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1.
JCI Insight ; 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724955

RESUMO

Resistance to AR signaling inhibitors (ARSi) in a subset of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancers (mCRPC) occurs with emergence of AR-negative Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer (NEPC), coupled with mutations/deletions in PTEN, TP53, RB1, and overexpression of DNMTs, EZH2, and/or SOX2. To resolve whether lack of AR is the driving factor for the emergence of the NE phenotype, molecular, cell, and tumor biology analyses were performed on 23 prostate cancer patient-derived xenografts recapitulating the full spectrum of genetic alterations proposed to drive NE differentiation. Additionally, phenotypic response to CRISPR-Cas9-mediated AR knockout in AR-positive CRPC cells was evaluated. These analyses document that: 1) ARSi-resistant NEPC can develop without androgen deprivation treatment; 2) AR signaling in ARSi-resistant AR+/NE+ double positive "amphicrine" mCRPCs does not suppress NE differentiation; 3) lack of AR expression does not necessitate acquiring a NE phenotype despite concomitant mutations/deletions in PTEN and TP53, and loss of RB1, but can occur via emergence of an AR-/NE- double negative prostate cancer (DNPC); 4) despite DNPC cells having homogeneous genetic driver mutations, they are phenotypically heterogeneous, expressing basal lineage markers alone or in combination with luminal lineage markers; and 5) AR loss is associated with AR promoter hypermethylation in NEPCs but not in DNPCs.

2.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000001691, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617332

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Noninvasive tests that can accurately detect prostate cancer are urgently needed for prostate cancer diagnosis, surveillance and prognosis. Exfoliated prostate cells captured in urine represent a promising resource for noninvasive detection of prostate cancer. We investigated performance of a novel cell-based urine test for detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We previously developed a multiplex RNA in situ hybridization assay targeting NKX3-1, PRAC1 and PCA3 that enables identification and quantification of malignant and benign prostate cells released into urine. We investigated application of the assay for prostate cancer detection in a cohort of 98 patients suspected of harboring prostate cancer. Urine was collected following digital rectal examination, and the sediment was isolated and evaluated by RNA in situ hybridization. Samples were scored based on cellular expression of RNA in situ hybridization targets. Cells of prostate origin were defined by positivity for NKX3-1 and/or PRAC1, and prostate cancer cells by positivity for PCA3. RESULTS: Prostate cells (NKX3-1/PRAC1+ cells) were detected in 69 samples, among which 20 were positive for PCA3 (ie positive for prostate cancer cells). Comparison of RNA in situ hybridization results with biopsy outcome and clinical variables revealed that positivity for cancer by RNA in situ hybridization significantly correlated with intermediate/high risk cancer (p=0.003), PSA density (p=0.022), significant disease (p <0.0001) and Gleason score (p=0.003). The test was 95% specific and 51% sensitive for detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of exfoliated prostate cancer cells in urine by RNA in situ hybridization provides a novel tool for highly specific and noninvasive detection of prostate cancer.

4.
Mod Pathol ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462368

RESUMO

The homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) score integrates three DNA-based measures of genomic instability, and has been understudied in prostate cancer. Given the recent FDA approval of two PARP inhibitors for prostate cancer, HRD score analysis could help to refine treatment selection. We assessed HRD score (defined as the sum of loss-of-heterozygosity, telomeric allelic imbalance, and large-scale state transitions) in three cohorts of primary prostate cancer, including a Johns Hopkins University (JHU) cohort with germline mutations in BRCA2, ATM, or CHEK2 (n = 64), the TCGA cohort (n = 391), and the PROGENE cohort (n = 102). In the JHU cohort, tumors with germline BRCA2 mutations had higher HRD scores (median = 27) than those with germline ATM or CHEK2 mutations (median = 16.5 [p = 0.029] and 9 [p < 0.001], respectively). For TCGA tumors without underlying HR pathway mutations, the median HRD score was 11, significantly lower than ovarian carcinoma lacking BRCA1/2 mutations (median = 28). In the absence of HR gene mutations, the median HRD score was unexpectedly higher among prostate cancers with TP53 mutations versus those without (17 vs. 11; p = 0.015); this finding was confirmed in the PROGENE cohort (24 vs. 16; p = 0.001). Finally, among eight BRCA2-altered patients who received olaparib, progression-free survival trended longer in those with HRD scores above versus below the median (14.9 vs. 9.9 months). We conclude that HRD scores are low in primary prostate cancer and higher in cases with germline BRCA2 or somatic TP53 mutations. Germline BRCA2-altered cases have significantly higher HRD scores than germline ATM-altered or CHEK2-altered cases, consistent with the lower efficacy of PARP inhibitors among the latter.

