations were stronger at two-year follow-up for recurrence (HR=0.45, 95% CI: 0.31-0.65) and mortality (HR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.19-0.52). In time-dependent analyses, factoring in activity from all time points, we observed striking associations with mortality for low- (HR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.24-0.68), moderate- (HR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.23-0.76), and high-active patients (HR=0.31, 95% CI: 0.18-0.53). CONCLUSIONS: Meeting the minimum Guidelines for physical activity both before diagnosis and after treatment appears to be associated with statistically significantly reduced hazards of recurrence and mortality among breast cancer patients. When considering activity from all time points, including during treatment, lower volumes of regular activity were associated with similar overall survival advantages as meeting and exceeding the Guidelines.

16.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(10): 1059-1069, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031889

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin is a key pathway of survival and therapeutic resistance in breast cancer. We evaluated the pan-Akt inhibitor MK-2206 in combination with standard therapy in patients with high-risk early-stage breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: I-SPY 2 is a multicenter, phase II, open-label, adaptively randomized neoadjuvant platform trial that screens experimental therapies and efficiently identifies potential predictive biomarker signatures. Patients are categorized by human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), hormone receptor (HR), and MammaPrint statuses in a 2 × 2 × 2 layout. Patients within each of these 8 biomarker subtypes are adaptively randomly assigned to one of several experimental therapies, including MK-2206, or control. Therapies are evaluated for 10 biomarker signatures, each of which is a combination of these subtypes. The primary end point is pathologic complete response (pCR). A therapy graduates with one or more of these signatures if and when it has an 85% Bayesian predictive probability of success in a hypothetical phase III trial, adjusting for biomarker covariates. Patients in the current report received standard taxane- and anthracycline-based neoadjuvant therapy without (control) or with oral MK-2206 135 mg/week. RESULTS: MK-2206 graduated with 94 patients and 57 concurrently randomly assigned controls in 3 graduation signatures: HR-negative/HER2-positive, HR-negative, and HER2-positive. Respective Bayesian mean covariate-adjusted pCR rates and percentage probability that MK-2206 is superior to control were 0.48:0.29 (97%), 0.62:0.36 (99%), and 0.46:0.26 (94%). In exploratory analyses, MK-2206 evinced a numerical improvement in event-free survival in its graduating signatures. The most significant grade 3-4 toxicity was rash (14% maculopapular, 8.6% acneiform). CONCLUSION: The Akt inhibitor MK-2206 combined with standard neoadjuvant therapy resulted in higher estimated pCR rates in HR-negative and HER2-positive breast cancer. Although MK-2206 is not being further developed at this time, this class of agents remains of clinical interest.

17.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(14): 1539-1548, 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097092

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Platinum compounds have activity in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) in germline BRCA mutation carriers (BRCA carriers). Limited data exist for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (+) breast cancer among BRCA carriers. INFORM is a randomized, multicenter, phase II trial comparing pathologic complete response (pCR) rates (ypT0/is, N0) after neoadjuvant single-agent cisplatin (CDDP) versus doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide (AC) in BRCA carriers with stage I-III human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer. Secondary objectives included residual cancer burden scores (RCB) of 0 or 1 (combined) and toxicity. The goal was to determine whether pCR was ≥ 20% higher with CDDP than AC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: BRCA carriers with cT1-3 (≥ 1.5 cm), cN0-3 HER2-negative breast cancer were randomly assigned to preoperative CDDP (75 mg/m2 every 3 weeks × 4 doses) or AC (doxorubicin 60 mg/m2; cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 every 2-3 weeks × 4 doses) followed by surgery. Pathologic responses were confirmed by central review. RESULTS: A total of 118 patients were randomly assigned; 117 were included in outcome analyses. Mean age was 42 years (range, 24-73 years); 69% were BRCA1+, 30% were BRCA2+, and 2% had both mutations. Clinical stage was I for 19%, II for 63%, and III for 18%; 45% had nodal involvement at baseline. Seventy percent had TNBC. Clinical and tumor characteristics were well matched between treatment arms. The pCR rate was 18% with CDDP and 26% with AC, yielding a risk ratio (RR) of 0.70 (90% CI, 0.39 to 1.2). The risk of RCB 0 or 1 (RCB 0/1) was 33% with CDDP and 46% with AC (RR, 0.73; 90% CI, 0.50 to 1.1). Both regimens were generally well tolerated without unexpected toxicities. CONCLUSION: pCR or RCB 0/1 is not significantly higher with CDDP than with AC in BRCA carriers with stage I-III HER2-negative breast cancer for both TNBC and ER+/HER2-negative disease.