5.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline ATM mutations are suggested to contribute to predisposition to prostate cancer (PrCa). Previous studies have had inadequate power to estimate variant effect sizes. OBJECTIVE: To precisely estimate the contribution of germline ATM mutations to PrCa risk. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We analysed next-generation sequencing data from 13 PRACTICAL study groups comprising 5560 cases and 3353 controls of European ancestry. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Variant Call Format files were harmonised, annotated for rare ATM variants, and classified as tier 1 (likely pathogenic) or tier 2 (potentially deleterious). Associations with overall PrCa risk and clinical subtypes were estimated. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: PrCa risk was higher in carriers of a tier 1 germline ATM variant, with an overall odds ratio (OR) of 4.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-9.5). There was also evidence that PrCa cases with younger age at diagnosis (<65 yr) had elevated tier 1 variant frequencies (pdifference = 0.04). Tier 2 variants were also associated with PrCa risk, with an OR of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.7). CONCLUSIONS: Carriers of pathogenic ATM variants have an elevated risk of developing PrCa and are at an increased risk for earlier-onset disease presentation. These results provide information for counselling of men and their families. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study, we estimated that men who inherit a likely pathogenic mutation in the ATM gene had an approximately a fourfold risk of developing prostate cancer. In addition, they are likely to develop the disease earlier.

6.
Eur Urol ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic risk score (GRS) has been developed and validated for prostate cancer (PCa) risk assessment. As GRS is population standardized, its value can be interpreted as a relative risk to the general population. OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of GRS with two guideline-recommended inherited risk measures, family history (FH) and rare pathogenic mutations (RPMs), for predicting PCa incidence and mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A prospective cohort was derived from the UK Biobank where 208 685 PCa diagnosis-free participants at recruitment were followed via the UK cancer and death registries. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Rate ratios (RRs) of PCa incidence and mortality for FH (positive vs negative), RPMs (carriers vs noncarriers), and GRS (top vs bottom quartile) were measured. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: After a median follow-up of 9.67 yr, 6890 incident PCa cases (419 died of PCa) were identified. Each of the three measures was significantly associated with PCa incidence in univariate analyses; RR (95 % confidence interval [CI]) values were 1.88 (1.75-2.01) for FH, 2.89 (1.89-4.25) for RPMs, and 1.97(1.87-2.07) for GRS (all p < 0.001). The associations were independent in multivariable analyses. While FH and RPMs identified 11 % of men at higher PCa risk, addition of GRS identified an additional 22 % of men at higher PCa risk, and increases in C-statistic from 0.58 to 0.67 for differentiating incidence (p < 0.001) and from 0.65 to 0.71 for differentiating mortality (p = 0.002). Limitations were a small number of minority patients and short mortality follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based prospective study suggests that GRS complements two guideline-recommended inherited risk measures (FH and RPMs) for stratifying the risk of PCa incidence and mortality. PATIENT SUMMARY: In a large population-based prostate cancer (PCa) prospective study derived from UK Biobank, genetic risk score (GRS) complements two guideline-recommended inherited risk measures (family history and rare pathogenic mutations) in predicting PCa incidence and mortality. These results provide critical data for including GRS in PCa risk assessment.

7.
Mol Cancer Res ; 18(12): 1815-1824, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115829

RESUMO

We aim to understand, from acquired genetic alterations in tumors, why African American (AA) men are more likely to develop aggressive prostate cancer. By analyzing somatic mutations in 39 genes using deeper next-generation sequencing with an average depth of 2,522 reads for tumor DNA and genome-wide DNA copy-number alterations (CNA) in prostate cancer in a total of 171 AA/black men and comparing with those in 860 European American (EA)/white men, we here present several novel findings. First, >35% of AA men harbor damaging mutations in APC, ATM, BRCA2, KDM6A, KMT2C, KMT2D, MED12, ZFHX3, and ZMYM3, each with >1% of mutated copies. Second, among genes with >10% of mutated copies in tumor cells, ZMYM3 is the most frequently mutated gene in AA prostate cancer. In a patient's tumor with >96% frameshift mutations of ZMYM3, we find allelic imbalances in 10 chromosomes, including losses of five and gains of another four chromosomes, suggesting its role in maintaining genomic integrity. Third, when compared to prostate cancer in EA/white men, a higher frequency of CNAs of MYC, THADA, NEIL3, LRP1B, BUB1B, MAP3K7, BNIP3L and RB1, and a lower frequency of deletions of RYBP, TP53, and TMPRSS2-ERG are observed in AA/black men. Finally, for the above genes with higher frequency of CNAs in AA than in EA, deletion of MAP3K7, BNIP3L, NEIL3 or RB1, or gain of MYC significantly associates with both higher Gleason grade and advanced pathologic stage in AA/black men. Deletion of THADA associates with advanced pathologic stage only. IMPLICATIONS: A higher frequency of damaging mutation in ZMYM3 causing genomic instability along with higher frequency of altered genomic regions including deletions of MAP3K7, BNIP3L, RB1, and NEIL3, and gain of MYC appear to be distinct somatically acquired genetic alterations that may contribute to more aggressive prostate cancer in AA/black men.

8.
Oncogene ; 39(45): 6935-6949, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989253

RESUMO

The role of truncated androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7) in prostate cancer biology is an unresolved question. Is it simply a marker of resistance to 2nd-generation androgen receptor signaling inhibitors (ARSi) like abiraterone acetate (Abi) and enzalutamide (Enza) or a functional driver of lethal resistance via its ligand-independent transcriptional activity? To resolve this question, the correlation between resistance to ARSi and genetic chances and expression of full length AR (AR-FL) vs. AR-V7 were evaluated in a series of independent patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). While all PDXs lack PTEN expression, there is no consistent requirement for mutation in TP53, RB1, BRCA2, PIK3CA, or MSH2, or expression of SOX2 or ERG and ARSi resistance. Elevated expression of AR-FL alone is sufficient for Abi but not Enza resistance, even if AR-FL is gain-of-function (GOF) mutated. Enza resistance is consistently correlated with enhanced AR-V7 expression. In vitro and in vivo growth responses of Abi-/Enza-resistant LNCaP-95 cells in which CRISPR-Cas9 was used to knockout AR-FL or AR-V7 alone or in combination were evaluated. Combining these growth responses with RNAseq analysis demonstrates that both AR-FL- and AR-V7-dependent transcriptional complementation are needed for Abi/Enza resistance.