18.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(5): 676-684, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053137

RESUMO

Importance: Approximately 25% of patients with early-stage breast cancer who receive (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy experience a recurrence within 5 years. Improvements in therapy are greatly needed. Objective: To determine if pembrolizumab plus neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in early-stage breast cancer is likely to be successful in a 300-patient, confirmatory randomized phase 3 neoadjuvant clinical trial. Design, Setting, and Participants: The I-SPY2 study is an ongoing open-label, multicenter, adaptively randomized phase 2 platform trial for high-risk, stage II/III breast cancer, evaluating multiple investigational arms in parallel. Standard NACT serves as the common control arm; investigational agent(s) are added to this backbone. Patients with ERBB2 (formerly HER2)-negative breast cancer were eligible for randomization to pembrolizumab between November 2015 and November 2016. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive taxane- and anthracycline-based NACT with or without pembrolizumab, followed by definitive surgery. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was pathologic complete response (pCR). Secondary end points were residual cancer burden (RCB) and 3-year event-free and distant recurrence-free survival. Investigational arms graduated when demonstrating an 85% predictive probability of success in a hypothetical confirmatory phase 3 trial. Results: Of the 250 women included in the final analysis, 181 were randomized to the standard NACT control group (median [range] age, 47 [24.77] years). Sixty-nine women (median [range] age, 50 [27-71] years) were randomized to 4 cycles of pembrolizumab in combination with weekly paclitaxel followed by AC; 40 hormone receptor (HR)-positive and 29 triple-negative. Pembrolizumab graduated in all 3 biomarker signatures studied. Final estimated pCR rates, evaluated in March 2017, were 44% vs 17%, 30% vs 13%, and 60% vs 22% for pembrolizumab vs control in the ERBB2-negative, HR-positive/ERBB2-negative, and triple-negative cohorts, respectively. Pembrolizumab shifted the RCB distribution to a lower disease burden for each cohort evaluated. Adverse events included immune-related endocrinopathies, notably thyroid abnormalities (13.0%) and adrenal insufficiency (8.7%). Achieving a pCR appeared predictive of long-term outcome, where patients with pCR following pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy had high event-free survival rates (93% at 3 years with 2.8 years' median follow-up). Conclusions and Relevance: When added to standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy, pembrolizumab more than doubled the estimated pCR rates for both HR-positive/ERBB2-negative and triple-negative breast cancer, indicating that checkpoint blockade in women with early-stage, high-risk, ERBB2-negative breast cancer is highly likely to succeed in a phase 3 trial. Pembrolizumab was the first of 10 agents to graduate in the HR-positive/ERBB2-negative signature. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01042379.

19.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 180(1): 177-185, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894446

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recent trends indicate increased use of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) among newly diagnosed breast cancer patients, particularly those who test positive for a pathogenic variant in the BRCA1/2 genes. However, the rate of CPM among patients who test negative or choose not to be tested is surprisingly high. We aimed to identify patient predictors of CPM following breast cancer diagnosis among such patients. METHODS: As part of a randomized controlled trial of rapid genetic counseling and testing vs. usual care, breast cancer patients completed a baseline survey within 6 weeks of diagnosis and before definitive surgery. Analyses focused on patients who opted against testing (n = 136) or who received negative BRCA1/2 test results (n = 149). We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the associations between sociodemographic, clinical- and patient-reported factors with use of CPM. RESULTS: Among patients who were untested or who received negative test results, having discussed CPM with one's surgeon at the time of diagnosis predicted subsequent CPM. Patients who were not candidates for breast-conserving surgery and those with higher levels of cancer-specific intrusive thoughts were also more likely to obtain a CPM. CONCLUSION: The strongest predictors of CPM in this population were objective clinical factors and discussion with providers. However, baseline psychosocial factors were also independently related to the receipt of CPM. Thus, although CPM decisions are largely guided by relevant clinical factors, it is important to attend to psychosocial factors when counseling newly diagnosed breast cancer patients about treatment options.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Mastectomia Profilática , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Terapia Combinada , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Aconselhamento Genético , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 20(2): 125-130, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oncotype DX (ODX) is a genomic assay of tumor tissue that is utilized to predict the likelihood of recurrence and benefit of chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. Five to 10% of breast cancers are hereditary, and hereditary syndromes may not be uncovered through family history alone. We hypothesized that high ODX recurrence score (RS) may signal a potential hereditary cancer risk. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of data from hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients who had undergone ODX and germline genetic testing. The chi-square test and Fisher exact test were used to examine univariable association between RS and germline mutation status. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to examine if there was an association of RS with germline mutation status. RESULTS: In univariable analysis, the association of RS with germline mutation status was significant (P < .0001). In the multivariable logistic regression model predicting germline mutation status, RS level remained significantly associated with germline mutation, in particular BRCA1 or BRCA2. The mean RS for those with non-BRCA1/2 germline mutations versus those without germline mutations was not significant (P = .38). CONCLUSION: High RS is associated with germline mutation status. Breast cancer patients with high RS are more likely to harbor a mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. If confirmed prospectively, oncologists may consider referring patients with high RS for genetic risk assessment and counseling to inform management plans, as well as counseling of family members.

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