9.
Prostate ; 80(14): 1253-1262, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the feasibility of a novel DNA-based probe panel to detect copy number alterations (CNAs) in prostate tumor DNA and its performance for predicting clinical progression. METHODS: A probe panel was developed and optimized to measure CNAs in trace amounts of tumor DNA (2 ng) isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Ten genes previously associated with aggressive disease were targeted. The panel's feasibility and performance were assessed in 175 prostate cancer (PCa) patients who underwent radical prostatectomy with a median 10-year follow-up, including 42 men who developed disease progression (either metastasis and/or PCa-specific death). Association with disease progression was tested using univariable and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: The probe panel detected CNAs in all 10 genes in tumor DNA isolated from either diagnostic biopsies or surgical specimens. A four-gene model (PTEN/MYC/BRCA2/CDKN1B) had the strongest association with disease progression; 64.3% of progressors and 22.5% of non-progressors had at least one CNA in these four genes, odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval) = 6.21 (2.77-13.87), P = 8.48E-06. The association with disease progression remained significant after adjusting for known clinicopathological variables. Among the seven progressors of the 65 patients with clinically low-risk disease, three (42.9%) had at least one CNA in these four genes. CONCLUSIONS: The probe panel can detect CNAs in trace amounts of tumor DNA from biopsies or surgical tissues at the time of diagnosis or surgery. CNAs independently predict metastatic/lethal cancer, particularly among men with clinically low-risk disease at diagnosis. If validated, this may improve current abilities to assess tumor aggressiveness.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the current study, we explore the feasibility of detecting exfoliated prostate cancer cells in urine using an RNA in situ hybridization (RISH) assay. We hypothesized that robust and specific labeling of prostate cancer cells could be achieved in post-digital rectal examination (DRE) urine samples using RISH. METHODS: We focused on method development, optimization, and analytical evaluation of RISH-based detection of prostate cancer in urine. We optimized a sample collection, processing, and target detection workflow for urine cytology specimens in conjunction with RNA target detection by RISH. We screened a panel of 11 prostate-specific RNA targets, and selected NKX3-1 and PRAC1 as markers for cells of prostate origin and PCA3 as a marker of prostate malignancy. Following analytical validation of a multiplexed NKX3-1/PRAC1/PCA3 assay, we evaluated whether prostate cancer cells can be detected in a pilot cohort of 19 post-DRE specimens obtained from men diagnosed with prostate cancer. RESULTS: Using cytology specimens prepared from spiked urine samples, we established the analytical validity of the RISH assay for detection and visualization of prostate cells in urine. Cells of prostate origin could be readily and specifically identified and separated into benign and malignant cell populations based on the multiplex test that consisted of markers specific for prostate cells (NKX3-1, PRAC1) and prostate cancer cells (PCA3). Upon evaluation of post-DRE urine from a pilot cohort of prostate cancer patients, we identified 11 samples in which prostate cells were present, 6 of which were also positive for prostate cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS: Multiplex RISH enables the direct visualization and molecular characterization of individual exfoliated prostate cells in urine. This proof-of-principle study provides evidence supporting the application of RISH as a potential noninvasive tool for prostate cancer detection.

11.
Br J Cancer ; 123(9): 1356-1359, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830201

RESUMO

Germline HOXB13 G84E mutation has been consistently associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk, but its association with other cancers is controversial. We systematically tested its association with the 20 most common cancer types in subjects from the UK Biobank. The G84E mutation was found in 1,545 (0.34%) of 460,224 participants of European ancestry. While mutation status did not associate with cancer risk in females, it was significantly associated with increased risk in males; odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval) for overall cancer diagnosis was 2.19 (1.89-2.52), P = 2.5E-19. The association remained after excluding PCa; OR = 1.4 (1.16-1.68), P = 0.003, suggesting association with other cancers. Indeed, suggestive novel associations were found for two other cancer types; rectosigmoid cancer, OR = 2.25 (1.05-4.15), P = 0.05 and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), OR = 1.40 (1.12-1.74), P = 0.01. For NMSC, the association was found only in basal cell carcinoma, OR = 1.37 (1.07-1.74), P = 0.03. These findings have potential clinical utility for genetic counselling regarding HOXB13.

12.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(18): 4869-4881, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694154

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) gene is mutated in a subset of prostate cancers, and ATM mutation may confer specific therapeutic vulnerabilities, although ATM-deficient prostate cancers have not been well-characterized. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We genetically validated a clinical grade IHC assay to detect ATM protein loss and examined the frequency of ATM loss among tumors with pathogenic germline ATM mutations and genetically unselected primary prostate carcinomas using tissue microarrays (TMAs). Immunostaining results were correlated with targeted somatic genomic sequencing and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: ATM protein loss was found in 13% (7/52) of primary Gleason pattern 5 cancers with available sequencing data and was 100% sensitive for biallelic ATM inactivation. In a separate cohort with pathogenic germline ATM mutations, 74% (14/19) had ATM protein loss of which 70% (7/10) of evaluable cases had genomic evidence of biallelic inactivation, compared with zero of four of cases with intact ATM expression. By TMA screening, ATM loss was identified in 3% (25/831) of evaluable primary tumors, more commonly in grade group 5 (17/181; 9%) compared with all other grades (8/650; 1%; P < 0.0001). Of those with available sequencing, 80% (4/5) with homogeneous ATM protein loss and 50% (6/12) with heterogeneous ATM protein loss had detectable pathogenic ATM alterations. In surgically treated patients, ATM loss was not significantly associated with clinical outcomes in random-effects Cox models after adjusting for clinicopathologic variables. CONCLUSIONS: ATM loss is enriched among high-grade prostate cancers. Optimal evaluation of ATM status requires both genomic and IHC studies and will guide development of molecularly targeted therapies.

13.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(10): 853-862, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581009

RESUMO

Aspirin and statin use may lower the risk of advanced/fatal prostate cancer, possibly by reducing intraprostatic inflammation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the association of aspirin and statin use with the presence and extent of intraprostatic inflammation, and the abundance of specific immune cell types, in benign prostate tissue from a subset of men from the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Men were classified as aspirin or statin users if they reported use at baseline or during the 7-year trial. Presence and extent of inflammation were assessed, and markers of specific immune cell types (CD4, CD8, FoxP3, CD68, and c-KIT) were scored, in slides from end-of-study prostate biopsies taken irrespective of clinical indication, per trial protocol. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations between medication use and inflammation measures, adjusted for potential confounders. Of 357 men included, 61% reported aspirin use and 32% reported statin use. Prevalence and extent of inflammation were not associated with medication use. However, aspirin users were more likely to have low FoxP3, a T regulatory cell marker [OR, 5.60; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.16-27.07], and statin users were more likely to have low CD68, a macrophage marker (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 0.81-3.27). If confirmed, these results suggest that these medications may alter the immune milieu of the prostate, which could potentially mediate effects of these medications on advanced/fatal prostate cancer risk.

14.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(24): 2798-2811, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516092

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Germline testing (GT) is a central feature of prostate cancer (PCA) treatment, management, and hereditary cancer assessment. Critical needs include optimized multigene testing strategies that incorporate evolving genetic data, consistency in GT indications and management, and alternate genetic evaluation models that address the rising demand for genetic services. METHODS: A multidisciplinary consensus conference that included experts, stakeholders, and national organization leaders was convened in response to current practice challenges and to develop a genetic implementation framework. Evidence review informed questions using the modified Delphi model. The final framework included criteria with strong (> 75%) agreement (Recommend) or moderate (50% to 74%) agreement (Consider). RESULTS: Large germline panels and somatic testing were recommended for metastatic PCA. Reflex testing-initial testing of priority genes followed by expanded testing-was suggested for multiple scenarios. Metastatic disease or family history suggestive of hereditary PCA was recommended for GT. Additional family history and pathologic criteria garnered moderate consensus. Priority genes to test for metastatic disease treatment included BRCA2, BRCA1, and mismatch repair genes, with broader testing, such as ATM, for clinical trial eligibility. BRCA2 was recommended for active surveillance discussions. Screening starting at age 40 years or 10 years before the youngest PCA diagnosis in a family was recommended for BRCA2 carriers, with consideration in HOXB13, BRCA1, ATM, and mismatch repair carriers. Collaborative (point-of-care) evaluation models between health care and genetic providers was endorsed to address the genetic counseling shortage. The genetic evaluation framework included optimal pretest informed consent, post-test discussion, cascade testing, and technology-based approaches. CONCLUSION: This multidisciplinary, consensus-driven PCA genetic implementation framework provides novel guidance to clinicians and patients tailored to the precision era. Multiple research, education, and policy needs remain of importance.

15.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 3(2): 224-230, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare germline mutations in several genes, primarily DNA repair genes, have been proposed to predict worse prognosis of prostate cancer (PCa). OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency of germline pathogenic mutations in commonly assayed PCa genes between high- and low-grade PCa in patients initially presenting with clinically localized disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective case-case study of 1694 PCa patients who underwent radical prostatectomy at Johns Hopkins Hospital, including 706 patients with high-grade (grade group [GG] 4 and GG5) and 988 patients with low-grade (GG1) disease. Germline DNA was sequenced for 13 candidate PCa genes using a targeted next-generation sequencing assay by Ambry Genetics. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Carrier rates of pathogenic mutations were compared between high- and low-grade PCa patients using the Fisher's exact test. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Overall, the carrier rate of germline pathogenic mutations in the 13 genes was significantly higher in high-grade patients (8.64%) than in low-grade patients (3.54%, p = 9.98 × 10-6). Individually, significantly higher carrier rates for patients with high- versus low-grade PCa were found for three genes: ATM (2.12% and 0.20%, respectively, p = 9.35 × 10-5), BRCA2 (2.55% and 0.20%, respectively, p = 8.99 × 10-6), and MSH2 (0.57% and 0%, respectively, p = 0.03). The mutation carrier rate was significantly higher in patients with GG5 than in patients with GG1 disease for the 13 genes overall (13.07% and 3.54%, respectively, p = 1.27 × 10-9); for the three genes ATM, BRCA2, and MSH2 (7.73% and 0.40%, respectively, p = 3.20 × 10-13); and for the remaining nine DNA repair genes (5.07% and 2.43%, respectively, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In men undergoing treatment for clinically localized disease, pathogenic mutations in 13 commonly assayed genes, especially ATM, BRCA2, and MSH2, are most strongly associated with GG5 PCa. These findings emphasize the importance of genetic testing in men with high-grade PCa, particularly GG5 disease, to inform both treatment decisions and familial risk assessment. PATIENT SUMMARY: Prostate cancer in men with inherited mutations in 13 commonly assayed susceptibility genes is more likely to be high-grade, high-risk disease.

16.
Prostate ; 80(2): 235-237, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biallelic loss-of-function BLM mutations result in Bloom syndrome: a genetic disorder characterized by growth deficiencies, photosensitivity, and multiple cancer susceptibilities. There are conflicting reports about whether or not heterozygous BLM carriers are at a higher risk of various cancers. Without BLM protein functionality, there is evidence of increased sister chromatid exchange and chromosomal instability. METHODS: Metastatic prostate cancer patients (N = 796) underwent germline genetic testing as part of routine care at three academic centers. Patients with heterozygous BLM mutations were identified. Tumor tissue was analyzed for somatic alterations in those patients who had a germline pathogenic mutation. Control data using a population sample were extracted from the Genome Aggregation Database. RESULTS: Heterozygous BLM germline mutations in 5 of 796 patients (prevalence, 0.63%). All mutations were loss-of-function truncating alterations. None of the mutations were BLMAsh . The control population (gnomAD) frequency of pathogenic or likely pathogenic BLM mutations was 0.18% (212 of 116 653). The relative risk (RR) of BLM mutations in metastatic prostate cancer patients was 3.4 (95% CI, 1.42-8.33; P < .0062) compared to gnomAD controls. Tumor DNA sequencing in the BLM carriers showed no evidence of somatic BLM mutations. Interestingly, 3 of 5 BLM germline carriers had bi-allelic BRCA2 inactivation evident on tumor sequencing. One patient had both germline and somatic mutations in BRCA2. Excluding the patient with the germline BRCA2 mutation (BLM prevalence, 4 of 796: 0.50%) still yielded a statistically significant finding vs the gnomAD controls (RR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.02-7.39; P < .04). CONCLUSION: Truncating BLM germline mutations occur at a higher frequency in patients with advanced prostate cancer as compared to control populations. Though no biallelic loss of BLM was no noted in cancers, a surprising number of the BLM germline heterozygotes had pathogenic BRCA2 mutations in their tumor.


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , RecQ Helicases/genética , Idoso , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(12): e1918145, 2019 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880795

RESUMO

Importance: Few studies have evaluated the association between a single-nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic risk score (GRS) and patient age at prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis. Objectives: To test the association between a GRS and patient age at PCa diagnosis and to compare the performance of a GRS with that of family history (FH) in PCa risk stratification. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cohort study of 3225 white men was conducted as a secondary analysis of the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) chemoprevention trial, a 4-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study conducted from March 2003 to April 2009 to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dutasteride in reducing PCa events. Participants were confirmed to be cancer free by prostate biopsy (6-12 cores) within 6 months prior to the study and underwent 10 core biopsies every 2 years per protocol. The dates for performing data analysis were from July 2016 to October 2019. Interventions: A well-established, population-standardized GRS was calculated for each participant based on 110 known PCa risk-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which is a relative risk compared with the general population. Men were classified into 3 GRS risk groups based on predetermined cutoff values: low (<0.50), average (0.50-1.49), and high (≥1.50). Main Outcomes and Measures: Prostate cancer diagnosis-free survival among men of different risk groups. Results: Among 3225 men (median age, 63 years [interquartile range, 58-67 years]) in the study, 683 (21%) were classified as low risk, 1937 (60%) as average risk, and 605 (19%) as high risk based on GRS alone. In comparison, 2789 (86%) were classified as low or average risk and 436 (14%) as high risk based on FH alone. Men in higher GRS risk groups had a PCa diagnosis-free survival rate that was worse than that of those in the lower GRS risk group (χ2 = 53.3; P < .001 for trend) and in participants with a negative FH of PCa (χ2 = 45.5; P < .001 for trend). Combining GRS and FH further stratified overall genetic risk, indicating that 957 men (30%) were at high genetic risk (either high GRS or positive FH), 1667 men (52%) were at average genetic risk (average GRS and negative FH), and 601 men (19%) were at low genetic risk (low GRS and negative FH). The median PCa diagnosis-free survival was 74 years (95% CI, 73-75 years) for men at high genetic risk, 77 years (95% CI, 75 to >80 years) for men at average genetic risk, and more than 80 years (95% CI, >80 to >80 years) for men at low genetic risk. In contrast, the median PCa diagnosis-free survival was 73 years (95% CI, 71-76 years) for men with a positive FH and 77 years (95% CI, 76-79 years) for men with a negative FH. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that a GRS is significantly associated with patient age at PCa diagnosis. Combining FH and GRS may better stratify inherited risk than FH alone for developing personalized PCa screening strategies.


Assuntos
Inibidores de 5-alfa Redutase/uso terapêutico , Dutasterida/uso terapêutico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Medição de Risco/métodos
19.
Can J Urol ; 26(5 Suppl 2): 12-13, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629417

RESUMO

This presentation for the Philadelphia Prostate Cancer Consensus 2019 will focus on recent findings regarding the role of HOXB13 as a prostate cancer susceptibility gene. Factors affecting the frequency of HOXB13 mutations in different prostate cancer populations will be reviewed. A number of these factors are relevant for prostate cancer susceptibility genes in general.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650100

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Very high-risk prostate cancer (PC) is associated with poor response to local and systemic treatments; however, few cases have been molecularly profiled. We studied clinical outcomes and molecular profiles of patients with clinically localized primary Gleason pattern 5 PC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinicopathologic features, targeted somatic and germline sequencing, and PTEN, TP53, and ERG status by immunohistochemistry were assessed in patients undergoing surgery from 2005 to 2015; 60 consecutive patients were identified with Gleason score 5 + 4 = 9 or 5 + 5 = 10 PC after radical prostatectomy with available tissue and clinical follow-up. Clinicopathologic and genomic parameters were correlated with biochemical relapse, metastasis-free survival, time to castration resistance, and overall survival using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Of patients with somatic sequencing data and clinical follow-up, 34% had DNA repair gene mutations, including 22% (11 of 49) with homologous recombination and 12% (six of 49) with mismatch repair gene alterations. Homologous recombination mutations were germline in 82% (nine of 11) of patients. In addition, 33% (16 of 49) had TP53 mutation, and 51% (29 of 57) had PTEN loss. Overall, 43% developed metastasis, with a time to castration resistance of 12 months. On multivariable analysis of clinicopathologic variables, only ductal/intraductal histology (hazard ratio, 4.43; 95% CI, 1.76 to 11.15; P = .002) and seminal vesicle invasion (hazard ratio, 5.14; 95% CI, 1.83 to 14.47; P = .002) were associated with metastasis. Among genomic alterations, only TP53 mutation and PTEN loss were associated with metastasis on univariable analysis, and neither remained significant in multivariable analyses. These data are retrospective and hypothesis generating. CONCLUSION: Potentially actionable homologous recombination and mismatch repair alterations are observed in a significant proportion of patients with very high-risk PC at the time of radical prostatectomy. These findings could inform the design of prospective trials in this patient population.

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